Making space for wood- and stem-nesting bees in home landscapes, parks, and gardens
Table of Contents
What is a Bee Hotel?
Meet the Residents
- Family Megachilidae
- Family Colletidae
- Family Apidae
Bee Hotel Design and Placement
What if Bee Hotels Aren't Actually Good for Bees?
Appendix 1. Bee hotel checklist
Appendix 2. Plants with leaves and fibers used as construction materials in the nest interior
Appendix 3. Plants that produce hollow or pithy twigs and stems used by nesting bees in eastern North America
Appendix 4. Building plans for a simple bee hotel shelter
Appendix 5. Additional resources
Aizen, Marcelo A., Lucas A. Garibaldi, Saul A. Cunningham, and Alexandra-Maria Klein. 2009. "How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Lessons from long-term trends in crop production." Annals of Botany 103 (9): 1579–1588.
Almeida, Eduardo A. B. 2008. "Colletidae nesting biology (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Apidologie 39 (1): 16–29.
Armar-Klemesu, Margaret. 2000. "Urban agriculture and food security, nutrition and health." In Growing Cities, Growing Food: Urban Agriculture on the Policy Agenda, edited by M. Dubbeling, N. Bakker, S. Guendel, U. Sabel Koschella, H. de Zeeuw, 99–118. Feldafing, Germany: DSE.
Artz, Derek R., Matthew J. Allan, Gordon I. Wardell, and Theresa L. Pitts-Singer. 2014. "Influence of nest box color and release sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard." Journal of Economic Entomology 107 (6): 2045–2054.
Artz, Derek R., Matthew J. Allan, Gordon I. Wardell, and Theresa L. Pitts‐Singer. 2013. "Nesting site density and distribution affect Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success and almond yield in a commercial orchard." Insect Conservation and Diversity 6 (6): 715–724.
Baker, J. R., E. D. Kuhn, and S. B. Bambara. 1985. "Nests and immature stages of leafcutter bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58 (2): 290–313.
Boggs, Gordon Lee. 1968. “The Biology of Solierella plenoculoides plenoculoides” (dissertation, Michigan State University, Department of Entomology).
Bohart, George E. 1972. "Management of wild bees for the pollination of crops." Annual Review of Entomology 17 (1): 287–312.
Bohart, Richard M., and Arnold S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World: A Generic Revision. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bosch, Jordi, and William Kemp. 2001. How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee as an Orchard Pollinator. Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agricultural Network.
Cane, James H. 1991. "Soils of ground-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea): texture, moisture, cell depth and climate." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64 (4): 406–413.
—. 2002. "Pollinating bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) of U.S. alfalfa compared for rates of pod and seed set." Journal of Economic Entomology 95 (1): 22–27.
Cane, James H., Terry Griswold, and Frank D. Parker. 2007. "Substrates and materials used for nesting by North American Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100 (3): 350–358.
Cane, James H., and Daniel Schiffhauer. 2003. "Dose‐response relationships between pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon [Ericaceae])." American Journal of Botany 90 (10): 1425–1432.
Cane, James H., Daniel Schiffhauer, and Linda J. Kervin. 1996. "Pollination, foraging, and nesting ecology of the leaf-cutting bee Megachile (Delomegachile) addenda (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) on cranberry beds." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89 (3): 361–367.
Collett, Thomas S., and Matthew Collett. 2002. "Memory use in insect visual navigation." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3 (7): 542–552.
Cowan, David P. 1986. "Parasitism of Ancistrocerus antilope (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) by Leucospis affinis (Hymenoptera: Leucospididae)." Great Lakes Entomologist 19 (3): 7.
Danforth, Bryan N, Robert L Minckley, John L Neff, and Frances Fawcett. 2019. The Solitary Bees: Biology, Evolution, Conservation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dicks, Lynn V., David A Showler, and William J. Sutherland. 2010. Bee Conservation: Evidence for the Effects of Interventions. Pelagic Publishing.
Doussot, Charlotte, Olivier J. N. Bertrand, and Martin Egelhaaf. 2020. "The critical role of head movements for spatial representation during bumblebees learning flight." Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 14:606590.
Eeraerts, Maxime, Ruben Vanderhaegen, Guy Smagghe, and Ivan Meeus. 2020. "Pollination efficiency and foraging behaviour of honey bees and non‐Apis bees to sweet cherry." Agricultural and Forest Entomology 22 (1): 75–82.
