NC State Extension Publications

 

Mycotoxin

Predominant Fungi Species

FDA Action Level (Varies by species/feed)

Common Crops

Symptoms

Aflatoxin

Aspergillus

Feed: 20 ppb
Milk: 5 ppb

Corn, cottonseed, peanuts, cereal grains

Increased somatic cell count (SCC), lethargy, rough hair coat, jaundice, and potential reduction in intake and milk yield

Fumonisin

Fusarium

Corn/corn byproducts: 30 ppm and < 50% of diet

Corn

Increased SCC, lethargy, reduced intake, and reduced milk production

Zearalenone

Fusarium

Not applicable

Corn and wheat (can also occur in oats, rice, rye, sorghum, barley)

Decreased fertility, abnormal estrous cycles, swollen vulva, vaginitis, enlarged mammary gland (in heifers), and reduced milk yield

Ochratoxin A

Aspergillus, Penicillium

Not applicable

Cereal grains

More problems in calves or when fed high grain diets: potential abortions or death

Deoxynivalenol (DON; Vomitoxin)

Fusarium

Grain/grain byproducts: 5 ppm

Corn, wheat (straw), cereal grains

Diarrhea, reduced intake, and reduced milk yield

Tricothecenes (T-2 Toxin)

Fusarium

Not applicable

Corn

Diarrhea, reduced intake, reduced milk yield, ataxia, and anorexia

PR Toxin

Penicillium

Not applicable

Corn (silage) and grass

Reduced milk and fat production, and acidosis-like symptoms

Patulin

Aspergillus, Penicillium, Byssochlamys

Not applicable

Silage

Tremors, ataxia, paresis, recumbency, and death

Ergot Alkaloids

Claviceps, Epichloë,

Neotyphodium

Not applicable

Fescue grass, sorghum, small grains

Impaired thermoregulation, reduced intake, reduced milk yield, and abortions

Authors

Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science

Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites:

Publication date: Aug. 23, 2021
AG-907

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