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8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Frequently Asked Questions About Head Lice

By: Sydney Crawley, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet will review common questions and answers about head lice.

Catalpa Worm or Catalpa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the catalpa worm or catawba worm or catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Matt Bertone, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

Controlling Millipedes In and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and management of millipedes in and around homes and other buildings.

Termites - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the biology, behavior, and control of termites.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Biology and Control of Non-Biting Aquatic Midges

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying aquatic midges and how to control them.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Phorid Flies

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Phorid flies are small flies that breed in moist, decaying organic matter and can be a problem in and around homes. This factsheet covers their identification, biology, habits, management and control.

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Pudrición gomosa del tallo en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

Preparing Your House for Bedbug Treatments

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the steps to take before a pest management company arrives to treat your home for bedbugs.

Termites - Baiting Systems

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication explains how termite baits work as an alternative to using conventional liquid treatments to the soil around a building.

Africanized Honey Bees: Where Are They Now, and When Will They Arrive in North Carolina?

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet outlines the history, movement, distribution, and present status of the Africanized honey bee in the United States. (Part 1 of a 3-part series)

Fishing Spiders and Wolf Spiders

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes Fishing spiders (genus Dolomedes), and wolf spiders (genus Lycosa).

Boxelder Bugs in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxelder bug, Boisea (Leptocoris) trivittata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Southern Pine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Peanut Leaf Spots

By: Barbara Shew

This factsheet covers the signs, symptoms, and control of early leaf spot in peanuts in North Carolina.

Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.

Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet describes Fusarium wilt of tomato. Symptoms, pathogen, environmental conditions, and management are included.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

Tips for Preventing the Spread of Bedbugs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides tips on preventing the spread of bedbugs.

Red Imported Fire Ant in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication discusses the biology and spread of fire ants and the various methods that can be used to control them.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Yellow and Black Flat Millipede

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow and black flat millipede, Apheloria tigana.

Scorpions in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, John Vining Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet covers the type of scorpions found in North Carolina and measures to take to control them, both indoors and outdoors.

Fungus Gnats Indoors

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Sydney Crawley Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides information on the identification and control of fungus gnats in the household.

Marchitez de Fusarium en sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Drain Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to identify and control drain flies, a common nuisance in and around homes and commercial buildings.

Saddleback Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Saddleback caterpillar,Acharia stimulea, and provides residential management recommendations.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

A Guide to House-Invading Ants and Their Control

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

Ants are probably the most common insect pests that invade our homes and become an extreme nuisance. Controlling ants can be difficult and frustrating at times but will more likely succeed if you have a basic understanding of ant behavior and some specific information about the particular ant species you have infesting your home.

Africanized Honey Bees: Prevention and Control

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet provides basic information about prevention and control of Africanized honey bees prior to their expected arrival in North Carolina. (Part 2 of a 3-part series.)

Mosquito Control for Rainwater Harvesting Systems

By: Bill Hunt, Kathy Gee Urban Waterways

This publication discusses ways in which mosquitoes could become a problem for rainwater harvesting systems and provides solutions and preventative measures to protect cisterns, rain barrels, and other rainwater collection systems from becoming havens for mosquitoes.

Black Flies and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying black flies and how to control them.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies

By: John Ambrose, David Tarpy, Joshua Summers

The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the US only three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or “wild”) honey bee colonies have been wiped out from these mites, and beekeepers continue to struggle with varroa infestations in their hives.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

2023 Cotton Information

By: Keith L. Edmisten, Charlie W. Cahoon, Guy D. Collins, Luke Gatiboni, Adrienne Gorny, Anders Huseth, Dominic Reisig, Rachel Atwell Vann, Derek Washburn, David H. Hardy

2023 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Kudzu Bug - A Nuisance and Agricultural Pest

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the identification, biology, behavior and control of the kudzu bug.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

Biting Midges and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of midges, biting pests prominent along the coast of North Carolina.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Bacterial Blight of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Steve Koenning Cotton Disease Information

This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Oak Vein Pocket Gall Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oak vein pocket gall midge, Macrodiplosis quercusoroca.

Carpenter Bees

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of carpenter bees, which bore tunnels in wood with their strong jaws.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication will help you identify the several species of ticks found in North Carolina and the diseases they transmit. It also describes chemical and non-chemical ways you can protect yourself from ticks outdoors and control ticks in and around your home.

Black Shank of Tobacco

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

European Hornets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, Matt Bertone Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of European hornets.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Controlling Mite Pests in Earthworm Beds

By: Rhonda Sherman, Stephen Bambara

This publication discusses keeping mite pests at bay in worm beds for vermicomposting.

Garden millipede in the Landscape

PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Garden millipede, Oxidus gracilis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pests of Sweetpotato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweetpotatoes.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Bedbugs - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying bedbugs and how to control them in households.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Root Mealybugs

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of root mealybugs in the genus Rhizoecus including the ground mealybug, Rhizoecus falcifer, Rhizoecus americanus, and the newly introduced hibiscus mealybug, Rhizoecus hibisci.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Southern Blight of Tomato and Pepper

By: Inga Meadows, Amanda Scherer, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses Southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomato and pepper, and several other economically important crops, including bean, cantaloupe, carrot, pepper, potato, sweetpotato, and watermelons.

