NC State Extension Publications


The Danish Standards for the evaluation of market steers are listed below. Although it is recommended that Cloverbuds (ages 5 - 8) not have beef projects, these standards have been established for the recognition of young people in the 4-H Market Steer Project area. These standards may be used with all 4-H age groups. In this system of determining the level of achievement, the animal should be evaluated against the standard and not the other animals in the particular class.

Market Steers

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This system of evaluating the market steer will utilize the USDA quality and yield grade systems as well as visual appraisal for muscling and conformation. The formula for the USDA yield grade system is: Yield Grade = 2.50 + (2.50 x adjusted fat thickness, inches) + (0.20 x percent kidney, pelvic and heart fat) + (0.0038 x hot carcass weight, pounds) - (0.32 x ribeye area, square inches)

Purple Group

Steers grading USDA Choice or better in quality grade; having superior conformation; balance, style and superior quality; and cutability. Yield grade 3 or better.

Blue Group:

Steers grading USDA Choice or better in quality grade; having average conformation; balance, style and superior quality; and cutability. Yield grade 3 or better.

Red Group:

Steers grading USDA high Select with superior conformation. Yield grades 1 and 2.

White Group:

Steers grading USDA low Select or lower in quality grade. Steers grading USDA Choice or Prime with poor conformation that are yield grade 4 or 5.

North Carolina 4-H Livestock Overall Objectives

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  1. To develop leadership abilities, build character, and assume citizenship responsibilities.
  2. To experience the pride of owning livestock and to be responsible for its management.
  3. To be better prepared for citizenship responsibilities through working in groups and supporting community livestock educational projects and activities.
  4. To learn skills in livestock production and gain an understanding of the business of breeding, raising, and promoting livestock and their end products.
  5. To increase knowledge of safety precautions needed to prevent injury to yourself while working with livestock.
  6. To promote greater love for animals and a human attitude toward them.
  7. To teach good sportsmanship through a friendly, competitive atmosphere.
  8. To increase knowledge of animal agriculture by-products and how by-product usage touches our lives each and every day.

The North Carolina 4-H and Junior Livestock Program provides many project area that address the various segments of the livestock industry. Emphasis for all of the projects is on the development of the young person. The youth are the focus of the projects, while the animals and projects are utilized as the vehicle for the progress in the development of youth. Available educational programs cover subject matter materials from production practices to the meat product supplied for the consumer's plate. For further information about programs and services provided by North Carolina Cooperative Extension, contact your N.C. Cooperative Extension Center..


Extension Livestock Specialist
Animal Science

Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites:

Publication date: Feb. 10, 2003

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