Eilers, Elisabeth J., Claire Kremen, Sarah Smith Greenleaf, Andrea K. Garber, and Alexandra-Maria Klein. 2011. "Contribution of pollinator-mediated crops to nutrients in the human food supply." PLOS One 6 (6): e21363.
Everaars, Jeroen, Michael W. Strohbach, Bernd Gruber, and Carsten F. Dormann. 2011. "Microsite conditions dominate habitat selection of the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in an urban environment: A case study from Leipzig, Germany." Landscape and Urban Planning 103 (1): 15–23.
Fauria, Karine, and Raymond Campan. 1998. "Do solitary bees Osmia cornuta Latr. and Osmia lignaria Cresson use proximal visual cues to localize their nest?" Journal of Insect Behavior 11 (5): 649–669.
Fauria, Karine, Raymond Campan, and Anne Grimal. 2004. "Visual marks learned by the solitary bee Megachile rotundata for localizing its nest." Animal Behaviour 67 (3): 523–530.
Fortel, Laura, Mickaël Henry, Laurent Guilbaud, Hugues Mouret, and Bernard E. Vaissiere. 2016. "Use of human-made nesting structures by wild bees in an urban environment." Journal of Insect Conservation 20 (2): 239–253.
Fowler, Jarrod. 2016. "Specialist bees of the Mid-Atlantic: Host plants and habitat conservation." Maryland Entomologist 6: 2–40.
Frankie, Gordon W., S. Bradleigh Vinson, Linda E. Newstrom, and John F. Barthell. 1988. "Nest site and habitat preferences of Centris bees in the Costa Rican dry forest." Biotropica 20 (4): 301–310.
Fye, R. E. 1965. "The biology of the Vespidae, Pompilidae, and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) from trap nests in northwestern Ontario." The Canadian Entomologist 97 (7): 716–744.
Gaston, Kevin J., Richard M. Smith, Ken Thompson, and Philip H. Warren. 2005. "Urban domestic gardens (II): experimental tests of methods for increasing biodiversity." Biodiversity and Conservation 14 (2): 395.
Gathmann, Achim, and Teja Tscharntke. 2002. "Foraging ranges of solitary bees." Journal of Animal Ecology 71 (5): 757–764.
Gerber, H. S., and E. C. Klostermeyer. 1972. Factors Affecting the Sex Ratio and Nesting Behavior of the Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee. Pullman, WA: Washington Agricultural Experiment Station, Washington State University.
Geslin, Benoît, Sophie Gachet, Magali Deschamps-Cottin, Floriane Flacher, Benjamin Ignace, Corentin Knoploch, Éric Meineri, Christine Robles, Lise Ropars, and Lucie Schurr. 2020. "Bee hotels host a high abundance of exotic bees in an urban context." Acta Oecologica 105: 103556.
González-Zamora, José Enrique, José A. Hidalgo-Matas, and Mireia Corell-González. 2021. "Wild solitary bees and their use of bee hotels in southwest Spain." Journal of Apicultural Research 60 (5): 862–870. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00218839.2021.1892416.
Gonzalez, Victor H., and Terry L. Griswold. 2013. "Wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): diversity, host plant associations, phylogeny, and biogeography." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 168 (2): 221–425.
Goodell, Karen. 2003. "Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism." Oecologia 134 (4): 518–527.
Graenicher, S. 1927. "On the biology of the parasitic bees of the genus Coelioxys (Hymen., Megachilidae)." Entomological News 38: 231–235, 273–276.
Graenicher, S. 1906. "On the habits and life-history of Leucospis affinis (Say). A parasite of bees." Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Soceity 4: 153–159.
Greenleaf, Sarah S., Neal M. Williams, Rachael Winfree, and Claire Kremen. 2007. "Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size." Oecologia 153 (3): 589–596.
Groulx, Adam F., and Jessica R. K. Forrest. 2018. "Nesting aggregation as a predictor of brood parasitism in mason bees (Osmia spp.)." Ecological Entomology 43 (2): 182–191.
Gruber, Bernd, Katharina Eckel, Jeroen Everaars, and Carsten F. Dormann. 2011. "On managing the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis) in apple orchards." Apidologie 42 (5): 564–576.