Black Thread Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black thread scale, Ischnaspis longirostris, and provides residential management recommendations.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (North Carolina)

By: Jim Walgenbach

Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Paper Wasp Swarming Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of paper wasps during times of swarming.

Mosquito Control Around Homes and in Communities

By: Sydney Crawley Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note addresses mosquito biology and how to control mosquitoes around homes and in communities.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Anthracnose of Pepper

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose of pepper.

Camel Crickets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder | Entomology & Plant Pathology Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to control camel crickets if they become an indoor pest.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Corn Rusts: Common and Southern Rust

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera, Jonathan Kinczyk Corn Disease Information

Common and southern corn rusts may affect corn in North Carolina. Management for each is specific to the rust, and proper identification is necessary to determine the appropriate tools to use.

Jumping Worms

By: Matt Bertone

This factsheet covers the description, biology, and management of the jumping earthworm, a common pest in North Carolina gardening.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.

Insects Found on Yellow Sticky Traps in the Greenhouse

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to recognize the most common insects found on sticky traps in the greenhouse, which allows the grower to select an appropriate pest control strategy.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Termites - Preventing Problems in Existing Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication deals with measures you can take to help prevent problems with termites.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Homeowner’s Guide to Managing Diseases Using Fungicides, Bactericides, and Alternative Products

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication provides homeowners with recommended chemical control options to use in combination with an integrated management plan for managing common diseases in the landscape or garden.

Eastern Leaf-footed Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of bugs in the genus Leptoglossus, called leaf-footed bugs, which are common pests in the vegetable garden.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Callery Pear: 'Bradford' and Other Varieties and Their Invasive Progeny

By: Courtney Smith, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet identifies several varieties of the ornamental Callery Pear tree and their impacts on native ecosystems.

2023 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Derek Washburn

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2022.

Biology and Control of Carpenter Ants

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication offers information on the biology of carpenter ants and what to do if you have an infestation.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Meredith Favre, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson, Rebecca Melanson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Añublo lanoso en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Tips on Selecting Pest Control Services

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder

Pest management involves more than just applying pesticides. This publication provides advice on how to select pest control services.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Lady Beetles

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Lady beetle description, life cycle, and predation.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Citrus Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Puss Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the puss caterpillar, Megalopyge opercularis, and provides residential management recommendations.

American Dagger Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American dagger moth, Acronicta americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leafcutter Bees

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of leafcutter bees, genus Megachile.

Root Knot Nematode of Tobacco

By: Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.

Brown Spot of Tobacco

By: Marilú Salazar, Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Brown spot is a disease of increasing importance in flue cured tobacco production.This disease is most severe on mature or otherwise injured tobacco.

Genista Broom Moth / Genista Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the genista broom moth that is also called the genista caterpillar and sophora worm—Uresiphita reversalis.

Yellownecked Caterpillar in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellownecked caterpillar, Datana ministra., and provides residential management recommendations.

Banded Woollybear / Isabella Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the banded woollybear, Pyrrharctia isabella, the caterpillar of the Isabella moth.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Imperial Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Imperial moth, Eacles imperialis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Beech Blight Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the beech blight aphid, Grylloprociphilus imbricator, and provides residential management recommendations.

Booklice

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note contains information about booklice, a small household pest that feeds on fungi and mold but does not bite or transmit disease.

Springtails

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and control of springtails in the household.

Codling Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Codling moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Granville Wilt of Tobacco

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

This factsheet shares the symptoms and control of Granville Wilt, a devastating disease of tobacco in North Carolina.

Asian Longhorned Tick

By: Wes Watson, Matt Bertone, Michael Waldvogel, Alexis M. Barbarin

The Asian longhorned tick is an invasive tick spreading throughout the eastern US. A native of the far east, this tick was introduced to the US mainland in 2010. It has been reported from 17 states including North Carolina. Here we present basic information on the biology of the tick, its distribution, damage caused by the tick and how to protect against the tick.

Giant Strong-Nosed Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant strong-nosed stink bug, Alcaeorrhynchus grandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Japanese Beetle

By: Jim Walgenbach

Japanese beetle description, life history, damage, and control.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Controlling Paper Wasps in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the behavior and control of paper wasps, which typically construct honeycomb-like cells under eaves and overhangs.

Fall Webworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of the fall webworm.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Hickory Horned Devil \ Regal Moth

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, the caterpillar of the regal moth. Because hickory horned devils are harmless to humans and are relatively rare, no control measures are needed.

Fern Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the fern scale, Pinnaspis aspidistrae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Balsam Woolly Adelgid

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the lifecycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam wooly adelgid, a tiny, soft-bodied insect, which appears when adult as a white, woolly spot on true firs.

Soybean Stem Canker

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Bedding Plants

By: Michelle Henson, Adrienne Gorny, Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe

This publication discusses the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of root-knot nematodes in ornamental plants.

Common Insect Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Tersa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tersa sphinx moth, Xylophanes tersa., and provides residential management recommendations.

Palm Leaf Skeletonizer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the palm leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabalella, and provides recommendations for management.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Adrienne Gorny

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Emerald Ash Borer

By: Kelly Oten, Ryan Bohannon Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the emerald ash borer, an invasive pest of ash trees in North Carolina.

