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European Hornets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, Matt Bertone Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of European hornets.

Controlling Millipedes in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and management of millipedes in and around homes and other buildings.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Matt Bertone, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

Paper Wasp Swarming Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of paper wasps during times of swarming.

Biology and Control of Non-Biting Aquatic Midges

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying aquatic midges and how to control them.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Scorpions in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, John Vining Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet covers the type of scorpions found in North Carolina and measures to take to control them, both indoors and outdoors.

2021 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Preparing Your House for Bedbug Treatments

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the steps to take before a pest management company arrives to treat your home for bedbugs.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Africanized Honey Bees: Where Are They Now, and When Will They Arrive in North Carolina?

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet outlines the history, movement, distribution, and present status of the Africanized honey bee in the United States. (Part 1 of a 3-part series)

Termites - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the biology, behavior, and control of termites.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

Biting Midges and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of midges, biting pests prominent along the coast of North Carolina.

Fungus Gnats Indoors

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Sydney Crawley Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides information on the identification and control of fungus gnats in the household.

Controlling Baldfaced Hornets and Yellowjackets in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes hornets and yellowjackets and how to control them around structures such as barns and houses.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Insects Found on Yellow Sticky Traps in the Greenhouse

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to recognize the most common insects found on sticky traps in the greenhouse, which allows the grower to select an appropriate pest control strategy.

Red Imported Fire Ant in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication discusses the biology and spread of fire ants and the various methods that can be used to control these ants.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Mosquito Control for Rainwater Harvesting Systems

By: Bill Hunt, Kathy Gee Urban Waterways

This publication discusses ways in which mosquitoes could become a problem for rainwater harvesting systems and provides solutions and preventative measures to protect cisterns, rain barrels, and other rainwater collection systems from becoming havens for mosquitoes.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Fall Webworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of the fall webworm.

Tips for Preventing the Spread of Bedbugs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides tips on preventing the spread of bedbugs.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

Pudrición gomosa del tallo en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Termites - Baiting Systems

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication explains how termite baits work as an alternative to using conventional liquid treatments to the soil around a building.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

A Guide to House-Invading Ants and Their Control

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

Ants are probably the most common insect pests that invade our homes and become an extreme nuisance. Controlling ants can be difficult and frustrating at times but will more likely succeed if you have a basic understanding of ant behavior and some specific information about the particular ant species you have infesting your home.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Pests of Sweetpotato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweetpotatoes.

Africanized Honey Bees: Prevention and Control

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet provides basic information about prevention and control of Africanized honey bees prior to their expected arrival in North Carolina. (Part 2 of a 3-part series.)

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Spined Stilt Bug in Tobacco

By: Peter Nelson, Hannah Burrack

The spined stilt is the most abundant predator insect in tobacco and is found in other economically important crops covered with trichomes, including tomatoes. This factsheet offers information on this pest.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Drain Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to identify and control drain flies, a common nuisance in and around homes and commercial buildings.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Bacterial Blight of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Steve Koenning Cotton Disease Information

This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies

By: John Ambrose, David Tarpy, Joshua Summers

The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the US only three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or “wild”) honey bee colonies have been wiped out from these mites, and beekeepers continue to struggle with varroa infestations in their hives.

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication will help you identify the several species of ticks found in North Carolina and the diseases they transmit. It also describes chemical and non-chemical ways you can protect yourself from ticks outdoors and control ticks in and around your home.

Controlling Paper Wasps in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the behavior and control of paper wasps, which typically construct honeycomb-like cells under eaves and overhangs.

Glomerella Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes Glomerella leaf spot and fruit rot in apple, including identification and disease management.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Camel Crickets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder | Entomology & Plant Pathology Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to control camel crickets if they become an indoor pest.

Black Shank of Tobacco

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.

Marchitez de Fusarium en sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Pests of Crape Myrtle

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in crape myrtle.

Peanut Leaf Spots

By: Barbara Shew

This factsheet covers the signs, symptoms, and control of early leaf spot in peanuts in North Carolina.

Lady Beetles

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Lady beetle description, life cycle, and predation.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Biology and Control of Carpenter Ants

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication offers information on the biology of carpenter ants and what to do if you have an infestation.

