Mosquitoes are important pests because their biting activity often interferes with outdoor activities and can transmit disease organisms to people and domestic animals. Most mosquitoes are active during twilight hours and at night; however, around the home, the mosquitoes that breed in discarded containers are active during the day. Mosquitoes need water to complete their life cycle. They can breed in almost any source of water. Pesticides are only a short-term solution to nuisance mosquito problems.
All mosquitoes need water of some sort to complete their life cycle (Figure 1). Some mosquitoes lay their eggs either individually or in "rafts" on the surface of the water. These eggs usually hatch within 24-48 hours depending on water temperature. Other mosquitoes deposit individual eggs on the sides of treeholes or discarded containers, or in depressions in the ground that will hold water. These eggs survive over the winter and can even lie dormant for several years and cycles of dry weather. Some eggs hatch when they are flooded by rainfall, but several flooding and drying cycles may be needed before all of the eggslaid by a particular female mosquito hatch. The hatching eggs release larvae that are commonly called "wrigglers" because you can often see the larvae wriggling up and down from the surface of the water. Most mosquito larvae feed on organic material as well as bacteria, algae and other microrganisms in the water. There are a few mosquitoes that are beneficial because their larvae prey on other insects including the larvae of other mosquito species. About 7-10 days after the eggs hatch, larvae change to the pupal or "tumbler" stage in preparation for adult life. Adult mosquitoes emerge about 3-4 days later and may feed first on plant nectar. Male mosquitoes mate with females one to two days after the females emerge.Female mosquitoes then begin searching for an animal on which to feed. Males do not bite; they feed strictly on plant juices.
Since mosquitoes need water to complete their life cycle, the source of a mosquito problem can be just about anywhere that water can collect. Farm ponds and lakes are typically not major breeding areas for the mosquitoes that most concern us. Fish and predatory insects (such as dragonflies) in the water often keep mosquitoes in check. We can improve this natural control by keeping the ponds free of weeds, algae and floating debris where mosquito larvae can hide. Severe storms, such as hurricanes, can contribute to problems as well. For example, tree limbs that break off can create holes in the tree trunks where water collects and allow mosquitoes to breed (Figure 2). In residential areas, human activity often creates mosquito breeding sites or promote increased mosquito activity around natural bodies of water. Clogged drainage ditches along roads can become productive mosquito breeding sites. Logging and construction activities often leave deep tire ruts and holes in the soil. These depressions are ideal breeding sites for "floodwater" mosquito species.
Some mosquito species (such as saltmarsh mosquitoes) can fly several miles from their breeding site (Table 1). The most commonly found mosquito species across North Carolina is the Asian tiger mosquito (ATM). It tends to fly short distances (100 - 300 yards) which still allows it to invade your property from surrounding areas in your neighborbood. Because of the mosquitoe's mobility, control on individual properties is often difficult. A more wide-area approach is needed and while pesticides are often seen as a solution to a mosquito problem, they are just one small component of an integrated mosquito management approach.
