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Preparing Your House for Bedbug Treatments

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the steps to take before a pest management company arrives to treat your home for bedbugs.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Drain Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to identify and control drain flies, a common nuisance in and around homes and commercial buildings.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

2018 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Camel Crickets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder | Entomology & Plant Pathology Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes how to control camel crickets if they become an indoor pest.

Africanized Honey Bees: Prevention and Control

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet provides basic information about prevention and control of Africanized honey bees prior to their expected arrival in North Carolina. (Part 2 of a 3-part series.)

Africanized Honey Bees: Where Are They Now, and When Will They Arrive in North Carolina?

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet outlines the history, movement, distribution, and present status of the Africanized honey bee in the United States. (Part 1 of a 3-part series)

Termites - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the biology, behavior, and control of termites.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies

By: John Ambrose, David Tarpy, Joshua Summers

The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the US only three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or “wild”) honey bee colonies have been wiped out from these mites, and beekeepers continue to struggle with varroa infestations in their hives.

Scorpions in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, John Vining Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet covers the type of scorpions found in North Carolina and measures to take to control them, both indoors and outdoors.

Bedbugs - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying bedbugs and how to control them in households.

Paper Wasp Swarming Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of paper wasps during times of swarming.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.

Pudrición gomosa del tallo en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Tips for Preventing the Spread of Bedbugs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides tips on preventing the spread of bedbugs.

Red Imported Fire Ant in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication discusses the biology and spread of fire ants and the various methods that can be used to control these ants.

Bacterial Blight of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Steve Koenning Cotton Disease Information

This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

A Guide to House-Invading Ants and Their Control

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

Ants are probably the most common insect pests that invade our homes and become an extreme nuisance. Controlling ants can be difficult and frustrating at times but will more likely succeed if you have a basic understanding of ant behavior and some specific information about the particular ant species you have infesting your home.

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication will help you identify the several species of ticks found in North Carolina and the diseases they transmit. It also describes chemical and non-chemical ways you can protect yourself from ticks outdoors and control ticks in and around your home.

Marchitez de Fusarium en sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Termites - Baiting Systems

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication explains how termite baits work as an alternative to using conventional liquid treatments to the soil around a building.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Carpenter Bees

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of carpenter bees, which bore tunnels in wood with their strong jaws.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Biology and Control of Carpenter Ants

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication offers information on the biology of carpenter ants and what to do if you have an infestation.

2018 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Gary Bullen

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2018.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

Fungus Gnats Indoors

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder | Entomology and Plant Pathology Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides information on the identification and control of fungus gnats in the household.

2018 Cotton Information

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Alan York, David Hardy, Dominic Reisig, Gary Bullen, Lindsey Thiessen, Rachel Atwell

2018 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Sweetpotato Root Knot Nematode

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Earwigs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on how to identify and control earwigs in the household.

Black Flies and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying black flies and how to control them.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

European Hornets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of European hornets.

Termites - Treating Houses with Wells, Cisterns or Foundation Drains

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the potential dfficulties and options for treating termite-infested buildings that have wells, cisterns and/foundation drains.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Black Shank of Tobacco

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Glomerella Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes Glomerella leaf spot and fruit rot in apple, including identification and disease management.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Cotton Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Cotton Disease Information

Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.

Mosquito Control Around Homes and in Communities

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note addresses mosquito biology and how to control mosquitoes around homes and in communities.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (North Carolina)

By: Jim Walgenbach

Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Formosan Termites in North Carolina

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Wood-Damaging Pests

The Formosan subterranean termite is considered to be one of the most destructive termite species in the world today. This publication discusses the biology and control of this pest.

Controlling Baldfaced Hornets and Yellowjackets in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes hornets and yellowjackets and how to control them around structures such as barns and houses.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Are You Weeding Frequently Enough to Prevent Weeds From Spreading?

