NC State Extension Publications Numbered Publications, Factsheets, Hard Copy Documents, Authoritative Sources & more …

Notify me when new publications are added.

Browse by Category: Food Safety & Processing
Ordered by popularity

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

When the Power Is Out - When to Refreeze Frozen Food and When to Throw It Out

By: Benjamin Chapman Disaster Recovery

This factsheet offers information on which frozen foods can be safely refrozen after an extended power outage.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Identifying and Responding to Factors That Can Affect Egg Quality and Appearance

By: Ken Anderson, Darrin Karcher, Deanna Jones

This publication is a useful resource that shell egg producers can use to identify egg defects and possible factors contributing to egg quality issues. It also provides corrective measures for each defect so that producers can incorporate these solutions into their production systems.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Onions

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Storing Winter Squash and Pumpkins

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Charles Averre Horticulture Information Leaflets

Harvested squash and pumpkins are still very much alive even though they are mature and have been removed from the vine. The objective of curing and storing is to prolong the storage life of the fruit by slowing the rate of respiration and protecting against storage rots.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Sweet Corn

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.

Suggested Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for North Carolina Medicinal Herbs

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication provides introductory information about growing and wild-harvesting medicinal herbs in North Carolina. The practices suggested here apply to all raw herbal plant material used to make herbal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods, and drugs.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Cool and Ship: A Low-Cost, Portable Forced-Air Cooling Unit

By: Mike Boyette Postharvest Technology Series

This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Best Practices for Utilizing Local Food in Nutrition Education and Cooking Classes

By: Dara Bloom, Margie Mansure, Zandra Alford Local Foods

This publication provides practical tips on how to promote health eating by incorporating fresh, local foods into nutrition education and cooking classes. Topics include getting started, knowing what's in season, and where to buy local foods.

Crushed and Liquid Ice Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.

Maximizing Your SmartFresh℠ Investments

By: Michael Parker, Steve McArtney, Robert Tom Hoyt, J.D. Obermiller Horticulture Information Leaflets

SmartFresh℠ (1-methylcyclopropene, MCP) is a relatively new tool for postharvest management of apples. In 2002, SmartFresh was approved for commercial use on apples by the Environmental Protection Agency under a reduced risk program because of the very low toxicity of the product and the fact that treated fruit have no detectable residue. It is thought to bind irreversibly to the ethylene receptors in plant tissues making the crops insensitive to ethylene and subsequently retarding many of the ethylene mediated responses such as fruit softening in apples. SmartFresh can maintain apple firmness and acidity and decrease scald and greasiness even when stored under less than ideal storage temperatures.

Corn Production Guide Introduction

By: Ron Heiniger, Jan Spears, Dan Bowman, M.L. Carson, Carl Crozier, Jim Dunphy, Steve Koenning, Michele Marra, G.C. Naderman, John Van Duyn, Alan York, A.S. Culpepper, G. A. Payne

This comprehensive guide covers crop management, fertilizers, irrigation and drought management, tillage, insect and disease management, and marketing concerns for corn production.

Part 2: Cooling - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

Field heat should be removed from fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers as quickly as possible after harvest. Each commodity should be maintained at its lowest safe temperature.

The Value of Honey Bees as Pollinators in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy

The impact of honey bees on not only North Carolina, but the entire world is immense.

Direct to Food Bank and Food Pantry Donations

By: Dara Bloom, Emily Gamble Local Foods

This publication, part of the Farm to Food Bank Resource Guide, discusses food donations given directly to food banks and food pantries in North Carolina.

Tobacco (Flue-Cured and Burley)

By: Sterling Southern Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of flue-cured and burley tobacco in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Part 4: Mixed Loads - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

At times, it is necessary to transport or store different commodities together. In such mixed loads, it is very important to combine only those commodities that are compatible with respect to their requirements for: Temperature, Relative humidity, Atmosphere; oxygen and carbon dioxide, Protection from odors, Protection from physiologically active gases, such as ethylene.