Amber Snails

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of amber snails in the family Succineidae.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Silverfish and Firebrats

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology, behavior and management of silverfish infestations.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Inside Houses

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, James Baker, David Orr Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to control multicolored Asian lady beetles in households.

Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome

By: Sam Cude, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) first appeared in Arkansas in 1971 and has since spread to almost every soybean producing state. SDS rarely affects plants in North Carolina, but losses are seen when infections are concurrent with soybean cyst nematode infections or cool, wet environmental conditions. This factsheet describes SDS and its management in North Carolina.

Common Disease Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common disease pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief to allow readers to peruse common diseases of oaks, but provide links for readers to learn more.

Spring Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spring cankerworm moth, Paleacrita vernata, and provides management recommendations.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Robert Baldwin Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cattail Toothpick Grasshopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cattail toothpick grasshopper, Leptysma marginicollis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mourning Cloak Butterfly / Spiny Elm Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spiny elm caterpillar or mourning cloak butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa.

Cottony Camellia Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Viral Diseases of Tomato in the Greenhouse

By: Ella Reeves, Michelle Henson, Inga Meadows Vegetable Disease Information

This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of various viruses that can affect greenhouse tomato production in North Carolina.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Citrus Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, an insect pest of citrus and gardenia in North Carolina.

Collar Rot and Alternaria Stem Canker of Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses collar rot and Alternaria stem canker of tomato, which are caused by different species of fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria. Both pathogens can cause large, irregularly shaped stem lesions with pronounced concentric rings. However, the concentric rings may not always be pronounced with collar rot.

Citrus Red Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Controlling Baldfaced Hornets and Yellowjackets in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes hornets and yellowjackets and how to control them around structures such as barns and houses.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Lesion Nematode in Corn

By: Adrienne Gorny, Kelci Cox Corn Disease Information

Lesion nematodes are plant-parasitic roundworms that may cause damage in corn. This factsheet covers their signs and symptoms as well as management of the disease.

Crowned Slug Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the crowned slug caterpillar, Isa textula.

Yellowstriped Armyworm in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli, and provides residential management recommendations.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Rosy Wolf Snail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea.

Harlequin Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Plum Curculio

By: Jim Walgenbach

Plum curculio description, life history, damage, and control.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

Horticultural Oils for Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet covers the use of horticultural oils to control insects on plants in North Carolina.

Diseases of Dogwood in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet compiles common disease of dogwood trees (Cornaceae) in North Carolina. It contains brief descriptions with links to reputable and more thorough fact sheets.

Cecropia Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Hannah Burrack, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and provides management recommendations.

Cabbage Looper on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and provides residential management recommendations.

Boisduval Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boisduval scale, Diaspis boisduvalii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Asiatic Garden Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea, which feeds on over 100 different plants.

Elongate Hemlock Scale

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the symptoms, life cycle and control of the elongate hemlock scale, a pest that causes white, waxy spots on the upper surface of Christmas tree needles.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer in North Carolina

By: Ryan Bohannon, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet describes biological control methods for protecting trees from damage caused by non-native emerald ash borers, including the release of parasitoid wasps that attack emerald ash borer eggs or larvae.

Azalea Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea caterpillar, Datana major, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oriental Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis, a pest that causes minor damage to most flowering plants, and is particularly attracted to daisies, roses, hollyhock, phlox, and petunias.

Dogwood Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the dogwood sawfly, Macremphytus tarsatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Buck Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the buck moth, Hemileuca maia, and provides residential management recommendations.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Apple Powdery Mildew

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes apple powdery mildew, including identification and disease management.

Hemp Russet Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of the hemp russet mite, a pest of industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Aerial Web Blight

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet covers aerial web blight, a generally minor disease of soybean in North Carolina.

Landscape Management Calendar

By: Barbara Fair, Steven Frank, Matt Martin, Grady Miller, Joe Neal

This poster-sized landscape management calendar is a guide to keeping your landscape healthy with sound management practices. It discusses proper establishment and maintenance practices as well as monitoring and targeted treatment of pests.

Disease and Insect Management in the Home Orchard

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach Fruit Disease Information

Homeowners who grow fruit in backyards or small orchards find that disease and insect pests often ruin the crop and in some instances damage the tree itself. This publication covers common diseases and insect issues in backyard orchards in North Carolina.

Detachable Woolly Leaf Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the detachable woolly leaf gall wasp, Andricus quercuslanigera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellowjackets in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of yellowjackets— small, social wasps that often nest near or in landscapes.

European Red Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

European red mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellowjacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Chemical Application Equipment

By: Jason Ward

This publication covers cleaning and calibrating chemical application equipment, such as dusters, spreaders and sprayers.

Termites - Treating Houses with Wells, Cisterns or Foundation Drains

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the potential dfficulties and options for treating termite-infested buildings that have wells, cisterns and/foundation drains.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Oriental Fruit Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Oriental fruit moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes the peachtree borer's life history, damage, and control.

Woolly Alder Aphid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the woolly alder aphid, a pest of both alder and silver maple trees.

Lecanium Scale Insects

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and life cycle of lecanium scale, a tree and shrub pest.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Beech Bark Disease

By: Courtney Smith, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet provides information about beech bark disease, including the lifecycle, symptoms, and management strategies.

