NC State Extension Publications


Mycotoxin Predominant Fungi Species FDA Action Level (Varies by species/feed) Common Crops Symptoms
Aflatoxin Aspergillus Feed: 20 ppb
Milk: 5 ppb
Corn, cottonseed, peanuts, cereal grains Increased somatic cell count (SCC), lethargy, rough hair coat, jaundice, and potential reduction in intake and milk yield
Fumonisin Fusarium Corn/corn byproducts: 30 ppm and < 50% of diet Corn Increased SCC, lethargy, reduced intake, and reduced milk production
Zearalenone Fusarium Not applicable Corn and wheat (can also occur in oats, rice, rye, sorghum, barley) Decreased fertility, abnormal estrous cycles, swollen vulva, vaginitis, enlarged mammary gland (in heifers), and reduced milk yield
Ochratoxin A Aspergillus, Penicillium Not applicable Cereal grains More problems in calves or when fed high grain diets: potential abortions or death
Deoxynivalenol (DON; Vomitoxin) Fusarium Grain/grain byproducts: 5 ppm Corn, wheat (straw), cereal grains Diarrhea, reduced intake, and reduced milk yield
Tricothecenes (T-2 Toxin) Fusarium Not applicable Corn Diarrhea, reduced intake, reduced milk yield, ataxia, and anorexia
PR Toxin Penicillium Not applicable Corn (silage) and grass Reduced milk and fat production, and acidosis-like symptoms
Patulin Aspergillus, Penicillium, Byssochlamys Not applicable Silage Tremors, ataxia, paresis, recumbency, and death
Ergot Alkaloids Claviceps, Epichloë, Neotyphodium Not applicable Fescue grass, sorghum, small grains Impaired thermoregulation, reduced intake, reduced milk yield, and abortions


Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science

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Publication date: Aug. 23, 2021

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