Guédot, Christelle, Jordi Bosch, Rosalind R. James, and William P. Kemp. 2006. "Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of Economic Entomology 99 (3): 626–633.
Guédot, Christelle, Jordi Bosch, and William P. Kemp. 2005. "The relative importance of vertical and horizontal visual cues in nest location by Megachile rotundata." Journal of Apicultural Research 44 (3): 109–115.
—. 2007. "Effect of three-dimension and color contrast on nest localization performance of two solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80 (2): 90–104.
Guédot, Christelle, Theresa L. Pitts‐Singer, James S. Buckner, Jordi Bosch, and William P. Kemp. 2006. "Olfactory cues and nest recognition in the solitary bee Osmia lignaria." Physiological Entomology 31 (2): 110–119.
Harris, A. C. 1994. "Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Eumenidae): a potentially useful biological control agent for leafrollers Planotortrix octo, P. excessana, Ctenopseustis obliquana, C. herana, and Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 22 (3): 235–238.
Hawkins, W. A. 1975. "Nesting biology of Osmia (Chalcosmia) georgica (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48 (4): 493–499.
Helm, Bryan R., Joseph P. Rinehart, George D. Yocum, Kendra J. Greenlee, and Julia H. Bowsher. 2017. "Metamorphosis is induced by food absence rather than a critical weight in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (41): 10924–10929.
Hicks, Barry. 2011. "Anthidium manicatum (L.)(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) found on the island of Newfoundland, Canada." Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society 7 (14): 105–107.
Hofmann, Michaela M., Andreas Fleischmann, and Susanne S. Renner. 2020. "Foraging distances in six species of solitary bees with body lengths of 6 to 15 mm, inferred from individual tagging, suggest 150 m-rule-of-thumb for flower strip distances." Journal of Hymenoptera Research 77: 105.
Homer, Collin, Jon Dewitz, Limin Yang, Suming Jin, Patrick Danielson, George Xian, John Coulston, Nathaniel Herold, James Wickham, and Kevin Megown. 2015. "Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the conterminous United States–representing a decade of land cover change information." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 81 (5): 345–354.
Horne, Marjorie. 1995. "Leaf area and toughness: effects on nesting material preferences of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 88 (6): 868-875.
Hrncir, M., S. Jarau, R. Zucchi, and F. G. Barth. 2003. "A stingless bee (Melipona seminigra) uses optic flow to estimate flight distances." Journal of Comparative Physiology A 189 (10): 761–768.
Irwin, Rebecca E., Elsa Youngsteadt, Paige S. Warren, and Judith L. Bronstein. 2020. "The evolutionary ecology of mutualisms in urban landscapes." In Urban Evolutionary Biology, edited by Jason Munshi-South Marta Szulkin, and Anne Charmantier. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Javorek, Steven K., Kenna E. Mackenzie, and S. P. Vander Kloet. 2002. "Comparative pollination effectiveness among bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) on lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95 (3): 345–351.
Jenkins, David A., and Robert W. Matthews. 2004. "Cavity-nesting Hymenoptera in disturbed habitats of Georgia and South Carolina: nest architecture and seasonal occurrence." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77 (3): 203–214.
Klein, Alexandra-Maria, Bernard E. Vaissiere, James H. Cane, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Saul A. Cunningham, Claire Kremen, and Teja Tscharntke. 2007. "Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biology 274 (1608): 303–313.
Kraemer, Mark E., and Françoise D. Favi. 2005. "Flower phenology and pollen choice of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in central Virginia." Environmental Entomology 34 (6): 1593–1605.
Kraemer, Mark E., Françoise D. Favi, and Carl E. Niedziela. 2014. "Nesting and pollen preference of Osmia lignaria lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Virginia and North Carolina orchards." Environmental Entomology 43 (4): 932–941.
Kraft, P., C. Evangelista, Marie Dacke, T. Labhart, and M. V. Srinivasan. 2011. "Honeybee navigation: following routes using polarized-light cues." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366 (1565): 703–708.
Krombein, Karl V. 1967. Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees: Life Histories, Nests, and Associates. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press.
