NC State Extension Publications

Table of Contents

Skip to Table of Contents

The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Recommendations of specific caneberry production practices and cultivars are based primarily on research and grower experiences in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Due to variability in environmental conditions in the southern United States, growers in other states should be sure to obtain current information about caneberry production practices and varieties from their state or local Cooperative Extension centers.

  1. Introduction
    • Types of Caneberries
    • Growth Habit
    • Fruiting Habit
    • Thorniness
    • Fruit Color (Raspberries)
  2. Cultivars
  3. Site Selection
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
    • Row Orientation
  4. Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment
    • Site Preparation
    • Soil Tests
    • Nematode Tests
    • Planting
    • Establishment
      • Spacing – Blackberry
      • Spacing – Raspberry
      • Alleys
  5. Plant Growth
    • General
    • Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries and Raspberries
    • Primocane-Fruiting Raspberries and Blackberries
    • Lifecycle through the Seasons
  6. Pruning and Training
    • General
    • Erect Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries
    • Semi-Erect and Trailing Floricane-Fruiting Blackberries
    • Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Single or Double Cropped)
    • Floricane-Fruiting Raspberries
  7. Trellis Systems
    • I-Trellis (Hedgerow)
    • V-Trellis (with Metal T-Posts)
    • T-Trellis
    • Moveable Trellises
  8. Tunnel Production
  9. Water Management
    • General
    • Trickle/Drip Irrigation
    • Mulching
  10. Integrated Pest Management and Pollination
  11. Fertility Management
    • General
    • Blackberry Fertilization
    • Raspberry Fertilization
    • Leaf Analysis
  12. Fruit Development
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
  13. Harvesting and Postharvest Management
    • General
    • Blackberry
    • Raspberry
  14. Food Safety Considerations for Caneberry Production
  15. References
  16. Acknowledgements


Skip to References

Fernandez, G. and J. R. Ballington. 1999. Growing Blackberries in North Carolina. AG-401. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Fernandez, G. E., F. J. Louws, J. R. Ballington, and E. B. Poling. 1998. Growing Raspberries in North Carolina. AG-569. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Krewer, G., B. Smith, P. Brannen, and D. Horton. 2001. Commercial Bramble Culture. Bulletin 964. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.

Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES). 2008. Raspberry and Blackberry Production Guide. Ithaca, NY: NRAES, Cooperative Extension, Cornell University.

Schnabel, G., D. Horton, W. Mitchem, D. Monks, D. Lockwood, G. Fernandez, B. Bellinger, and P. Guillebeau. 2006. Southeast Regional Brambles Integrated Management Guide. Athens, GA: Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium.

Stiles, H.D. 1995. Shift-Trellises for Better Management of Brambles. Bulletin 95-2. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Takeda, Fumiomi, David M. Glenn, and Thomas James Tworkoski. 2013. “Rotating Cross-arm Trellis Technology for Blackberry Production.” Journal of Berry Research 3, no.1: 25-40.


Skip to Acknowledgements

Thanks to Fumi Takeda, USDA Agricultural Research Service, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie, NC State University, for their input on and photos of the RCA trellis and postharvest handling, respectively. Thanks also to Margaret Worthington, Isabella Norsworthy, Carmen Alyssa Johns (University of Arkansas), Joe Espoisito (New Jersey grower), Absalom Shank (former NC State Research Specialist), and Phil Brannen (University of Georgia) for providing amazing photos of blackberries.


Extension Specialist (Small Fruits)
Horticultural Science
Extension Specialist, Horticultural Crops Production
Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas
Extension Assistant
Horticultural Science

Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites:

Publication date: Feb. 23, 2023

N.C. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status.