By: Joe Neal

How often are you weeding? Is it frequently enough to prevent the next generation of weeds? Many of the most common weeds of container nurseries flower and produce seeds within 30 days. Our research suggests that you should be removing emerged weeds every 2 to 3 weeks. This publication offers information on some common container weeds.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Horse Flies and Deer Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying horse and deer flies and how to control them.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Africanized Honey Bees: Some Questions and Answers

By: David Tarpy, John T. Ambrose Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet answers basic questions about Africanized honey bees. (Part 3 of a 3-part series)

Squash Bees

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses how to identify and conserve squash bees, an important pollinator of squash, zucchini, pumpkins and many gourds.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Termites - Preventing Problems in Existing Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication deals with measures you can take to help prevent problems with termites.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Chemical Application Equipment

By: Gary Roberson

This publication covers cleaning and calibrating chemical application equipment, such as dusters, spreaders and sprayers.

Biting Midges and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of midges, biting pests prominent along the coast of North Carolina.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Tips on Selecting Pest Control Services

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder

Pest management involves more than just applying pesticides. This publication provides advice on how to select pest control services.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Root Knot Nematode of Tobacco

By: Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.

Syrphid flies

By: Jim Walgenbach

Syrphid fly description, life history, and predation.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Plum Curculio

By: Jim Walgenbach

Plum curculio description, life history, damage, and control.

Control of Root Feeding Insects in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication covers the identification, life cycles and treatment of several species of insects, such as May and June beetle grubs and root aphids, that feed on and affect root growth of Fraser fir Christmas trees.

Chapter 7: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Balsam Woolly Adelgid

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the lifecycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam wooly adelgid, a tiny, soft-bodied insect, which appears when adult as a white, woolly spot on true firs.

Fire Blight

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes fire blight in apple, including identification and disease management.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

NC Industrial Hemp Posters

By: Angela Post

Posters available to print regarding industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Booklice

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note contains information about booklice, a small household pest that feeds on fungi and mold but does not bite or transmit disease.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Rosy Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Rosy apple aphid description, life cycle, history, and control.

Lady Beetles

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Lady beetle description, life cycle, and predation.

Elongate Hemlock Scale

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the symptoms, life cycle and control of the elongate hemlock scale, a pest that causes white, waxy spots on the upper surface of Christmas tree needles.

Tobacco - Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.

Insect Repellent Products

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This document is presented to answer some commonly asked questions about repellents and mechanical devices that allegedly repel insects and ticks.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, M. Nita, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Spruce Spider Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes scouting for and controlling the spruce spider mite, an insect that causes yellow spots on needles of Fraser firs.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes and addresses how to control them in turf.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Mole Crickets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the mole cricket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Biology and Control of Human Lice

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle of human lice and how to treat infestations.

Silverfish and Firebrats

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology, behavior and management of silverfish infestations.

Codling Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Codling moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Redbanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Redbanded leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Alan York, Charles Cahoon

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

Lesser Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser peachtree borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Variegated Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Variegated leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Lacewings

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lacewing description, life history, and predation.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Impervious Surface Thresholds for Sustainable Urban Tree Planting and Landscape Design

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

A foundation of IPM in urban landscapes is to put the right plant in the right place. This reduces plant stress and thus the long term costs of pest management. Impervious surface cover is linked to red maple condition and scale insect infestations. This publication describes impervious surface thresholds to use when selecting sites for planting red maples in urban landscapes.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Controlling Paper Wasps in and Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the behavior and control of paper wasps, which typically construct honeycomb-like cells under eaves and overhangs.

Aphids Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying aphids in commercial flower and plant production.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Alan York

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Kudzu Bug - A Nuisance and Agricultural Pest

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the identification, biology, behavior and control of the kudzu bug.

Springtails

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and control of springtails in the household.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Añublo polvoriento en cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Charcoal Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.

Corn Rusts: Common and Southern Rust

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Yara Rosado Rivera, Jonathan Kinczyk Corn Disease Information

Common and southern corn rusts may affect corn in North Carolina. Management for each is specific to the rust, and proper identification is necessary to determine the appropriate tools to use.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Tarnished Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Tarnished plant bug description, life history, damage, and control.