Carpenter Bees

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of carpenter bees, which bore tunnels in wood with their strong jaws.

Controlling Mite Pests in Earthworm Beds

By: Rhonda Sherman, Stephen Bambara

This publication discusses keeping mite pests at bay in worm beds for vermicomposting.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Black Flies and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying black flies and how to control them.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet describes Fusarium wilt of tomato. Symptoms, pathogen, environmental conditions, and management are included.

Landscape Management Calendar

By: Barbara Fair, Steven Frank, Matt Martin, Grady Miller, Joe Neal

This poster-sized landscape management calendar is a guide to keeping your landscape healthy with sound management practices. It discusses proper establishment and maintenance practices as well as monitoring and targeted treatment of pests.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Anthracnose of Pepper

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose of pepper.

Corn Earworm and Tobacco Budworm in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the corn earworm and tobacco budworm in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Twolined Spittlebugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the twolined spittlebug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Horse Flies and Deer Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying horse and deer flies and how to control them.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Syrphid flies

By: Jim Walgenbach

Syrphid fly description, life history, and predation.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

Barklice

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of barklice, insect pests of smooth-barked shrubs and trees.

Root Knot Nematode of Tobacco

By: Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

Asian Longhorned Tick

By: Wes Watson, Matt Bertone, Michael Waldvogel, Alexis M. Barbarin

The Asian longhorned tick is an invasive tick spreading throughout the eastern US. A native of the far east, this tick was introduced to the US mainland in 2010. It has been reported from 15 states including North Carolina. Here we present basic information on the biology of the tick, its distribution, damage caused by the tick and how to protect against the tick.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellow jacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Elm Leaf Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the elm leaf beetle and the larger elm leaf beetle, the most serious defoliators of elm in the United States.

Termites - Treating Houses with Wells, Cisterns or Foundation Drains

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the potential dfficulties and options for treating termite-infested buildings that have wells, cisterns and/foundation drains.

Termites - Preventing Problems in Existing Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication deals with measures you can take to help prevent problems with termites.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Aerial Web Blight

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet covers aerial web blight, a generally minor disease of soybean in North Carolina.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cannabis Aphid in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the cannabis aphid in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Bedbugs - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying bedbugs and how to control them in households.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Stink Bug in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of stink bugs in soybeans in North Carolina.

Homeowner’s Guide to Managing Diseases Using Fungicides, Bactericides, and Alternative Products

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication provides homeowners with recommended chemical control options to use in combination with an integrated management plan for managing common diseases in the landscape or garden.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Brown Spot of Tobacco

By: Marilú Salazar, Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Brown spot is a disease of increasing importance in flue cured tobacco production.This disease is most severe on mature or otherwise injured tobacco.

2021 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Derek Washburn

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2020.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Kudzu Bug - A Nuisance and Agricultural Pest

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the identification, biology, behavior and control of the kudzu bug.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Hemp Russet Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of the hemp russet mite, a pest of industrial hemp in North Carolina.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Balsam Woolly Adelgid

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the lifecycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam wooly adelgid, a tiny, soft-bodied insect, which appears when adult as a white, woolly spot on true firs.

Cotton Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Cotton Disease Information

Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.

Booklice

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note contains information about booklice, a small household pest that feeds on fungi and mold but does not bite or transmit disease.

Oriental Fruit Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Oriental fruit moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes the peachtree borer's life history, damage, and control.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Soybean Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean seedling disease is caused by several different pathogens. While cultural management is the same across seedling diseases, chemical management may differ depending on prevalent pathogen and environmental conditions.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

Insect Repellent Products

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This document is presented to answer some commonly asked questions about repellents and mechanical devices that allegedly repel insects and ticks.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Tips on Selecting Pest Control Services

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder

Pest management involves more than just applying pesticides. This publication provides advice on how to select pest control services.

Cylindrocladium Black Rot of Peanut

By: Barbara Shew

This factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and control of cylindrocladium black rot in peanut production.

Cercospora Leaf Blight of Soybean

By: Sarah Cochran, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Cercospora blight is a common foliar disease of soybeans in North Carolina. Early symptoms may mimic several other common soybean problems, and accurate diagnosis is important for selecting management practices.