Krombein, Karl V., P. D. Hurd, David R. Smith, and B. D. Burks. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Krombein, Karl V., Carl F. Muesebeck, and Henry Townes. 1951. Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico: Synoptic Catalog. Vol. no.2. Vol. Book, Whole. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
Krombein, Karl V. 1959. "Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland, XII. A biological note on Trypoxylon richardsi Sandhouse." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 72: 101–102. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/107739#page/115/mode/1up.
—. 1962. "Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite on the megachilid bee, Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodactylidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 237–249.
Krunić, Miloje, and Ljubiša Stanisavljević. 2006. "Augmentation of managed populations of Osmia cornuta and O. rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Southeastern Europe." European Journal of Entomology 103 (3): 695.
Krunić, Miloje, Ljubiša Stanisavljević, Mauro Pinzauti, and Antonio Felicioli. 2005. "The accompanying fauna of Osmia cornuta and Osmia rufa and effective measures of protection." Bulletin of Insectology 58 (2): 141–152.
Kurczewski, Frank E. 1967. "A note on the nesting behavior of Solierella inermis (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Larrinae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 40 (2): 203–208.
Langellotto, G. A. 2014. "What are the economic costs and benefits of home vegetable gardens?" Journal of Extension 52 (2): 2RIB5.
Laport, Robert G., and Robert L. Minckley. 2012. "Occupation of active Xylocopa virginica nests by the recently invasive Megachile sculpturalis in upstate New York." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 85 (4): 384–386.
Leake, Jonathan R., Andrew Adam-Bradford, and Janette E. Rigby. 2009. "Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?" Environmental Health 8 (1): S6.
LeCroy, Kathryn A., Grace Savoy-Burke, David E. Carr, Deborah A. Delaney, and H. Roulston T’ai. 2020. "Decline of six native mason bee species following the arrival of an exotic congener." Scientific Reports 10 (1): 1–9.
Longair, Robert W. 1981. "Sex ratio variations in xylophilous aculeate Hymenoptera." Evolution 35 (3): 597–600.
Lorenzo-Felipe, Israel, Carlos A. Blanco, and Miguel Corona. 2020. "Impact of Apoidea (Hymenoptera) on the world’s food production and diets." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 113 (6): 407–424.
Lovell, Sarah Taylor. 2010. "Multifunctional urban agriculture for sustainable land use planning in the United States." Sustainability 2 (8): 2499–2522.
Mach, Bernadette M., and Daniel A. Potter. 2018. "Quantifying bee assemblages and attractiveness of flowering woody landscape plants for urban pollinator conservation." PLOS One 13 (12): e0208428. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208428.
MacIvor, J. Scott. 2016. "DNA barcoding to identify leaf preference of leafcutting bees." Royal Society Open Science 3 (3): 150623.
—. 2017. "Cavity-nest boxes for solitary bees: a century of design and research." Apidologie 48 (3): 311–327.
MacIvor, J. Scott, and Laurence Packer. 2015. "'Bee hotels' as tools for native pollinator conservation: a premature verdict?" PLOS One 10 (3): e0122126.
Mader, Eric, Marla Spivak, and Elaine Evans. 2010. Managing Alternative Pollinators. Ithaca, NY: NRAES.
Maeta, Y., and K. Adachi. 2005. "Nesting behaviors of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile (Eutricharaea) rotundata (Fabricius)(Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)." Chugoku Kontyu 18: 5–21.
Maeta, Y., and K. Kitamura. 2007. "Efficiency of seed production in breeding of ladino clover by three species of wild bees, Ceratina flavipes Smith, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) and Megachile spissula Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Megachilidae)." Chugoku Kontyu 21: 35–53.
Mangum, W. A., and R. W. Brooks. 1997. "First records of Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the continental United States." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 70 (2): 140–142.
Martins, C. F., R. P. Ferreira, and L. T. Carneiro. 2012. "Influence of the orientation of nest entrance, shading, and substrate on sampling trap-nesting bees and wasps." Neotropical Entomology 41 (2): 105–111.
Neff, John L. 2008. "Components of nest provisioning behavior in solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Apidologie 39 (1): 30–45.
North Carolina Climate Office. NC Climate Synopsis. https://climate.ncsu.edu/climate/synopsis, accessed 22 Feb 2021.
O’Neill, Kevin M., and James F. O’Neill. 2016. "Brood parasitism of the resin bee Megachile campanulae (Robertson) by Coelioxys modesta Smith (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 89 (2): 117–127.