Pine Bark Beetles

By: Kelly Oten

This fact sheet discusses the three most common pine bark beetles in North Carolina and their impacts, identification, and management.

Witchhazel Leaf Gall Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the witchhazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis cornu, and provides residential management recommendations.

Elm Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm leafminer sawfly, Kaliofenusa ulmi or Fenusa ulmi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Gypsy Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and provides residential management recommendations.

Gladiolus Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the gladiolus thrip, Taeniothrips simplex, and provides residential management recommendations.

2023 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management Guide

By: D.F. Ritchie, J.F. Walgenbach, W.E. Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Africanized Honey Bees: Some Questions and Answers

By: David Tarpy, John T. Ambrose Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet answers basic questions about Africanized honey bees. (Part 3 of a 3-part series)

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Potato Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

Potato leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Sweetpotato Root Knot Nematode

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.

Root Knot Nematode of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Root knot nematodes can cause significant damages to soybean fields in North Carolina. This factsheet describes the different species of root knot nematodes and their management in soybean production.

Red Crown Rot of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This factsheet covers the signs, symptoms, and management of red crown rot, a problem in soybean production in North Carolina.

Red Shouldered Bug or Golden Rain Tree Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the golden rain tree bug or red shouldered bug, Jadera haematoloma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Elm Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm sawfly caterpillar, Cimbex americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Giant Conifer Aphids

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant conifer aphid, Cinara spp, and provides residential management recommendations.

Snowy Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the snowy planthopper, Flatormenis proxima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Annual and Periodical Cicada

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Cicada impacts on apple - description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Horse Flies and Deer Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying horse and deer flies and how to control them.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Charlie W. Cahoon, Alan C. York

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Fertilization

By: Luke Gatiboni, David H. Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Gray Leaf Spot of Tomato

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This publication describes gray leaf spot of tomato. Disease management options are provided for conventional and organic growers and for homeowners.

Barnacle Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the barnacle scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Milkweed Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Ivory-marked Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the ivory-marked wood borer, Eburia quadrigeminata, a beetle that does not infest living trees.

Green Apple Aphid / Spirea Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green apple and spirea aphids - description, life history, damage, and control.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Animal Damage Control

By: C. S. DePerno

This publication explains control measures that can be taken due to animal damage of crops.

Earwigs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on how to identify and control earwigs in the household.

Red Bay Ambrosia Beetle and Laurel Wilt Disease

By: Stephen Bambara, Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the disease cycle and management of the red ambrosia beetle, which feeds on a fungus that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a generally fatal disease of red bay and other tree species in the laurel family.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Fall Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fall cankerworms, Alsophila pometaria, an insect pest of many trees in North Carolina.

Common Pantry Pests and their Management

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Grain products and other foodstuffs kept in kitchen cabinets, pantries, or storage areas can arrive infested or become infested with insects and other arthropods. These food thieves are colloquially referred to as “pantry pests'' since they invade foods that are frequently stored in the pantry. Most human food products, and even pet or wild animal foods, are susceptible to damage by stored product pests. Beetles (Order: Coleoptera) and moths (Order: Lepidoptera) are the most important insect groups responsible for contamination of foodstuffs in the United States, so we will focus on these groups for this fact sheet.

Elm Zigzag Sawfly

By: Kelly Oten, Matt Bertone Invasive Forest Pests

The elm zigzag sawfly is an invasive species first reported in North America in 2020. This fact sheet details what is known about its biology, identification, and management.

Melon Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cabbage Palm Caterpillar or Palmetto Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage palm caterpillar, cabbage palm worm, or palmetto borer, Litoprosopus futilis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Velvet Mites, Brick Mites or Patio Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of trombidiid mites— velvet mites, red velvet mites, large red velvet mites, brick mites, and patio mites.

Southern Purple Mint Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the southern purple mint moth, Pyrausta laticlavia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Native Elm Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes, and provides residential management recommendations.

Persimmon Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Persimmon psyllid or persimmon psylla, Baeoalitriozus diospyri or Trioza diospyri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bulb Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus echinopus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Beet Armyworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the adult beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mosquito Control for Stormwater Facilities

By: Bill Hunt Urban Waterways

This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Annual or Dogday Cicadas

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of annual or dogday cicadas. Because these cicadas are of little consequence to the health of landscape trees, pesticides for their control aren't warranted.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Root Knot Nematode of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera Cotton Disease Information

Cotton root knot nematodes are capable of causing significant losses to cotton production. In addition to direct damage, root knot nematode can allow for secondary pathogens to impact yields, as well. This publication describes root knot nematodes and their management in cotton.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Pine Bark Adelgid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note focuses on the park bark adelgid, Pineus strobi, pests found on white pines in North Carolina.

Kudzu Bug

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the kudzu bug, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Redbud Leaffolder

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbud leaffolder, Fascista Cercerisella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Azalea Bark Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azaleae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius, a woodpecker that may cause damage to woody plants.

Sunflower Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma ellectellum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Engraver Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the eastern six-spined engraver, eastern five-spined engraver, and southern pine engraver— Ips calligraphus, Ips grandicollis, Ips avulsus.

Tuliptree Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tuliptree aphid, Illinoia liriodendri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rose Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rose midge, Dasineura rhodophaga, and provides residential management recommendations.

