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This is a quick-reference list of conversion factors used by the Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was compiled from a wide range of sources, and is designed to be concise and convenient rather than all-inclusive.
Biomass has an advantage over renewable energies (such as solar, wind and hydro) in that it can produce both electrical power and liquid transportation fuels. Biomass is also carbon-neutral because in a broad sense, the CO2 released in combustion of current vegetation is captured by the next generation of vegetation through photosynthesis. However, biomass feedstocks (both forestry and agricultural) have low energy density and they are bulky, moist and perishable so that they are relatively expensive to transport and store. Torrefaction solves these problems by making a feedstock that is dry, does not rot and holds much more energy per unit of volume and mass.
The North Carolina General Assembly adopted a Renewable (energy) Portfolio Standard through passage of Senate Bill 3-2007. Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) require that a certain percentage of a utility's overall energy sales must be derived from renewable resources. This publication explains RPS and the benefits to the forestry industry in North Carolina.
The North Carolina Biomass Council developed this roadmap to be used as a tool to assist stakeholders in planning North Carolina’s future biomass utilization. The roadmap represents the collective assessment and expertise of the North Carolina Biomass Council and is a result of numerous facilitated discussions.
Woody biomass harvesting for renewable energy generation is likely to increase in North Carolina - sparked by higher energy prices and government policies to promote renewable energy. The expansion of a wood-based energy industry has prompted concerns about intensified forest biomass removal and its impact on water? wildlife, biodiversity and site nutrients. This publication reviews common, cost effective strategies that minimize or avoid woody biomass harvest impacts. Sources of information to prevent and mitigate harvest impacts are included.
High fossil fuel costs and concerns about climate change have thrust low-cost, home-grown renewable fuels, like wood, into the energy spotlight. The enactment of North Carolina’s Renewable Energy Portfolio has increased the interest and opportunities to burn wood fuel to make electricity, heat, and steam. This factsheet reviews the air quality impacts of supplementing fossil fuels with woody biomass and current regulation on emissions from wood-fired plants.
Current policy discussions about climate change suggest that forestry is an inexpensive way to capture atmospheric carbon dioxide and potentially reduce forecasted climate change. This factsheet discusses which forestry practices are being considered to capture carbon dioxide and how landowners might engage in trading as carbon markets develop.
This publication defines unique biomass and bioenergy terms as they relate to forestry and forest management. These definitions will help you understand commonly used words and phrases that arise in biomass and bioenergy literature and discussions.
This publication provides a synopsis of the basic information about local economic benefits and impacts local woody biomass energy generates from a larger southeastern project.
This publication describes the types of forests and conditions that can be improved by biomass harvesting to help you determine if it is the right choice for your land and situation.
This publication describes how emerging biomass markets can increase your timber health and productivity through harvesting, stand replacement, thinning, crop tree release and fuel reduction.
This publication reviews the basic steps and cost factors associated with woody biomass harvest, processing and transportation. This provides the landowner with the basic technology and general economics of biomass production in North Carolina and forest management options are currently available.
This publication defines many of the questions often asked about biomass-based energy, the associated technologies and producing woody biomass. These questions and their answers will help you understand terms and concepts commonly associated with biomass energy.
North Carolina is experiencing historic population growth, which has led to significant changes in land use. North Carolina’s population growth is expanding communities into rural lands and woodlands, known as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). It is in these areas that wildfire is a growing concern. This note describes how biomass harvesting can reduce wildfire risk.
In the southern United States, communities with increasing populations and nearby forests may be able to consider using woody biomass to generate energy. A variety of other factors must also be considered, such as the price of existing energy sources, competing markets for wood, community acceptance and the economic availability of wood resources. To gain a better understanding of the range of possibilities for economic availability and the local economic impacts of using wood for energy, Buncombe and Orange counties were selected for analysis in this community economic profile. This document is for forestry professionals and county planners to understand the Community Economic Profile and Analysis Process.
This factsheet explores the potential for trees to renovate municipal waste materials, to produce cellulosic feedstock and to meet regulatory requirements for land application of municipal waste.