Ollerton, Jeff, Rachael Winfree, and Sam Tarrant. 2011. "How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?" Oikos 120 (3): 321–326.
Osgood, Charles E. 1968. "Mechanisms of Orientation in the Leaf-cutter Bee Megachile rotundata (Fabricius)" (dissertation, Oregon State University, Entomology).
Park, Y‐L., V. Kondo, J. White, T. West, B. McConnell, and T. McCutcheon. 2009. "Nest‐to‐nest dispersal of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hym., Megachilidae)." Journal of Applied Entomology 133 (3): 174–180.
Parys, Katherine A., Amber D. Tripodi, and Blair J. Sampson. 2015. "The giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis Smith: New distributional records for the Mid-and Gulf-south USA." Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e6733.
Pasquet, Rémy S., Alexis Peltier, Matthew B. Hufford, Emeline Oudin, Jonathan Saulnier, Lénaic Paul, Jette T. Knudsen, Hans R. Herren, and Paul Gepts. 2008. "Long-distance pollen flow assessment through evaluation of pollinator foraging range suggests transgene escape distances." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (36): 13456–13461.
Peterson, Jason H., Bernard D. Roitberg, and J. H. Peterson. 2006. "Impacts of flight distance on sex ratio and resource allocation to offspring in the leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59 (5): 589–596.
Pinilla-Gallego, Mario S., James Crum, Randall Schaetzl, and Rufus Isaacs. 2018. "Soil textures of nest partitions made by the mason bees Osmia lignaria and O. cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Apidologie 49 (4): 464–472.
Pitts-Singer, Theresa L., and James H. Cane. 2011. "The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee." Annual Review of Entomology 56: 221–237.
Pitts-Singer, Theresa L., and R. R. James. 2008. "Past and present management of alfalfa bees." In Bee Pollination in Agricultural Ecosystems, 105–123. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Polidori, Carlo, and David Sánchez-Fernández. 2020. "Environmental niche and global potential distribution of the giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis, a rapidly spreading invasive pollinator." Global Ecology and Conservation 24: e01365.
Potter, Andrew, and Gretchen LeBuhn. 2015. "Pollination service to urban agriculture in San Francisco, CA." Urban Ecosystems 18 (3): 885–893.
Pulawski, Wojciech. Catalog of Sphecidae. California Academy of Sciences. Updated April 2021, accessed August 2021.
Rader, Romina, Ignasi Bartomeus, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Michael P. D. Garratt, Brad G. Howlett, Rachael Winfree, Saul A. Cunningham, Margaret M. Mayfield, Anthony D. Arthur, and Georg K. S. Andersson. 2016. "Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (1): 146–151.
Rau, Phil 1935. "The grass-carrying wasp, Chlorion (Isodontia) harrisi Fernald." Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 35: 65–68.
Rau, Phil 1929. "Experimental studies in the homing of carpenter and mining bees." Journal of Comparative Psychology 9 (1): 35–70.
Rau, Phil. 1937. "The life-history of Osmia lignaria and O. cordata, with notes on O. conjuncta." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 30 (2): 324–343.
Richards, Kenneth W. 1984. Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee Management in Western Canada: Agriculture Canada Publication 149E. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services.
Richards, K. W. 1995. "The alfalfa leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata: a potential pollinator for some annual forage clovers." Journal of Apicultural Research 34 (3): 115–121.
—. 1996. "Effect of environment and equipment on productivity of alfalfa leafcutter bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in southern Alberta, Canada." The Canadian Entomologist 128 (1): 47–56.
Robertson, Charles. 1929. Flowers and Insects: Lists of Visitors of Four Hundred and Fifty-three Flowers. Lancaster, PA: The Science Press Printing Company.
Rothman, Jason A., Corey Andrikopoulos, Diana Cox-Foster, and Quinn S. McFrederick. 2019. "Floral and foliar source affect the bee nest microbial community." Microbial Ecology 78 (2): 506–516.
Roulston, T'ai, and Rosemary Malfi. 2012. "Aggressive eviction of the eastern carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus)) from its nest by the giant resin bee (Megachile sculpturalis Smith)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 85 (4): 387–388.
Roulston, T'ai, and Karen Goodell. 2011. "The role of resources and risks in regulating wild bee populations." Annual Review of Entomology 56: 293–312.