San Jose Scale

By: Jim Walgenbach

San Jose scale description, life history, damage, and control.

Identifying the Ground Beetles of Eastern North Carolina Agriculture

By: David Orr, Geoff Balme Ground Beetles of North Carolina

This publication provides an illustrated key to the major groups of ground beetles found in eastern North Carolina agricultural fields.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Fuller Rose Beetle

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

After the Flood - Weed Management Concerns for Nurseries and Landscapes

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon

Immediately after a flood, most farmers, nursery crops producers and grounds maintenance staff have much more urgent matters to worry about than weeds. But, eventually the questions arise: Has my preemergence herbicide washed away? How do I know? Should I re-treat? What’s going to happen now? Unfortunately there is no way to provide definitive answers to these questions. But this publication offers some tips and suggestions that will help you plan a response.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Rhodesgrass Mealybugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the rhodesgrass mealybug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

How to Send Specimens for Disease, Insect, and Weed Identification

By: Barbara Shew

This publication explains how and where to send specimens for disease, insect and weed identification.

Soybean Stem Canker

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Potato Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

Potato leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Oriental Fruit Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Oriental fruit moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes the peachtree borer's life history, damage, and control.

Añublo lanoso en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Greenstriped mapleworm, Dryocampa rubicunda (F.), Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Inside Houses

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, James Baker, David Orr Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to control multicolored Asian lady beetles in households.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Southern Blight of Sweetpotato.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

By: Michael Linker, David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Jack Bailey, D. Ames Herbert, Patrick M. Phipps, Charles W. Swann

This scouting manual will help growers identify peanut pests and determine whether the number of pests is likely to decrease yield and cause profit losses greater than the cost of treatment. Topics covered include scouting for pests; insects; weeds; leaf, root, limb and pod diseases; seed and seedling rots; nematodes; and wilt virus.

Master Gardener Insect Guide for Ornamentals and Turf

By: James Baker, Rick Brandenburg

This comprehensive guide will help master gardeners diagnose many insect and mite problems and to decide whether to bring a particular problem to the attention of a county agent.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Spotten tentiform leafminer description, life history, damage, and control.

Apple Maggot

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication offers information on the description, life history, and control of the apple maggot.

European Red Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

European red mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Green Apple Aphid / Spirea Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green apple and spirea aphids - description, life history, damage, and control.

Annual and Periodical Cicada

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Cicada impacts on apple - description, life cycle, damage, and control.

The Ground Beetles of Eastern North Carolina Agriculture

By: David Orr, Geoff Balme, Aaron Fox Ground Beetles of North Carolina

Ground beetles are a common, but often overlooked, beneficial insect in agricultural areas. This publication provides a quick guide to the various ground beeetles that inhabit agricultural fields of the piedmont and eastern North Carolina.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

Balsam Twig Aphid on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam twig aphid, a small, pale green aphid that feeds on fir trees in the spring.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Whiteflies Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying whiteflies in commercial flower and plant production.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Twolined Spittlebugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the twolined spittlebug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Abbreviations

This publication lists abbreviations used in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2018 Cotton Information book.

Fertilization

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Elm Leaf Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the elm leaf beetle and the larger elm leaf beetle, the most serious defoliators of elm in the United States.

Flyspeck and Sooty Blotch

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes flyspeck and sooty blotch in apple, including identification and disease management.

Cylindrocladium Black Rot of Peanut

By: Barbara Shew

This factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and control of cylindrocladium black rot in peanut production.

Pests of Sweetpotato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweetpotatoes.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Lesser Appleworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser appleworm description, life history, damage, and control.

Insidious Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Insidious plant bug description, life history, and predation.

Aphid Predatory Midge

By: Jim Walgenbach

Midge description, life history, and predation.