Corn (Sweet and Field)

By: John Van Duyn Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of field and sweet corn in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Chlorination and Postharvest Disease Control

By: Mike Boyette, Dave Ritchie, S. J. Carballo, Sylvia Blankenship, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Technology Series

At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.

Food Safety Recall Plan Checklist

This document offers a set of steps for food producers to take when issuing a food safety recall.

Farm to Food Bank Resource Guide for North Carolina Cooperative Extension

By: Dara Bloom, Emily Gamble Local Foods

This publication provides information and success stories related to food banks, food pantries, food donation programs, and other resources for addressing food insecurity.

Forage Economics

By: Geoff Benson, Jim Green

This 8-page publication will help producers make decisions about growing or buying forage, and about harvesting, storage, and feeding options. Forages are an essential part of a ruminant animal's diet and are an important factor in a profitable farm business.

Peanuts

By: Rick Brandenburg Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests in peanuts in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Foods That Require No Cooking

Disaster Preparedness

This publication covers a variety of foods that can be prepared even if there is no gas or electricity for cooking.

Understanding Climate, Planning, and Response Terms within the Forestry Context

By: John Hastings, Mark Megalos, Heather Aldridge

New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”

Eat Smart Move More North Carolina: Growing Communities Through Gardens

By: Lucy Bradley, Keith Baldwin, Diane Beth

Gardens bring communities together. Not only are community gardens a good way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables in our diets, they also allow us to be active outdoors and build a strong community.

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Meal Preparation and Food Safety After a Power Failure

By: Benjamin Chapman Disaster Preparedness

After a power failure, you might not have heat, refrigeration, or water. This publication explains how to safely prepare food when you have no power.

Acidified Foods: Formulating Dressings, Sauces and Marinades

By: John Rushing, Patricia Curtis

This publication discusses the necessity of acid in many foods and how to meet government standards for these food products.

Soil Fertility Management for Irish Potato Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Carl Crozier, Nancy Creamer, Marc Cubeta SoilFacts

This publication describes fertilizer management strategies for optimum potato yields and to prevent problems (such as reduced stands, diseases, or poor tuber quality) that can be caused by improper fertilization.

Ideas for "No-Cook" Food Bags

Disaster Preparedness

In preparation for an emergency, keep the following food items that do not need refrigeration on hand or in an evacuation kit.

Egg Safety

By: Benjamin Chapman, Katrina Levine

Factsheet on egg safety for small egg producers.

Safe Food After a Flood

By: Benjamin Chapman Disaster Recovery

This factsheet offers information on how to deal with food that may have come into contact with floodwaters.

Part 1: Quality Maintenance - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

Fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers must be in excellent condition and have excellent quality if maximum shelf life is desired. The best possible quality of any commodity exists at the moment of harvest. From that point on, quality cannot be improved, only maintained. Remember that shelf life begins at harvest.

Part 3: Handling - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

The most important key to quality maintenance of fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers is careful handling; Tender Loving Care! Symptoms of injuries incurred during harvesting, handling, grading, and packaging usually are not evident until the products reach retail or consumer levels; too late to do anything about your quality image. Bruises and other mechanical damage not only detract from the appearance of the product, but are good avenues of entrance for decay organisms.

Part 5: References

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

This publication lists the references used in parts 1-4 of the Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms series.

A Model Recall Program for the Fresh Produce Industry

By: Douglas Sanders, John Rushing, Donn Ward, Dennis Osborne Horticulture Information Leaflets

Increasingly, fresh produce growers, packers and sellers are being asked to prepare and maintain written Recall Programs. Elements for FDA "Product Recalls" are in 21CFR7.40, et. seq. Adopting that statutory approach to create Fresh Produce Recall Programs may help the Fresh Produce Industry convert public concern into strategic aid.

HACCP in Your School

By: Angie Fraser, Benjamin Chapman, Audrey Kreske, Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder

This manual covers Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), a food safety plan for schools to reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness by handling food safely from the time it is received until the time it is served.

Insurance Coverage Options for Fresh Produce Growers

By: Roderick Rejesus, Annette Dunlap Food Safety

This publication provides information to help produce growers understand the variety of insurance coverage or policies available to best cover their farms.