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This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.
North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater￼ discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.
Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.
With the addition of new regulatory requirements and continually emerging pathogens, developing and designing a HACCP plan has become more and more complex. This publication compiles published research data to provide a step-by-step approach to designing and developing HACCP plans.
This factsheet describes the processes of creating fermented foods like yogurt, pickled vegetables, and sourdough bread.
This factsheet introduces extrusion as a food and feed production process. Topics include the basic history, equipment, and application of extrusion in the production of human and animal foods.
This publication covers a variety of foods that can be prepared even if there is no gas or electricity for cooking.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.
This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.
In preparation for an emergency, keep the following food items that do not need refrigeration on hand or in an evacuation kit.
This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.
This Q&A factsheets answers several questions about the preconditioning process in food and feed extrusion.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.
This publication is a useful resource that shell egg producers can use to identify egg defects and possible factors contributing to egg quality issues. It also provides corrective measures for each defect so that producers can incorporate these solutions into their production systems.
At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.
This publication covers best freezing practices for a variety of fruits.
This publication discusses how floods can affect food gardens. In it, you'll find recommendations for preparing your garden before a flood, precautions to take after the storm, and how to safely clean up and replant after floodwaters recede.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.
Fact sheet covering the Food & Drug Association’s (FDA) requirements for food facilities to register their food processing establishments, continuing biannual registration renewal, and obtaining unique facility identifier numbers.
This guide lists the problems that can arise in making sweet gherkin pickles and describes how to prevent them by taking precautions during each step in the process, from preparing the cucumbers to making the brine and packing the pickles.
This publication outlines and describes core concepts of risk that are used in various environmental, health, and societal circumstances. It covers the following topics: defining risks, identifying and assessing risks, managing risks, and communicating risks.
The FDA considers Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP) to be “Necessary to prevent animal food from containing filthy, putrid, or decomposed substances, being otherwise unfit for food, or being prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health.” (Preamble, II: Legal Authority). This factsheet covers the guidelines for meeting the regulatory requirements for personnel CGMP.
This FactSheet provides a guide to understanding and addressing PFAS in our communities, which may be helpful for Extension agents, community members, and others who are interested in learning more about PFAS and their potential impacts.
This publication provides practical tips on how to promote health eating by incorporating fresh, local foods into nutrition education and cooking classes. Topics include getting started, knowing what's in season, and where to buy local foods.
This factsheet covers the guidelines and mitigation for aflatoxins in animal food in North Carolina.
This publication provides information to help produce growers understand the variety of insurance coverage or policies available to best cover their farms.
This publication, part of the Farm to Food Bank Resource Guide, discusses food donations given directly to food banks and food pantries in North Carolina.
This publication provides information and success stories related to food banks, food pantries, food donation programs, and other resources for addressing food insecurity.
This factsheet describes the role microorganisms play in food production. Bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, and protozoans can serve useful functions in food production, but may also cause foods to spoil and lead to disease in humans and animals.
This factsheet explains the necessity of manufacturing acidified food products according to a scheduled process. A scheduled process is a process selected by a processor as adequate for use under the conditions of manufacture for a food in achieving and maintaining a food product that will not permit the growth of microorganisms having public health significance.
This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.
This factsheet explains the nutrition labeling requirements small businesses are exempt from.
This publication covers steps to take to clean up your kitchen after a disaster or emergency.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) techniques are becoming the accepted norm for controlling the safety of foods. Each plant should have its own written plan to incorporate HACCP principles in the operation. This factsheet is assembled to provide some general guidance in developing a HACCP plan for use in an acidified foods operation.
This factsheet provides guidance to entrepreneurs on selecting a copacker to manufacture and package their food products.
Temperature control is essential to food safety, and a thermometer is integral to temperature control. Every food handler should know how to use and calibrate a thermometer. This fact sheet will help you select, use, and calibrate several food service thermometers.
New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”
After a power outage, you might not have heat, refrigeration, or water. This publication explains how to safely prepare food when you have no power.
Though they can be a source of worry, the fact of the matter is that many animal food facilities often think about preparing for inspections as the inspectors walk through their doors. One of the reasons for this is because the "what if" questions can be large in number, and so facilities get frustrated with trying to come up with a plan. With this in mind, we asked some regulators what advice they have for facilities in order to be proactive and help make the process go more smoothly. This document presents a number of practices that are not required, but might be useful as facilities prepare for, are subjected to, and evaluate the results of inspections.
This factsheet offers information on how to deal with food that may have come into contact with floodwaters.
This guide outlines steps that a facility producing livestock food could follow when developing its required food safety plan. The guide is accompanied by an example food safety plan that demonstrates the application of steps outlined in this guide and illustrates an acceptable food safety plan structure that contains required and best management practices information.
This factsheet provides an overview of Listeria and provides guidance on the prevention of foodborne infections (listeriosis).
This publication discusses the practice of leasing estuarine waters on the North Carolina coast for shellfish mariculture. It covers how shellfish are grown in North Carolina, how shellfish leases work, what constitutes a shellfish growing area and shellfish harvest closure, and the process for reopening after a closure.
The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.
How existing facility Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on personal hygiene and sanitation can be adapted to mitigate the spread of COVID-19
The NC State Feed Milling and Animal Food Safety programs have developed a decision tree tool to help guide facilities through the exemption determination process and the requirements for obtaining a qualified facility exemption through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
This profile board will help farmers and consultants determine when peanuts should be dug.
This factsheet is a resource for the inspection of juice products.
This factsheet provides a guide to the major points that should be covered in a recall plan. Please note that it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to construct the appendices to this outline to produce an adequate recall plan.
This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.
Gardens bring communities together. Not only are community gardens a good way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables in our diets, they also allow us to be active outdoors and build a strong community.
This factsheet answers common questions about kombucha production.
This factsheet describes the potential safety hazards of extended shelf life refrigerated foods and provides recommendations for safe production and packaging.
This document offers a set of steps for food producers to take when issuing a food safety recall.
This factsheet provides guidance on how to ensure foods are safe when preparing large amounts for gatherings.
This factsheet provides guidance to Extension agents on best practices when dealing with media like newspapers, magazines, or local news.
This factsheet addresses the question of whether or not it is possible to salvage crops from flooded fields.
This factsheet describes the regulatory requirements that must be met when starting a new food business.
This factsheet describes the process of irradiating food
Training Videos Developed for Spanish-speaking Employees of NC Seafood Processors North Carolina seafood processors have a new training tool to provide a better understanding of sanitation and safety requirements for Spanish-speaking employees. The NC State Seafood Laboratory received a grant through NC Sea Grant to develop eight Spanish language videos that explain and show the sanitation and safety regulations the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires for seafood processing plants.
This booklet provides an overview of production costs and marketing strategies that growers should consider when producing strawberries with the plasticulture system. A marketing survey conducted at pick-your-own farms and fruit stands in North Carolina provides the basis for recommended marketing practices.
This manual covers Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), a food safety plan for schools to reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness by handling food safely from the time it is received until the time it is served.
This factsheet provides guidelines for safely processing refrigerated foods.
This guide summarizes marketing options for grain and soybean growers and explains how to use basis, the difference between cash and futures prices, to evaluate marketing options.