Africanized Honey Bees: Some Questions and Answers

By: David Tarpy, John T. Ambrose Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet answers basic questions about Africanized honey bees. (Part 3 of a 3-part series)

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

2021 Cotton Information

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Alan York, David Hardy, Dominic Reisig, Gary Bullen, Lindsey Thiessen, Rachel Vann, Charlie Cahoon, Bill Foote, Derek Washburn, Luke Gatiboni, Anders Huseth

2021 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Silverfish and Firebrats

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology, behavior and management of silverfish infestations.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Blue Mold of Tobacco

By: Spencer Haroldson, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment for blue mold of tobacco.

Elongate Hemlock Scale

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the symptoms, life cycle and control of the elongate hemlock scale, a pest that causes white, waxy spots on the upper surface of Christmas tree needles.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Fire Blight

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes fire blight in apple, including identification and disease management.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (North Carolina)

By: Jim Walgenbach

Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Earwigs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on how to identify and control earwigs in the household.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Flyspeck and Sooty Blotch

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes flyspeck and sooty blotch in apple, including identification and disease management.

White Pine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the white pine weevil, a pest of pines and spruces in North Carolina.

Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Bedding Plants

By: Michelle Henson, Adrienne Gorny, Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe

This publication discusses the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of root-knot nematodes in ornamental plants.

Fusarium Wilt of Soybean

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Fusarium wilt can be an important disease in soybean when it appears. Although not a yearly problem for most of North Carolina producers, it can be locally damaging. The signs and management of the disease are described in this factsheet.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Whiteflies Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying whiteflies in commercial flower and plant production.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Springtails

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and control of springtails in the household.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Woolly Alder Aphid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the woolly alder aphid, a pest of both alder and silver maple trees.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Sweetpotato Root Knot Nematode

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Mosquito Control for Stormwater Facilities

By: Bill Hunt Urban Waterways

This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Asian Soybean Rust

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Although uncommonly observed in North Carolina, soybean rust can be a yield limiting disease for soybeans. Proper identification is important to developing a management strategy.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Mosquito Control Around Homes and in Communities

By: Sydney Crawley Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note addresses mosquito biology and how to control mosquitoes around homes and in communities.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Pythium Root and Crown Rot of Industrial Hemp

By: Ashley Troth, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

This factsheet discusses pythium root and crown rot in industrial hemp production.

Anthracnose of Soybean

By: Jean Beacorn, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet covers anthracnose, a fungal disease affecting maturing soybean stems and pods in North Carolina.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Mole Crickets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the mole cricket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Codling Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Codling moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Corn Rusts: Common and Southern Rust

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera, Jonathan Kinczyk Corn Disease Information

Common and southern corn rusts may affect corn in North Carolina. Management for each is specific to the rust, and proper identification is necessary to determine the appropriate tools to use.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Gray Mold of Industrial Hemp

By: Shelby Ferrell, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

Gray mold of industrial hemp is common to most regions that produce this crop. It is favored by cool, wet conditions, and may cause significant losses.

Soybean Mosaic Virus

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogens of soybean worldwide. This soybean disease factsheet discusses the range, symptoms, disease cycle, and management of the virus in soybean production in North Carolina.

Emerald Ash Borer

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the emerald ash borer, an invasive pest of ash trees in North Carolina.

Asian Longhorned Beetle

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive forest pest in the United States.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Spruce Spider Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes scouting for and controlling the spruce spider mite, an insect that causes yellow spots on needles of Fraser firs.

Control of Root Feeding Insects in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication covers the identification, life cycles and treatment of several species of insects, such as May and June beetle grubs and root aphids, that feed on and affect root growth of Fraser fir Christmas trees.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Chapter 10: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson, Rebecca Melanson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Inside Houses

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, James Baker, David Orr Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to control multicolored Asian lady beetles in households.