Juniper Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper scale insect, Carulaspis juniperi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bombardier Beetles and False Bombardier Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of bombardier beetles and provides residential management recommendations.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Foliar Fungal Diseases on High Tunnel and Greenhouse Tomatoes

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease fact sheet discusses three foliar fungal diseases (Botrytis gray mold, leaf mold, and powdery mildew) of high tunnel and greenhouse tomatoes.

Paper Wasps for Caterpillar Management in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses using paper wasps to control caterpillars in the landscape in North Carolina.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Asian Longhorned Beetle

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive forest pest in the United States.

Callirhytis Oak Gall Wasps

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Callirhytis gall wasp, which infests the twigs and leaves of many species of oaks.

Goldenrod Soldier Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, also called Pennsylvania leatherwings. These beetles feed on aphids and other insects they find on plants, and since they do not seem to chew on petals, these beetles should be encouraged rather than eliminated.

Cherry Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cherry lace bug, Corythucha associata., and provides residential management recommendations.

Citrus Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Balsam Twig Aphid on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam twig aphid, a small, pale green aphid that feeds on fir trees in the spring.

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Cotton Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Cotton Disease Information

Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.

Insect Repellent Products

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This document is presented to answer some commonly asked questions about repellents and mechanical devices that allegedly repel insects and ticks.

Añublo polvoriento en cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Are You Weeding Frequently Enough to Prevent Weeds From Spreading?

By: Joe Neal

How often are you weeding? Is it frequently enough to prevent the next generation of weeds? Many of the most common weeds of container nurseries flower and produce seeds within 30 days. Our research suggests that you should be removing emerged weeds every 2 to 3 weeks. This publication offers information on some common container weeds.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

White Pine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the white pine weevil, a pest of pines and spruces in North Carolina.

Soybean Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean seedling disease is caused by several different pathogens. While cultural management is the same across seedling diseases, chemical management may differ depending on prevalent pathogen and environmental conditions.

Black Rot of Brassicas

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This publication discusses symptoms and signs of black rot disease of Brassicas. The publication includes disease management practices for both conventional and organic growers.

Anthracnose diseases of trees

By: Courtney Smith, Kelly Oten

This fact sheets details the identification and management of a common group of fungal diseases, anthracnose.

Yucca Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yucca plant bug, Halticotoma valida, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hibiscus Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hibiscus sawfly, Atomacera decepta, and provides residential management recommendations.

Boxwood Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxwood psyllid, Cacopsylla buxi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pavement Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Small Carpenter Bees

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of small carpenter bees, genus Ceratina, and provides residential management recommendations.

Syrphid flies

By: Jim Walgenbach

Syrphid fly description, life history, and predation.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Chapter 10: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Biology and Control of Human Lice

By: Sydney Crawley, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Note discusses the biology and life cycle of human lice, as well as proper treatment strategies for the management of lice infestations.

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Cylindrocladium Black Rot of Peanut

By: Barbara Shew

This factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and control of cylindrocladium black rot in peanut production.

Eastern Tent Caterpillar

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the Eastern tent caterpillar in North Carolina.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Stink Bug in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of stink bugs in soybeans in North Carolina.

Target Spot of Tobacco

By: Spencer Haroldson, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Target spot is a potentially devastating leaf spot disease in tobacco in North Carolina. This factsheet summarizes the signs and symptoms and offers treatment plans.

Asian Soybean Rust

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Although uncommonly observed in North Carolina, soybean rust can be a yield limiting disease for soybeans. Proper identification is important to developing a management strategy.

Fusarium Wilt of Soybean

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Fusarium wilt can be an important disease in soybean when it appears. Although not a yearly problem for most of North Carolina producers, it can be locally damaging. The signs and management of the disease are described in this factsheet.

Soybean Mosaic Virus

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogens of soybean worldwide. This soybean disease factsheet discusses the range, symptoms, disease cycle, and management of the virus in soybean production in North Carolina.

Lesion Nematode in Potato

By: Adrienne Gorny, Ari Grode Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Lesion nematode damage in white or Irish potato is caused by plant-parasitic roundworms. This publication discusses the signs, symptoms, and management of the disease.

Lilac Borer \ Ash Clearwing Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the adult lilac borer, Podosesia syringae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Blue-winged Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of scoliid wasps, including Scolia dubia.

Walnut Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the walnut caterpillar, Datana integerrima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rainbow Scarab

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rainbow scarab, Phanaeus vindex.

Oleander Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hickory Spiral Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory spiral borer, Agrilus torquatus., and provides residential management recommendations.

Alder Lace Bug/Birch Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the alder lace bug, Corythucha pergandei, and provides residential management recommendations.

Flatheaded Appletree Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the flatheaded appletree borer, Chrysobothris femorata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Green Fruitworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green fruitworm description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2023 Cotton Information book.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Charlie W. Cahoon, Alan York

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Pythium Root and Crown Rot of Industrial Hemp

By: Ashley Troth, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

This factsheet discusses pythium root and crown rot in industrial hemp production.

Gray Mold of Industrial Hemp

By: Shelby Ferrell, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

Gray mold of industrial hemp is common to most regions that produce this crop. It is favored by cool, wet conditions, and may cause significant losses.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Tobacco Ringspot Virus of Soybean

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Tobacco ringspot virus is a disease of soybean in North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on the disease's symptoms and management.

