NC State Extension Publications

Table of Contents

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The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Recommendations of specific caneberry production practices and cultivars are based primarily on research and grower experiences in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Due to variability in environmental conditions in the southern United States, growers in other states should be sure to obtain current information about caneberry production practices and varieties from their state or local Cooperative Extension centers.

  1. Introduction
    • Types of Caneberries
    • Growth Habit
    • Fruiting Habit
    • Thorniness
    • Fruit Color (Raspberries)
  2. Cultivars
  3. Site Selection
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
    • Row Orientation
  4. Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment
    • Site Preparation
    • Soil Tests
    • Nematode Tests
    • Planting
    • Establishment
      • Alleys
      • Spacing – Blackberry
      • Spacing – Raspberry
  5. Plant Growth
    • General
    • Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries and Raspberries
    • Primocane-Fruiting Raspberries and Blackberries
  6. Pruning and Training
    • General
    • Erect Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries
    • Semi-Erect and Trailing Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries
    • Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries
    • Floricane-Fruiting Raspberries
    • Primocane-Fruiting Raspberries
  7. Trellis Systems
    • I-Trellis
    • V-Trellis (with Metal T-Posts)
    • California V-Trellis
    • T-Trellis (with Rebar)
    • T-Trellis (with Wood)
    • Shift Trellis and Rotating Cross Arm Trellises
  8. Tunnel Production
  9. Water Management
    • General
    • Trickle Irrigation
    • Mulching
  10. Integrated Pest Management and Pollination
  11. Fertility Management
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
    • Leaf Analysis
  12. Fruit Development
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
  13. Harvesting and Postharvest Management
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
  14. Handing to Avoid Contaminents
  15. Appendix 1. Nematode Diagnostic Services
  16. Appendix 2. Fertility and Nutrients
    1. Fertility 101
    2. Nutrients
  17. References
  18. Acknowledgements


Skip to References

Fernandez, G. and J. R. Ballington. 1999. Growing Blackberries in North Carolina. AG-401. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Fernandez, G. E., F. J. Louws, J. R. Ballington, and E. B. Poling. 1998. Growing Raspberries in North Carolina. AG-569. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Krewer, G., B. Smith, P. Brannen, and D. Horton. 2001. Commercial Bramble Culture. Bulletin 964. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.

Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES). 2008. Raspberry and Blackberry Production Guide. Ithaca, NY: NRAES, Cooperative Extension, Cornell University.

Schnabel, G., D. Horton, W. Mitchem, D. Monks, D. Lockwood, G. Fernandez, B. Bellinger, and P. Guillebeau. 2006. Southeast Regional Brambles Integrated Management Guide. Athens, GA: Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium.

Stiles, H. D. 1995. Shift-Trellises for Better Management of Brambles (Rubus cvs.) Bulletin 95-2. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Takeda, F. Glenn , D. M., Tworkoski, T. 2013. Rotating cross-arm trellis technology for blackberry production. Journal of Berry Research. 3:25-40.


Skip to Acknowledgements

This publication is based in part on Commercial Bramble Culture (Bulletin 964), University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Growing Blackberries in North Carolina (AG-401), and Growing Raspberries in North Carolina (AG-569), North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, NC State University.

Thanks to Fumi Takeda, USDA Agricultural Research Service and Penelope Perkins-Veazie, NC State University for their input and photos on the RCA trellis and post harvest handling respectively.


Extension Specialist (Small Fruits)
Horticultural Science
University of Arkansas
University of Tennessee

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Publication date: Feb. 2, 2016

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