- Abnormal root and shoot tips.
- Mottled, puckered, chlorotic foliage and growing points.
- Roots may be swollen or have encircling necrotic bands just behind the root tips.
- Susceptable seedlings often do not emerge from the soil.
- Indaziflam may cause soil line girdling with occasional stem swelling just above the girdle on susceptible plants.
- Girdled stems often result in wilting followed by browning of entire above-ground portion.
Plant Entry and Symptom Expression
Cellulose inhibitors may affect both roots and shoots. Herbicides with this mode of action are usually applied prior to weed emergence but may cause injury to emerged and established plants by foliar absorption, inhibition of root growth, or stem girdling at or just above soil line. Roots and/or tender new shoots are injured within a few days following application. Soil movement is minimal and volatilization and photodegradation are not a concern.
Cellulose and cell wall inhibitor injury may be confused with symptoms from:
- Stubby roots caused by dinitroanaline herbicides such as oryzalin, pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin.
- The reduced root size and number caused by the mitotic inhibitor dithiopyr, a pthalic acid.
- Puckered, curled and mottled foliage may be confused with damage from dinitroanaline.
- Herbicides or sucking insects (such as aphids).
- Mottled foliage may sometimes be confused with nematode, plant virus and/or nutritional disorders.
Herbicide Mode of Action Category
WSSA – 21
HRAC – L
Applied Weed Science: Including the Ecology and Management of Invasive Plants (3rd Edition), Merrill Ross & Carol Lembi, pages 169, 181, 288-290
Publication date: Dec. 11, 2015
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