Cream Leaf Blight in Turf

By: Jim Kerns, Lee Butler TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cream leaf blight.

Let’s Work Together in Addressing Environmental and Societal Issues: Guide to Engaging Stakeholders and Communities

By: Khara Grieger, Madison Horgan, Ashton Merck

This publication is a guide for researchers, scholars, extension agents, government officials, and others interested in engaging stakeholders and community members to identify and address potential environmental and societal issues.

Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Kenneth Sorensen Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note describes the biology of the Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and provides management recommendations.

Privet Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the privet mite, Brevipalpus obovatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chrysanthemum Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the chrysanthemum aphid, Macrosiphoniella sanborni, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hibiscus Scentless Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hibiscus scentless plant bug, Niesthrea louisianica. They feed on flower buds and seeds of Rose-of-Sharon and hibiscus using tiny thread-like mouthparts to probe vegetation and seeds and inject saliva.

Wool Sower Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the wool sower gall wasp, Callirhytis seminator, and provides residential management recommendations.

Japanese Cedar Longhorned Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Japanese cedar longhorned beetle (also called the smaller Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, or the Japanese cedar longhorn)—Callidiellum rufipenne.

Lacewings

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lacewing description, life history, and predation.

Control of Root Feeding Insects in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication covers the identification, life cycles and treatment of several species of insects, such as May and June beetle grubs and root aphids, that feed on and affect root growth of Fraser fir Christmas trees.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Vann

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Soybean Aphid in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the soybean aphid, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Soybean Powdery Mildew

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Powdery mildew is a common foliar disease caused by a fungus. The causal agent of soybean powdery mildew is host limited to beans. This factsheet describes soybean powdery mildew and its management in soybeans.

Cercospora Leaf Blight of Soybean

By: Sarah Cochran, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Cercospora blight is a common foliar disease of soybeans in North Carolina. Early symptoms may mimic several other common soybean problems, and accurate diagnosis is important for selecting management practices.

Stubby-Root Nematode in Corn

By: Adrienne Gorny, Kelci Cox Corn Disease Information

Stubby-root nematodes are soilborne, plant-parasitic roundworms that may cause significant damage in corn. This publication covers the symptoms and disease management of the pathogen.

Biopesticides for Disease Management in Vegetable Crops

By: Inga Meadows, Ella Reeves

This publication provides information about what biopesticides are, how they control plant diseases, and how they are used to control diseases of vegetables.

Boxwood Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the boxwood mite, Eurytetranychus buxi,, and provides residential management recommendations.

Parsleyworm \ Eastern Black Swallowtail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black swallowtail, American swallowtail, parsnip swallowtail, parsley swallowtail, celeryworm, caraway worm, and eastern black swallowtail, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cotesia Congregata, Parasitoid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of Cotesia Congregata, a parasitoid.

Pine Witches' Broom Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pine witches' broom mite, Trisetacus floridanus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellow Poplar Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow poplar weevil (also called the tuliptree leafminer, magnolia leafminer and the sassafras weevil), Odontopus calceatus.

Forest Tent Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, and provides residential management recommendations.

Northern Twostriped Walkingstick

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the northern twostriped walking stick, Anisomorpha ferruginea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redbanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Redbanded leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

San Jose Scale

By: Jim Walgenbach

San Jose scale description, life history, damage, and control.

Spruce Spider Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes scouting for and controlling the spruce spider mite, an insect that causes yellow spots on needles of Fraser firs.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Abbreviations

This publication lists abbreviations used in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

How to Send Specimens for Disease, Insect, and Weed Identification

By: Matt Bertone

This publication explains how and where to send specimens for disease, insect and weed identification.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

Formosan Termites in North Carolina

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Wood-Damaging Pests

The Formosan subterranean termite is considered to be one of the most destructive termite species in the world today. This publication discusses the biology and control of this pest.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

Rose Pest Management Calendar

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This publication offers a month by month guide to managing pests of roses in North Carolina.

Gray Leaf Spot in Corn

By: Maeve Riney, Lindsey Thiessen Corn Disease Information

This corn disease information note offers information on the symptoms and management of gray leaf spot in corn production in North Carolina.

Common Disease Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common disease pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Green Coneheaded Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the green coneheaded planthopper, Acanalonia conica, and provides residential management recommendations. Green coneheaded planthoppers feed on numerous ornamental herbs, shrubs, and trees and secrete a sweet, sticky substance called honeydew in which dark fungi may grow.

Elm-Grass Root Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm-grass root aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Florida Fern Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida fern caterpillar, Callopistria floridensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Butternut Woollyworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the butternut woollyworm, Eriocampa juglandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chinese Praying Mantid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Chinese praying mantid, Tenodera sinensis, which are sold as biological controls.

American Plum Borer in Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hemlock Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock rust mite, Nalepella tsugifoliae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhododendron Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rhododendron borer moth, Synanthedon rhododendri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cuban Laurel Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Poplar Tentmaker

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the poplar tentmaker moth, Clostera inclusa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Poinsettia Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the poinsettia thrip, Echinothrips americanus, and provides residential management instructions.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Spotten tentiform leafminer description, life history, damage, and control.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Rosette Bud Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the control of the rosette bud mite, a mite that destroys the buds of Fraser firs resulting in holes in the canopy, flat sides, weak bottoms and uneven and/or light density.

