NC State Extension Publications

Description and Biology

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The oak vein pocket gall midge, Macrodiplosis quercusoroca, is a tiny, mosquito-like fly so small that it is likely overlooked. They are about 1/8 inch long. Female midges lay their egg in new spring leaves that are just unfolding. After the eggs hatch, extremely small maggots begin feeding on lateral and mid-veins. Secretions by females or newly hatched maggots cause infested leaves to form elongate, pocket-like swellings on the lateral veins and mid-rib of pin oak leaves that eventually surround each maggot. Full-grown larvae are white and approximately 3/32 inch long. By mid-spring to early summer mature maggots emerge from the gall and fall to the ground where they spend the fall, winter, and next very early spring. We have one generation per year in North Carolina.

Oak vein pocket gall

Oak vein pocket gall midges sometimes infest every leaf on a tree!

Host Plants

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Oak vein pocket gall midges infest the the undersides of the leaves of red oaks such as red oak, southern red oak, pin oak, and water oak. Numbers of these midges in some years can be severe enough to cause noticeable twisted and distorted leaves when just about every leaf on a tree becomes infested.

Residential Recommendations

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If there is a need to control oak vein pocket galls on a tree, spring time would be the best time to do it. Theoretically, sprays applied early in the spring should the midges before they can inject their gall-causing secretions. Little research has gone into the insecticidal control of pocket galls, and most entomologists discourage trying. Insect populations vary greatly from year to year and place to place. It is highly likely that these galls will be much less noticeable next year due to parasites, predators, and diseases. One entomologist recommends, "Just live with it and enjoy the pleasures of one of nature’s most fascinating insect-plant interactions."

Other Resources

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For assistance with a specific problem, contact your local N.C. Cooperative Extension center.

This factsheet has not been peer reviewed.


Professor Emeritus
Entomology & Plant Pathology

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Publication date: April 12, 2020
Revised: April 12, 2020

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