Rozen, Jerome G., and Hadel H. Go. 2015. "Descriptions of the egg and mature larva of the bee Chelostoma (Prochelostoma) philadelphi with additional notes on nesting biology (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Megachilinae: Osmiini)." American Museum Novitates 2015 (3844): 1–8.
Russo, Laura. 2016. "Positive and negative impacts of non-native bee species around the world." Insects 7 (4): 69.
Samet, Nermin, Jochen Zeil, Elmar Mair, Norbert Boeddeker, and Wolfgang Stürzl. 2014. "Ground-nesting insects could use visual tracking for monitoring nest position during learning flights." In From Animals to Animats 13, edited by Angel P. del Pobil, Eris Chinellato and John Hallam, 108–120. Cham: Springer.
Sandhouse, Grace A. 1940. "A review of the Nearctic wasps of the genus Trypoxylon (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)." American Midland Naturalist 24 (1): 133–176.
Santo, Raychel, Anne Palmer, and Brent Kim. 2016. Vacant Lots to Vibrant Plots: A Review of the Benefits and Limitations of Urban Agriculture. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, Baltimore, MD.
Sedivy, Claudio, and Silvia Dorn. 2014. "Towards a sustainable management of bees of the subgenus Osmia (Megachilidae; Osmia) as fruit tree pollinators." Apidologie 45 (1): 88–105.
Seidelmann, Karsten. 1999. "The function of the vestibulum in nests of a solitary stem-nesting bee, Osmia rufa (L.)." Apidologie 30 (1): 19–29.
—. 2006. "Open-cell parasitism shapes maternal investment patterns in the Red Mason bee Osmia rufa." Behavioral Ecology 17 (5): 839–848.
Seidelmann, Karsten, Adrienne Bienasch, and Franziska Pröhl. 2016. "The impact of nest tube dimensions on reproduction parameters in a cavity nesting solitary bee, Osmia bicornis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Apidologie 47 (1): 114–122.
Smith, Matthew R., Gitanjali M. Singh, Dariush Mozaffarian, and Samuel S. Myers. 2015. "Effects of decreases of animal pollinators on human nutrition and global health: a modelling analysis." The Lancet 386 (10007): 1964–1972.
Soroka, J. J., D. W. Goerzen, K. C. Falk, and K. E. Bett. 2001. "Alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) pollination of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under isolation tents for hybrid seed production." Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81 (1): 199–204.
Staab, Michael, Gesine Pufal, Teja Tscharntke, and Alexandra‐Maria Klein. 2018. "Trap nests for bees and wasps to analyse trophic interactions in changing environments—A systematic overview and user guide." Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (11): 2226–2239.
Stephen, William P. 1981. The Design and Function of Field Domiciles and Incubators for Leafcutting Bee Management, (Megachile rotundata (Fabricius)). Station Bulletin 654. Corvallis: Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University.
—. 2003. "Solitary bees in North American agriculture: a perspective." In For Nonnative Crops, Whence Pollinators of the Future?, edited by K. Strickler and J. H. Cane, 41–66. Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America.
Stephen, W. P., and R. W. Every. 1970. Nesting Media for the Propagation of Leaf Cutter Bees (FS 175). Oregon State University Cooperative Extension Service.
Stephen, W. P., and Charles E. Osgood. 1965. "Influence of tunnel size and nesting medium on sex ratios in a leaf-cutter bee, Megachile rotundata." Journal of Economic Entomology 58 (5): 965–968.
Strickler, Karen, Virginia L. Scott, and Roland L. Fischer. 1996. "Comparative nesting ecology of two sympatric leafcutting bees that differ in body size (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (1): 26–44.
Stubbs, Constance S., Francis A. Drummond, and Stephanie L. Allard. 1997. "Bee conservation and increasing Osmia spp. in Maine lowbush blueberry fields." Northeastern Naturalist 4 (3): 133–144.
Swearingen, J., and C. Bargeron. 2016. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Taki, Hisatomo, Peter G. Kevan, Blandina F. Viana, Fabiana O. Silva, and Matthias Buck. 2008. "Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap‐nesting wasps." Journal of Applied Entomology 132 (3): 225–229.
Taylor, John R., and Sarah Taylor Lovell. 2012. "Mapping public and private spaces of urban agriculture in Chicago through the analysis of high-resolution aerial images in Google Earth." Landscape and Urban Planning 108 (1): 57–70.