Rust Mites in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle and control of the hemlock rust mite, which causes needles to turn a dusty rust color and drop from several species of Christmas trees.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig, Anders Huseth

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Barklice

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of barklice, insect pests of smooth-barked shrubs and trees.

Charcoal Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Grape Colaspis in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of grape colaspis, a beetle pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Clubroot of Brassicas

By: Ella Reeves, Suzette Sharpe, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

The pathogen, host plants, symptoms and management of clubroot, a disease of crucifer crops, are discussed in this factsheet.

Anthracnose of Soybean

By: Jean Beacorn, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet covers anthracnose, a fungal disease affecting maturing soybean stems and pods in North Carolina.

Frogeye Leaf Spot of Soybean

By: Abdullah Nahiyan, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Frogeye leaf spot (FLS) of soybean is a common foliar disease in North Carolina with losses reported annually. This soybean diseases factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and management of FLS.

Reniform Nematode of Soybean

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

The reniform nematode is not a common nematode pressure for soybean growers in North Carolina, but is limited to several southern counties of the state. This factsheet will help growers identify and management the nematodes in soybean production in North Carolina.

Fusarium Wilt of Blackberry

By: Bill Cline, Sara Villani Plant Disease Factsheets

Fusarium wilt is an emerging disease of blackberry in commercial plantings in southeastern North Carolina. This factsheet covers symptoms, signs, and best management practices for Fusarium wilt of blackberry.

European Corn Borer on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European corn borer adult, Ostrinia nubilalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

White Peach Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.

Mexican Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Mexican mealybug, Phenacoccus gossypii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oak Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the oak treehopper, Platycotis vitata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leafminers of Hollies

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of leafminers, which sometimes damage hollies. Each species of holly seems to have its own species of leafminer fly.

Red Oak Clearwing Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the red oak clearwing borer, Paranthrene simulans, and provides residential management recommendations.

Larger Yellow Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the larger yellow ants, Acanthomyops interjectus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Whitemarked Tussock Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Diamondback Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Azalea Whitefly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea whitefly, Pealius azaleae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tarnished Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Tarnished plant bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Lesser Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser peachtree borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Scale Insects Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying scale insects in commercial flower and plant production.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Comstock Mealybug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Comstock mealybug description, life history, damage, and control.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Pests of Euonymus

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in euonymus.

Soybean Looper in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and management of soybean loopers, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Velvetbean Caterpillar in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Corn Earworm and Tobacco Budworm in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the corn earworm and tobacco budworm in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Cannabis Aphid in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the cannabis aphid in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Common Insect Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Eastern Gray Squirrel

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes eastern gray squirrels and the damage they can cause to trees and shrubs. It also offers some management strategies.

European Pepper Moth in Nurseries and Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank

European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis) is a pest of ornamental and vegetable crops with nearly worldwide distribution. In the US, it is most common in the Southeast but can live in greenhouses in northern regions. European pepper moth caterpillars feed on hundreds of plant species in many families. The caterpillars near the soil surface where they feed on lower leaves, stems, and roots. Management of this pest is difficult because it is hard to detect and it is protected from insecticides within silk webbing.

Juniper Webworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper webworm, Dichomeris marginella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Baldfaced Hornets in Landscapes

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of baldfaced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, wasps that build large, gray cardboard nests in trees.

Rose Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sculptured Pine Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sculptured pine borer, Chalcophora virginiensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Phlox Plant Bug and Other Lopidea Plant Bugs

By: James Baker, Bob Blinn PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the phlox plant bug, Lopidea davisi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rustic Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Australian Cockroach in Interiorscapes

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Australian cockroach, also known as a waterbug and the shad roach, Periplaneta australasiae.

Keeled Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Keeled treehopper, Entylia carinata.

Pales Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pales weevil, Hylobius pales, and provides residential management recommendations.

Azalea Pest Management Calendar

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note contains a pest management calendar for azalea insect and mite pests.

Spiny Witchhazel gall aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spiny witchhazel gall aphid, Hamamelistes spinosus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tulip Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tulip aphids, Dysaphis tulipae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redbanded Thrips on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbanded thrip, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redheaded Ash Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded ash borer, Neoclytus acuminatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Apple Maggot

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication offers information on the description, life history, and control of the apple maggot.

Aphid Predatory Midge

By: Jim Walgenbach

Midge description, life history, and predation.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Spined Stilt Bug in Tobacco

By: Peter Nelson, Hannah Burrack

The spined stilt is the most abundant predator insect in tobacco and is found in other economically important crops covered with trichomes, including tomatoes. This factsheet offers information on this pest.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Leafhoppers Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying leafhoppers in commercial flower and plant production.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

This publication, part of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Bean Leaf Beetle in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the bean leaf beetle, a pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Corn Earworm in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This soybean insect factsheet describes the biology, damage, and control of the corn earworm, a common pest of soybeans in North Carolina.

Bean Pod Mottle Virus

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Virus diseases like bean pod mottle virus can significantly impact soybean yields when disease pressure is high. This factsheet describes the identification and management of bean pod mottle virus.

Potato Aphid on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae).

Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Azalea Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea plant bug, Rhinocapsus vanduzeei, and provides residential management recommendations.

