NC State Extension Publications


Patulin is a γ-lactone that has been used as an antibiotic, but it has also been noted as a possible toxicant for ruminants.

Species Producing Patulin

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Patulin is produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys.

Occurrence of Patulin

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Patulin is a contaminant of silages but has been found in other grains and fruits. In particular, apple waste products used in animal feeds are of concern and should be monitored.

Regulation of Patulin

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has no regulations or guidelines on patulin in animal feeds.


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Animals consuming feed contaminated with patulin have developed severe neurotoxicosis consisting of tremors, ataxia, paresis, and recumbency. Death has been reported in numerous animals after they consumed poor-quality silage containing patulin-producing molds.


Skip to Sources

Chu, F.S. 2003. “Mycotoxins, Toxicology.” In The Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2nd ed., edited by B. Caballero, P. Finglas, and F. Toldra, 4089-4096. Academic Press.

Diaz, D. The Mycotoxin Blue Book. 2005. 295–323. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.


Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science
Graduate Assistant
Animal Science

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Publication date: Aug. 23, 2021

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