Rosette Bud Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the control of the rosette bud mite, a mite that destroys the buds of Fraser firs resulting in holes in the canopy, flat sides, weak bottoms and uneven and/or light density.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Tobacco - Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Mosquito Control for Stormwater Facilities

By: Bill Hunt, Charles Apperson, Bill Lord Urban Waterways

This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Alan York, Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Atwell, Alan York, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Comstock Mealybug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Comstock mealybug description, life history, damage, and control.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Controlling Millipedes in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and management of millipedes in the house.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Japanese Beetle

By: Jim Walgenbach

Japanese beetle description, life history, damage, and control.

Woolly Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

This document discusses the description, life history, damage, and control of the woolly apple aphid.

White Apple Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

White apple leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Obliquebanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Obliquebanded leafroller description, life history, damage, and control.

Green Fruitworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green fruitworm description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Rust Mites in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle and control of the hemlock rust mite, which causes needles to turn a dusty rust color and drop from several species of Christmas trees.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Vertebrate Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Matthew Springer

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses control measures for deer, rabbits, voles, and beavers in the landscape.

Disease Control

By: Joe Neal, Jean Williams-Woodward

This table includes a list of fungicides labeled for use on ornamental plants and trees to control specific diseases as noted. The table is organized alphabetically according to plant disease common name or a pathogen. Fungicides labeled to control the disease and their labeled rate are provided in the table as a general guide only. Not all information provided on the fungicide label is duplicated within this table. It is the user’s responsibility to consult the current label for rates and restrictions and follow all directions provided on the label. This table is also not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of every fungicide name brand available to green industry professionals. It is impossible to include all brands, particularly generic brands.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy in Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

Efficacy of preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and landscape plantings

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Scale Insects Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying scale insects in commercial flower and plant production.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Scouting for Stink Bug Damage in Southeast Cotton: Description and Use of a Pocket Scouting Decision Aid

By: Jack Bacheler, D. Ames Herbert, Jeremy Greene, Phillip Roberts, Michael Toews, Eric Blinka, Ron Smith

This publication describes how cotton growers in the Southeast can use a pocket-size scouting decision aid to assess and manage stink bug damage based on thresholds for different cotton growth stages.

Controlling Mite Pests in Earthworm Beds

By: Rhonda Sherman, Stephen Bambara

This publication discusses keeping mite pests at bay in worm beds for vermicomposting.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Biological Control of Mites on Apples in North Carolina

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes how to enhance the activity of mite predators in North Carolina apple systems, and how to determine if natural enemies alone can maintain pest mites below damaging levels, or if miticides also will be needed.

2016 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Mangement

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Spined Stilt Bug in Tobacco

By: Peter Nelson, Hannah Burrack

The spined stilt is the most abundant predator insect in tobacco and is found in other economically important crops covered with trichomes, including tomatoes. This factsheet offers information on this pest.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Joe Neal

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses the safe use, handling, and disposal of pesticides.

Pesticide Application – Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

By: Joe Neal, Amy Barker, Gary Roberson

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

2016 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Angela Post, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.

Beetles Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discussing identifying and controlling beetles in commercial flower and plant production.

Bugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different bugs in commercial garden and plant production.

Leafhoppers Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying leafhoppers in commercial flower and plant production.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellow jacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Hornets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hornets and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Animal Damage Control

By: C. S. DePerno

This publication explains control measures that can be taken due to animal damage of crops.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Weed Identification & Control Request Form

By: Joe Neal

Weed specimen submission form.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy

By: Joe Neal

A table of efficacy rankings for preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and/or ornamental landscape plantings.

Principles of Integrated Pest Management

By: Joe Neal, Wayne Buhler

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Weed Control

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble, Andrew Senesac

Weeds reduce the aesthetic qualities of landscape plantings and compete with nursery crops for nutrients, water, and light. Root systems compete for nitrogen and water. Even seemingly non-competitive weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) have been shown to reduce growth of container-grown plants. Tall weeds and vines shade crops, reducing photosynthesis and growth. Vining weeds such as morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) are particularly damaging because they disfigure stems and new growth. In landscape plantings, weeds must be controlled or removed to maintain quality aesthetics. Weeds may also need to be removed for health and safety reasons

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, part of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

Apple Powdery Mildew

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes apple powdery mildew, including identification and disease management.