European Hornet in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and provides residential management recommendations.

Banded Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the banded sphinx moth or lesser vine sphinx, Eumorpha fasciatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oak Shothole Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oak shothole leafminer, Japanagromyza viridula.

Twig Pruner

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

The twig pruner, Elaphidionoides villosus, is a slender grayish-yellow, longhorned beetle about 1/2" long that is normally considered a secondary invader of declining trees and shrubs. The twig pruner attacks healthy twigs and small branches. The female lays an egg in the bark by slitting the surface at leaf axils in late spring. When these eggs hatch, the legless grubs bore into the twig.

Betsy Beetle or Horned Passalus

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the horned passalus, Odontotaenius disjunctus, also known as a betsy beetle, bessbug, patent leather beetle, Jerusalem beetle, horn beetle, and peg beetle.

Japanese Maple Leafhopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Japanese maple leafhopper, also called the Asian maple leafhopper—Japananus hyalinus.

Rhododendron Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis rhododendri, and provides management recommendations.

Purple Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the purple mite (also known as the purple camellia mite, the purple tea mite (camellia and tea are closely related plants), and cha-geom-eun-hog-eung-ae, Calacarus carinatus.

Arborvitae Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the arborvitae leafminer, Argyresthia thuiella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hackberry Leafslug or White Flannel Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hackberry leafslug, Norape ovina, and provides residential management recommendations.

Woolly Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

This document discusses the description, life history, damage, and control of the woolly apple aphid.

Obliquebanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Obliquebanded leafroller description, life history, damage, and control.

Rosy Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Rosy apple aphid description, life cycle, history, and control.

Impervious Surface Thresholds for Sustainable Urban Tree Planting and Landscape Design

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

A foundation of IPM in urban landscapes is to put the right plant in the right place. This reduces plant stress and thus the long term costs of pest management. Impervious surface cover is linked to red maple condition and scale insect infestations. This publication describes impervious surface thresholds to use when selecting sites for planting red maples in urban landscapes.

Claycolored Leaf Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of claycolored leaf beetles, a sporadic pest in the landscape.

Hornets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hornets and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Biocontrol in Closed Systems

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

Biological control is a tool to be considered in constructing an integrated pest management scheme for closed system crop production and maintenance. In a complete IPM program, diseases, weeds, and plant growth must be considered as well as insects and mites, but this note only covers insect and mite pests of greenhouse crops.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Flyspeck and Sooty Blotch

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes flyspeck and sooty blotch in apple, including identification and disease management.

Green Cloverworm in Soybean

By: Dominic Reisig Soybean Insect Factsheets

This Soybean Insect Factsheet describes the biology, identification, and control of green cloverworm in soybeans in North Carolina.

Twospotted Spider Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of the twospotted spider mite in industrial hemp production in North Carolina.

Brown Spot of Soybean

By: Andrew Ernst, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Brown spot is a common pathogen in soybeans in North Carolina. Symptoms from brown spot may be confused with other leaf spot pathogens, and accurate diagnosis is important for management decisions.

Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus

By: Sarah Cochran, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on the signs, disease cycle, and management of soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), an occasional foliar problem in soybean in North Carolina.

Lance Nematode of Soybean

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Lance nematode is not a common problem of soybeans, but can cause local damages in fields where it is found. This factsheet covers the symptoms and management of lance nematodes in North Carolina.

Management Guide for Sour Rot in North Carolina

By: Karen Blaedow, Hannah Burrack, Mark Hoffmann, Sara Villani

This publication gives an overview of sour-rot management in European-style grapevines in North Carolina. We explain what the causes of sour rot, show pictures, discuss susceptible cultivars and give management recommendations.

Common Insect Pests of Ash in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides descriptions of several pests of Ash trees in North Carolina. It describes the characteristics of each insect and the damage they cause and offers potential mitigation strategies.

Prevention and Management of Soilborne Diseases of Ornamental Plants and Vegetables in the Greenhouse

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication details strategies for to prevent and manage soilborne diseases in greenhouse crop production using soilless media. Tactics include sanitation measures, cultural practices, and the application of treatments to limit the development and spread of these diseases in the greenhouse.

Screening Sesame for Resistance to Multiple Root-Knot Nematode Species

By: David Suchoff, Adrienne Gorny, Marcela Chavez, Angela Post

This publication discusses the results of greenhouse trials that screened seven sesame varieties for resistance to North Carolina's most common root-knot nematode species. The results of this research will help determine if sesame may play a role in crop rotations for producers managing these pests.

The Redbanded Leafhopper on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the redbanded leafhopper, Graphocephala coccinea, and offers some control options.

Twolined Chestnut Borer

By: Ryan Bohannon, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet covers the identification, biology, impacts, and management of the twolined chestnut borer.

Road Map to the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides

By: Wayne Buhler, Carmina Hanson, Tom Bowman, Gwen Minton

This publication provides a simplified tool that can quickly guide farm managers, handlers, workers, and family farmers in understanding compliance with the Worker Protection Standard.

Pansyworm / Variegated Fritillary

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pansyworm, Euptoieta claudia, the immature stage of the variegated fritillary butterfly, and provides residential management recommendations.

Longtailed Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redheaded Pine Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei, and provides residential management recommendations.