Zoysiagrass Mites

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology and control of zoysiagrass mites, occasional pests of turfgrass in North Carolina.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Root Knot Nematode of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera Cotton Disease Information

Cotton root knot nematodes are capable of causing significant losses to cotton production. In addition to direct damage, root knot nematode can allow for secondary pathogens to impact yields, as well. This publication describes root knot nematodes and their management in cotton.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Target Spot of Tobacco

By: Spencer Haroldson, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Target spot is a potentially devastating leaf spot disease in tobacco in North Carolina. This factsheet summarizes the signs and symptoms and offers treatment plans.

Lesion Nematode in Potato

By: Adrienne Gorny, Ari Grode Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Lesion nematode damage in white or Irish potato is caused by plant-parasitic roundworms. This publication discusses the signs, symptoms, and management of the disease.

Japanese Beetle

By: Jim Walgenbach

Japanese beetle description, life history, damage, and control.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

Corn Earworm in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the corn earworm, a common pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Aphids Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying aphids in commercial flower and plant production.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes and addresses how to control them in turf.

Formosan Termites in North Carolina

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Wood-Damaging Pests

The Formosan subterranean termite is considered to be one of the most destructive termite species in the world today. This publication discusses the biology and control of this pest.

Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Root Knot Nematode of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera Cotton Disease Information

Root knot nematode is an economically important pathogen for cotton production in North Carolina. Accurate identification is useful for selecting the proper management method.

Root Knot Nematode of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Root knot nematodes can cause significant damages to soybean fields in North Carolina. This factsheet describes the different species of root knot nematodes and their management in soybean production.

Pests of Lilac

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in lilac.

Red Crown Rot of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This factsheet covers the signs, symptoms, and management of red crown rot, a problem in soybean production in North Carolina.

Frogeye Leaf Spot of Soybean

By: Abdullah Nahiyan, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Frogeye leaf spot (FLS) of soybean is a common foliar disease in North Carolina with losses reported annually. This soybean diseases factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and management of FLS.

Tobacco Ringspot Virus of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Tobacco ringspot virus is a disease of soybean in North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on the disease's symptoms and management.

Apple Maggot

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication offers information on the description, life history, and control of the apple maggot.

Annual and Periodical Cicada

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Cicada impacts on apple - description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Animal Damage Control

By: C. S. DePerno

This publication explains control measures that can be taken due to animal damage of crops.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Red Bay Ambrosia Beetle and Laurel Wilt Disease

By: Stephen Bambara, Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the disease cycle and management of the red ambrosia beetle, which feeds on a fungus that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a generally fatal disease of red bay and other tree species in the laurel family.

Insect Screening for Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank, E. A. Shearin, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses methods and materials for insect screening in greenhouses.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of geotrichum sour rot of sweetpotato.

Foliar Fungal Diseases on High Tunnel and Greenhouse Tomatoes

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease fact sheet discusses three foliar fungal diseases (Botrytis gray mold, leaf mold, and powdery mildew) of high tunnel and greenhouse tomatoes.

Reniform Nematode of Soybean

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

The reniform nematode is not a common nematode pressure for soybean growers in North Carolina, but is limited to several southern counties of the state. This factsheet will help growers identify and management the nematodes in soybean production in North Carolina.

HPPD and Clomazone Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses HPPD and clomazine injury on soybean.

Lesion Nematode in Corn

By: Adrienne Gorny, Kelci Cox Corn Disease Information

Lesion nematodes are plant-parasitic roundworms that may cause damage in corn. This factsheet covers their signs and symptoms as well as management of the disease.

Stubby-Root Nematode in Corn

By: Adrienne Gorny, Kelci Cox Corn Disease Information

Stubby-root nematodes are soilborne, plant-parasitic roundworms that may cause significant damage in corn. This publication covers the symptoms and disease management of the pathogen.

Woolly Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

This document discusses the description, life history, damage, and control of the woolly apple aphid.

Plum Curculio

By: Jim Walgenbach

Plum curculio description, life history, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Charcoal Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.

Apple Powdery Mildew

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes apple powdery mildew, including identification and disease management.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Kudzu Bug

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the kudzu bug, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Soybean Aphid in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the soybean aphid, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Soybean Looper in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and management of soybean loopers, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Aphid Predatory Midge

By: Jim Walgenbach

Midge description, life history, and predation.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Balsam Twig Aphid on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam twig aphid, a small, pale green aphid that feeds on fir trees in the spring.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Tobacco - Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.