|Mosquito Species||Larval Habitat1||Biting Time2||Flight Range3|
|Aedes albopictus||AC, TH||D||100 - 300 yards|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) atlanticus/tormentor||WP||C, D||1⁄4 to 1⁄2 mile|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) canadensis||WP, DD, FS||C, D||0 - 1⁄4 mile|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) fulvis pallens||WP||C, N, D||2 - 5 miles|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) infirmatus||WP, GP, LM, FS||C, D||1⁄4 to 1 mile|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) sollicitans||SM||C, D||5 to 40 miles|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) taeniorhynchus||SM||C, N, D||5 to 40 miles|
|Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) triseriatus||TH, AC||D||1⁄2 to 1 mile|
|Aedes vexans||FW, GP, IP||C, N||1 to 5 miles|
|Anopheles atropos||SM||C, N||1 to 5 miles|
|Anopheles bradleyi/crucians||SM, FS, LM||C||1 to 2 miles|
|Anopheles punctipennis||WP||C, N||0 to 1⁄4 mile|
|Anopheles quadrimaculatus||FW, GP, LM||C||1⁄2 to 1 mile|
|Coquillittidia perturbans||RE, LM, DD||C||1 to 5 miles|
|Culex erraticus||WP||N||0 to 1⁄4 miles|
|Culex erraticus||GP, FW, DD||C||1⁄2 to 1 mile|
|Culex pipiens/quinquefasciatus||AC, SCB, GRP||C, N||1⁄4 to 1⁄2 mile|
|Culex restuans||WP, GRP, DD||C, N||1 to 2 miles|
|Culex salinarius||GP, LM, FS||C, N||1⁄4 to 5 miles|
|Culex territans||WP||N||0 to 1⁄8 mile|
|Culiseta melanura||FS, WP||C, N||1⁄2 to 1 mile|
|Psorophora ciliata||WP||C, N||1 to 2 miles|
|Psorophora columbiae||IP, RF, GRP||C, N||1 to 5 miles|
|Psorophora ferox||WP||C, N||1 to 2 miles|
|Psorophora howardii||WP, Coastal Pools||C, N||1 to 2 miles|
Source: Jeff Brown, PHPM
1 Habitat: AC: artificial containers; DD: drainage ditches; FS: freshwater swamps; FW: flood waters; WP: woodland pools; GP: grassland pools; GRP: ground pools; IP: irrigated pastures; LM: lake margins; RE: rooted emerged vegetation; RF: rice fields; SCB: sewage catch basins; SM: salt marshes; TH: tree holes
A community-wide effort is needed to "clean up" and (preferably) eliminate mosquito breeding sites. Around your home and neighborhood, natural tree holes (seen at right) and man-made objects such as bird baths, boats, canoes, discarded tires, and plant pots collect rainwater and allow mosquitoes to breed literally right in our own backyard. Stagnant water in abandoned or poorly-maintained swimming pools becomes an ideal breeding site. This can be a particular problem on homes that are vacant (e.g., foreclosures). You can help reduce mosquito populations by eliminating or properly maintaining these problem spots:
- "Tip and Toss" - empty or (preferably) get rid of containers, old tires, etc. that can hold stagnating water (Figure 3).
- If you use barrels/containers to collect rainwater for watering gardens, cover them with screening to keep out debris and mosquitoes. Keep the screens clear of debris as well.
- Dump excess water from dishers under outdoor flower pots.
- Flush the water out of bird baths at least twice weekly (the birds will appreciate the fresh water)..
- Store boats, canoes and other objects so that they do not collect rainwater. Remove water that collects in depressions in tarpaulins covering boats and other equipment or objects (Figure 4).
- Cover or drain unused swimming pools. If you cover them with a tarp, make sure you remove leaves and other debris that collect on the surface.
- Keep your rain gutters free of leaves and other debris that prevent water from draining and will attract mosquitoes.
- Correct drainage problems in your yard that allow rainwater to pool in lowlying areas.
- Fill tree holes with expanding foam (not cement) to keep them from being used as breeding sites by mosquitoes.
- Remove debris (or report drainage problems) in drainage ditches and culverts along private or public roadways.
Personal Protection - Repellants
Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants outdoors help to reduce mosquito bites but can be uncomfortable during hot summer months. Insect repellents can provide personal protection from mosquitoes. Many of these products contain DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), but the USEPA has updated its information on selecting repellent products. Select the desired formulation (e.g., lotion, aerosol spray or cream) containing the highest percent of active ingredient, as stated on the product label, and apply it to exposed skin. Repeated use of repellents over a short period of time is not recommended, especially for children and pregnant women. For additional information on repellent products, see the Insect Repellent Products.
Candles containing oil of citronella are often used outdoors to repel mosquitoes from around decks and picnic tables. These products work best when there is relatively little air movement that might disperse tthe chemical too quickly.
Chemical control of mosquitoes primarily targets the adult. Some counties and municipalites may have mosquito control programs. Such wide area spraying should be based on surveying areas (rather than simply responding to complaints).
Outdoor backpack or hand-held foggers will keep mosquitoes away for several hours, but once the chemical dissipates, mosquitoes may return to the area. Spraying thickets or shrubs along the perimeter of your yard helps reduce the population of mosquitoes that rest in these areas. However, some species of mosquitoes may move readily back into these areas from surrounding untreated places. Consult the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual or your county Cooperative Extension center for more information on selecting appropriate pesticides for use against mosquitoes.
