NC State Extension Publications


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Aluminum is a chemical element that causes severe toxicity to plants. In North Carolina the soil test report does not inform about the aluminum concentration in the soil. However, as aluminum only occurs in low-pH soils, the pH information can be used to predict potential aluminum toxicity. The pH level and exchangeable acidity information present in the soil test report are used to calculate the lime requirement to rise the soil pH and neutralize the toxic aluminum.


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Aluminum (Al) toxicity occurs in low pH soils. When the pH is lower than 5.5, except for mineral-organic and organic soils, Al toxicity may be observed.


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Plant growth is severely stunted. Deformed root tips, overall lack of root development, and no or poor nodulation will be seen. Plant tissue analysis may reveal low or deficient P, Ca, and Mg levels. Plant micronutrient levels may be high or excessive.

Al-toxicity in soybean plants.

Aluminum toxicity in soybean.

Luke Gatiboni

Al-toxicity in soybean plants.

Soybean root system with limited growth due to Al toxicity.

Rosane Martinazzo


Skip to Management

The visual toxicity diagnosis needs to be confirmed by diagnostic soil analysis. Procedures for diagnostic samples can be found at the Diagnostic Samples webpage. When Al toxicity is detected in a soybean field during the growing season, recovery of the current crop is unlikely. Liming at an appropriate rate based on soil testing should reduce the problem in future crops.


Extension Soil Fertility Specialist and Assistant Professor
Crop & Soil Sciences
Extension Soil Science Specialist
Crop & Soil Sciences

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Publication date: Dec. 4, 2020

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