Tepedino, Vincent J. 1996. "A comparison of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera) as pollinators for hybrid carrot seed in field cages." Acta Horticulturae 437: 457–461. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.437.62.
Tepedino, Vincent J., and Frank D. Parker. 1983. "Nest size, mortality and sex ratio in Osmia marginata Michener." Southwestern Entomologist 8 (3): 154.
Tepedino, Vincent J., and Phillip F. Torchio. 1989. "Influence of nest hole selection on sex ratio and progeny size in Osmia lignaria propinqua (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82 (3): 355–360.
Terando, Adam J., Jennifer Costanza, Curtis Belyea, Robert R. Dunn, Alexa McKerrow, and Jaime A. Collazo. 2014. "The southern megalopolis: Using the past to predict the future of urban sprawl in the southeast US." PLOS One 9 (7): e102261.
von Königslöw, Vivien, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Michael Staab, and Gesine Pufal. 2019. "Benchmarking nesting aids for cavity-nesting bees and wasps." Biodiversity and Conservation 28 (14): 3831–3849.
Wcislo, William T. 1996. "Parasitism rates in relation to nest site in bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Journal of Insect Behavior 9 (4): 643–656.
Weakley, Alan S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Wearing, C. H., and A. C. Harris. 1999. "Evaluation of the predatory wasp, Ancistrocerus gazella, for biological control of leafrollers in otago fruit crops: 1. Prey composition, nest structure and wasp productivity from artificial nests." Biocontrol Science and Technology 9 (3): 315–325.
—. 2005. "Evaluation of the predatory wasp, Ancistrocerus gazella, for biological control of leafrollers in Otago fruit crops. II. Wasp phenology and seasonal changes in prey composition." Biocontrol Science and Technology 15 (3): 281–298.
Wenzel, Arne, Ingo Grass, Vasuki V. Belavadi, and Teja Tscharntke. 2020. "How urbanization is driving pollinator diversity and pollination–A systematic review." Biological Conservation 241: 108321.
Willmer, Patricia Gillian, H. Cunnold, and G. Ballantyne. 2017. "Insights from measuring pollen deposition: quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators." Arthropod-Plant Interactions 11 (3): 411–425.
Wilson, Elisabeth S., Claire E. Murphy, Joseph P. Rinehart, George Yocum, and Julia H. Bowsher. 2020. "Microclimate temperatures impact nesting preference in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Environmental Entomology 49 (2): 296–303.
Wirtz, Peter, S. Kopka, and G. Schmoll. 1992. "Phenology of two territorial solitary bees, Anthidium manicatum and A. florentinum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Journal of Zoology 228 (4): 641–651.
Wirtz, Peter, Michael Szabados, Horst Pethig, and John Plant. 1988. "An extreme case of interspecific territoriality: male Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) wound and kill intruders." Ethology 78 (2): 159–167.
Wortman, Sam E., and Sarah Taylor Lovell. 2014. "Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States." Journal of Environmental Quality 42 (5): 1283–1294.
Youngsteadt, E. unpublished. "NC Bee Traits." Unpublished dataset.
Youngsteadt, E., H. Levenson, Nancy Lee Adamson, S. Hall, and T. Howard. 2021. Hymenoptera of North Carolina: Checklist of Bees of North Carolina. North Carolina Biodiversity Project. https://auth1.dpr.ncparks.gov/hymenoptera/index.php.
Zhao, Chang, Heather A. Sander, and Stephen D. Hendrix. 2019. "Wild bees and urban agriculture: assessing pollinator supply and demand across urban landscapes." Urban Ecosystems: 1–16.
Zurbuchen, Antonia, Stephanie Cheesman, Jeannine Klaiber, Andreas Müller, Silke Hein, and Silvia Dorn. 2010. "Long foraging distances impose high costs on offspring production in solitary bees." Journal of Animal Ecology 79 (3): 674–681.
Zurbuchen, Antonia, Lisa Landert, Jeannine Klaiber, Andreas Müller, Silke Hein, and Silvia Dorn. 2010. "Maximum foraging ranges in solitary bees: only few individuals have the capability to cover long foraging distances." Biological Conservation 143 (3): 669–676.
Publication date: July 6, 2022
N.C. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status.