Fuller Rose Beetle

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Bugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different bugs in commercial garden and plant production.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Soybean Stem Canker

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.

Biology and Control of Human Lice

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle of human lice and how to treat infestations.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Alan York, Charlie Cahoon

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Añublo lanoso en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Añublo polvoriento en cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Fungus-Infected Seedcorn Maggot Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fungus-infected seedcorn maggot flies, an insect pest that feeds on the seeds and seedlings of vegetables.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Pests of Pyracantha

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in pyracantha.

Clubroot of Brassicas

By: Ella Reeves, Suzette Sharpe, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

The pathogen, host plants, symptoms and management of clubroot, a disease of crucifer crops, are discussed in this factsheet.

Soybean Powdery Mildew

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Powdery mildew is a common foliar disease caused by a fungus. The causal agent of soybean powdery mildew is host limited to beans. This factsheet describes soybean powdery mildew and its management in soybeans.

Seed Decay and Pod Blight

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet discusses various fungi that cause seed decay and pod blight of soybean in North Carolina.

Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus

By: Sarah Cochran, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on the signs, disease cycle, and management of soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), an occasional foliar problem in soybean in North Carolina.

Gray Leaf Spot in Corn

By: Maeve Riney, Lindsey Thiessen Corn Disease Information

This corn disease information note offers information on the symptoms and management of gray leaf spot in corn production in North Carolina.

Tarnished Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Tarnished plant bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Redbanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Redbanded leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

European Red Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

European red mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Weed Control

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble, Andrew Senesac

Weeds reduce the aesthetic qualities of landscape plantings and compete with nursery crops for nutrients, water, and light. Root systems compete for nitrogen and water. Even seemingly non-competitive weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) have been shown to reduce growth of container-grown plants. Tall weeds and vines shade crops, reducing photosynthesis and growth. Vining weeds such as morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) are particularly damaging because they disfigure stems and new growth. In landscape plantings, weeds must be controlled or removed to maintain quality aesthetics. Weeds may also need to be removed for health and safety reasons

Leafhoppers Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying leafhoppers in commercial flower and plant production.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Grasshoppers and Crickets in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of grasshoppers and crickets, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Velvetbean Caterpillar in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Brown Spot of Soybean

By: Andrew Ernst, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Brown spot is a common pathogen in soybeans in North Carolina. Symptoms from brown spot may be confused with other leaf spot pathogens, and accurate diagnosis is important for management decisions.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Lesser Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser peachtree borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Insidious Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Insidious plant bug description, life history, and predation.

Rosy Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Rosy apple aphid description, life cycle, history, and control.

Green Apple Aphid / Spirea Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green apple and spirea aphids - description, life history, damage, and control.

Lacewings

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lacewing description, life history, and predation.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Identifying the Ground Beetles of Eastern North Carolina Agriculture

By: David Orr, Geoff Balme Ground Beetles of North Carolina

This publication provides an illustrated key to the major groups of ground beetles found in eastern North Carolina agricultural fields.

Tobacco - Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Scale Insects Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying scale insects in commercial flower and plant production.

Abbreviations

This publication lists abbreviations used in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Chemical Application Equipment

By: Gary Roberson, Jason Ward

This publication covers cleaning and calibrating chemical application equipment, such as dusters, spreaders and sprayers.

How to Send Specimens for Disease, Insect, and Weed Identification

By: Barbara Shew

This publication explains how and where to send specimens for disease, insect and weed identification.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Alan York, Charlie Cahoon

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

This publication, part of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Viral Diseases of Tomato in the Greenhouse

By: Ella Reeves, Michelle Henson, Inga Meadows Vegetable Disease Information

This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of various viruses that can affect greenhouse tomato production in North Carolina.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cicadas in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada, an occasional pest of trees when laying eggs.

Silverleaf Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the silverleaf whitefly, an insect pest of ornamentals and vegetables grown in commercial greenhouses.

Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome

By: Sam Cude, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) first appeared in Arkansas in 1971 and has since spread to almost every soybean producing state. SDS rarely affects plants in North Carolina, but losses are seen when infections are concurrent with soybean cyst nematode infections or cool, wet environmental conditions. This factsheet describes SDS and its management in North Carolina.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Bean Leaf Beetle in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the bean leaf beetle, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Japanese Beetle in Industrial Hemp

By: Hannah Burrack, Melissa Pulkoski

This factsheet describes the biology of Japanese beetles and their impact on industrial hemp plants grown on commercial farms.

Bean Pod Mottle Virus

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Virus diseases like bean pod mottle virus can significantly impact soybean yields when disease pressure is high. This factsheet describes the identification and management of bean pod mottle virus.

Lesser Appleworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser appleworm description, life history, damage, and control.

San Jose Scale

By: Jim Walgenbach

San Jose scale description, life history, damage, and control.

Rust Mites in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle and control of the hemlock rust mite, which causes needles to turn a dusty rust color and drop from several species of Christmas trees.

Impervious Surface Thresholds for Sustainable Urban Tree Planting and Landscape Design

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

A foundation of IPM in urban landscapes is to put the right plant in the right place. This reduces plant stress and thus the long term costs of pest management. Impervious surface cover is linked to red maple condition and scale insect infestations. This publication describes impervious surface thresholds to use when selecting sites for planting red maples in urban landscapes.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Disease Control

By: Joe Neal, Jean Williams-Woodward

This table includes a list of fungicides labeled for use on ornamental plants and trees to control specific diseases as noted. The table is organized alphabetically according to plant disease common name or a pathogen. Fungicides labeled to control the disease and their labeled rate are provided in the table as a general guide only. Not all information provided on the fungicide label is duplicated within this table. It is the user’s responsibility to consult the current label for rates and restrictions and follow all directions provided on the label. This table is also not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of every fungicide name brand available to green industry professionals. It is impossible to include all brands, particularly generic brands.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig, Anders Huseth

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Comstock Mealybug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Comstock mealybug description, life history, damage, and control.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease in North Carolina

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the identification, biology and control of the walnut twig beetle, which carries a fungus that leaves black walnut trees at risk of death.

Are You Weeding Frequently Enough to Prevent Weeds From Spreading?

By: Joe Neal

How often are you weeding? Is it frequently enough to prevent the next generation of weeds? Many of the most common weeds of container nurseries flower and produce seeds within 30 days. Our research suggests that you should be removing emerged weeds every 2 to 3 weeks. This publication offers information on some common container weeds.

Granville Wilt of Tobacco

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

This factsheet shares the symptoms and control of Granville Wilt, a devastating disease of tobacco in North Carolina.

Pests of Euonymus

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in euonymus.

Twospotted Spider Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of the twospotted spider mite in industrial hemp production in North Carolina.

Phytopthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Phytophthora root and stem rot is a common pathogen in North Carolina due to our frequent wet weather. This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of the disease in soybean production.

Lance Nematode of Soybean

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Lance nematode is not a common problem of soybeans, but can cause local damages in fields where it is found. This factsheet covers the symptoms and management of lance nematodes in North Carolina.

PPO-Inhibiting Herbicide Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide injury in soybean.

VLCFA Inhibiting Herbicide Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discuses very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis-inhibiting herbicide injury on soybean.

Green Fruitworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green fruitworm description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

After the Flood - Weed Management Concerns for Nurseries and Landscapes

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon

Immediately after a flood, most farmers, nursery crops producers and grounds maintenance staff have much more urgent matters to worry about than weeds. But, eventually the questions arise: Has my preemergence herbicide washed away? How do I know? Should I re-treat? What’s going to happen now? Unfortunately there is no way to provide definitive answers to these questions. But this publication offers some tips and suggestions that will help you plan a response.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Rhodesgrass Mealybugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the rhodesgrass mealybug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

NC Industrial Hemp Posters

By: Angela Post

Posters available to print regarding industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2021 Cotton Information book.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Alan York, Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Vann, Alan York, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

Scouting for Stink Bug Damage in Southeast Cotton: Description and Use of a Pocket Scouting Decision Aid

By: Dominic Reisig, Sally Taylor

This publication describes how cotton growers in the Southeast can use a pocket-size scouting decision aid to assess and manage stink bug damage based on thresholds for different cotton growth stages.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Grape Colaspis in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of grape colaspis, a beetle pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

White Mold of Soybean

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

The symptoms and management of white mold, an important cause of yield loss in soybean in North Carolina, are covered in this soybean disease factsheet.

Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease information factsheet describes the symptoms and disease cycle of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, a disease of soybean and cowpea in North Carolina.

PSI & II-Inhibiting Herbicide Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses PS-II-inhibiting herbicide injury on soybean.

Disease and Insect Management in the Home Orchard

By: Dave Ritchie, Turner Sutton, Jim Walgenbach Fruit Disease Information

Homeowners who grow fruit in backyards or small orchards find that disease and insect pests often ruin the crop and in some instances damage the tree itself. This publication covers common diseases and insect issues in backyard orchards in North Carolina.

Variegated Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Variegated leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Obliquebanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Obliquebanded leafroller description, life history, damage, and control.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Vertebrate Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Matthew Springer

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses control measures for deer, rabbits, voles, and beavers in the landscape.

Beetles Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discussing identifying and controlling beetles in commercial flower and plant production.

Hornets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hornets and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Fertilization

By: Luke Gatiboni, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2021 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

Potato Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

Potato leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Twobanded Japanese Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twobanded Japanese weevil, an insect pest of many trees and shrubs.

Management of Palmer Amaranth in Sweetpotato

By: Stephen C. Smith, Katie Jennings

Palmer amaranth is the most common and most troublesome weed in North Carolina sweetpotato. This publication discusses Palmer amaranth identification, reproduction and growth habit, impacts on sweetpotato yield and quality, and weed management options.

Black Cutworm in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the black cutworm, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Three-Cornered Alfalfa Hopper in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the three-cornered alfalfa hopper, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Grape Root Borer in North Carolina Grapes

By: Aurora Toennisson, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the identification and management of the grape root borer, a caterpillar that feeds on the roots of grape plants in North Carolina.

ALS-Inhibiting Herbicide Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses ALS-inhibiting herbicide injury on soybean.

Glufosinate Injury on Soybean

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses glufosinate injury on soybean.

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Spotten tentiform leafminer description, life history, damage, and control.

White Apple Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

White apple leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

The Ground Beetles of Eastern North Carolina Agriculture

By: David Orr, Geoff Balme, Aaron Fox Ground Beetles of North Carolina

Ground beetles are a common, but often overlooked, beneficial insect in agricultural areas. This publication provides a quick guide to the various ground beeetles that inhabit agricultural fields of the piedmont and eastern North Carolina.

Rosette Bud Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the control of the rosette bud mite, a mite that destroys the buds of Fraser firs resulting in holes in the canopy, flat sides, weak bottoms and uneven and/or light density.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

2019 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Insect Management on Organic Farms

By: H.M. Linker, D.B. Orr, M.E. Barbercheck CEFS

Insect management presents a challenge to organic farmers. Insects are highly mobile and well adapted to farm production systems and pest control tactics. On organic farms, where the focus is on managing insects rather than eliminating them, success depends on learning about three kinds of information: Biological, Ecological and Behavioral information.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy

By: Joe Neal

A table of efficacy rankings for preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and/or ornamental landscape plantings.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Joe Neal

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses the safe use, handling, and disposal of pesticides.

Pesticide Application – Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

By: Joe Neal, Amy Barker, Gary Roberson

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

Principles of Integrated Pest Management

By: Joe Neal, Wayne Buhler

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

2016 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Angela Post, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.

Bees in Turf

By: Stephen Bambara, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the control of bees in turfgrasses.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Biocontrol in Closed Systems

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

Biological control is a tool to be considered in constructing an integrated pest management scheme for closed system crop production and maintenance. In a complete IPM program, diseases, weeds, and plant growth must be considered as well as insects and mites, but this note only covers insect and mite pests of greenhouse crops.

Green Cloverworm in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This Soybean Insect Factsheet describes the biology, identification, and control of green cloverworm in soybeans in North Carolina.

Glyphosate Injury on Soybeans

By: Wesley Everman, Eric Jones

This factsheet discusses glyphosate injury on soybean.

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