Think about Pesticide Safety
Whether applying pesticides yourself or hiring a professional service, please remember that insecticide can drift, i.e., can be carried by wind onto someone else's property. Regardless of the amount of chemical involved, "drift" is actually illegal no matter how small of the quanity travels goes off-site. Before using chemicals on your property, you should take these precautions:
- If you're hiring a professional applicator, request a copy of the product label for the pesticide(s) that they will use. Some products advertised as "natural" or "the ingredient found in chrysanthemum flowers" are actually synthetic pesticides (called "pyrethroids") which are toxic to many other insects including beneficial ones (such as ground beetles, lady beetles, lacewings, and honey bees). These products are also highly toxic to fish.
- Talk to your neighbors about when and where you plan to treat your yard.
- Avoid spraying when bees and other pollinators are actively foraging (visiting flowers). Spray early in the morning or later in the evening.
- Before applying any pesticides in your yard (or having them applied for you) be sure that you look at what is on the other side of your fence, property line, or wherever you are spraying. Are there pets or children in the yard? Does your neighbor have any bee hives, a fish pond, or a vegetable garden? Many of the pesticides used to treat yards are not intended to be sprayed on edible plants.
Insecticides are available for controlling larvae, but their application in either large bodies of water or small artificial breeding sites can be difficult and expensive, particularly for an individual homeowner. Control programs targeting mosquito larvae are best left to trained individuals in county or local government agencies. Most of these chemicals are not selective and some may even harm beneficial insects and other non-target organisms. Furthermore, use of these chemicals will provide only temporary reduction in mosquito populations. Modifying or eliminating breeding sites is the long-term solution to severe mosquito problems.
Homeowners wanting to treat small areas, such as garden pools, etc, might want to try a bacterial insecticides that are available at many retail stores, garden centers and on-line garden suppliers. There are several products formulated as "donuts" ("dunks") or as granules that contain the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis or "Bti." This bacterium kills mosquitoes, but does not harm fish, birds or other wildlife. The "dunk" versions are well-suited for small breeding sites (100 sq. ft. or less) and will control mosquito larvae for about 30 days. Before using Bti products, you need information on the life cycle and habitat requirements of mosquitoes in your area. Simply treating all areas of standing water without knowing if they are actually sources of the problem is a waste of time and money.
Other Biological and Non-chemical Control Measures
Install tight-fitting screens on doors and windows to help keep mosquitoes out of your home.
- Although bats and birds, such as Purple Martins, consume mosquitoes as part of their diet, but they do not have a significant impact on mosquito populations. You can install nesting boxes around your property to attract these natural predators to the area. However, bear in mind that the feeding activity of insect-eating bats and birds may not be sufficiently selective to cause noticeable reductions in mosquito populations. Also, many of our major mosquito problems occur when some predators are inactive (or less active). For example, the Asian tiger mosquito is most active during the daytime when bats are normally roosting.
What Doesn't Work
Electrocutor traps ("bug zappers") placed out of doors are not effective in reducing or eliminating mosquito populations. Studies have shown that less than 1⁄4 of 1% of the insects "zapped" in such devices were actually biting insects. The majority of the insects killed in electrocutor traps are actually beneficial in some form. Electronic mosquito repellers that emit high frequency sound to "repel" mosquitoes have not been shown to be effective either.
Claims that certain plants placed around a porch or deck will keep mosquitoes away are not supported by any scientifically-based test results. Plants or devices that emit repellent chemicals will not be effective under conditions such as high winds.
Several types mosquito traps that use radiant heat and / or chemicals such as carbon dioxide or octenol to attract mosquitoes are available. Keep in miind that these traps have certain effective distance in which they attract mosquitoes and so a single trap may attract mosquitoes but not provide "control". As with repellent plants, windy days/nights may push the chemical in directions that may reduce their ability to provide reasonable coverage.
Publication date: May 1, 2016
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your local N.C. Cooperative Extension county center.
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