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Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

2018 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Preparing Your House for Bedbug Treatment

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the steps to take before a pest management company arrives to treat your home for bedbugs.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Carpenter Bees

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of carpenter bees, which bore tunnels in wood with their strong jaws.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Peter Hertl Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note outlines the proper scouting procedures for detecting grub infestations and provides guidelines for timing insecticide applications.

Africanized Honey Bees: Where Are They Now, and When Will They Arrive in North Carolina?

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet outlines the history, movement, distribution, and present status of the Africanized honey bee in the United States. (Part 1 of a 3-part series)

Scorpions in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, John Vining Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet covers the type of scorpions found in North Carolina and measures to take to control them, both indoors and outdoors.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Red Imported Fire Ant in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication discusses the biology and spread of fire ants and the various methods that can be used to control these ants.

Africanized Honey Bees: Prevention and Control

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet provides basic information about prevention and control of Africanized honey bees prior to their expected arrival in North Carolina. (Part 2 of a 3-part series.)

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies

By: John Ambrose, David Tarpy, Joshua Summers

The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the US only three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or “wild”) honey bee colonies have been wiped out from these mites, and beekeepers continue to struggle with varroa infestations in their hives.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Termites - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the biology, behavior, and control of termites.

Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

European Hornets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of European hornets.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Bedbugs - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying bedbugs and how to control them in households.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, M. Nita, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

2018 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Gary Bullen

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2018.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Termites - Baiting Systems

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication explains how termite baits work as an alternative to using conventional liquid treatments to the soil around a building.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Biting Midges and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of midges, biting pests prominent along the coast of North Carolina.

Chapter 7: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Tips for Preventing the Spread of Bedbugs

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note provides tips on preventing the spread of bedbugs.

2018 Cotton Information

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Alan York, David Hardy, Dominic Reisig, Gary Bullen, Lindsey Thiessen, Rachel Atwell

2018 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Black Flies and Their Control

By: Charles Apperson, Michael Waldvogel Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying black flies and how to control them.

Bacterial Blight of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Steve Koenning Cotton Disease Information

This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Marchitez de Fusarium en Sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Termites - Treating Houses with Wells, Cisterns or Foundation Drains

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the potential dfficulties and options for treating termite-infested buildings that have wells, cisterns and/foundation drains.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Fusarium wilt of watermelon is a fungus that causes wilting of the aboveground tissue and general vine decline. This factsheet offers tips on identification and treatment.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet covers downy mildew disease in cucurbits, including identification, transmission and disease management and control.

Slugs and Snails in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Balsam Woolly Adelgid

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the lifecycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam wooly adelgid, a tiny, soft-bodied insect, which appears when adult as a white, woolly spot on true firs.

Cotton Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Cotton Disease Information

Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.

Insect Repellent Products

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This document is presented to answer some commonly asked questions about repellents and mechanical devices that allegedly repel insects and ticks.

Oriental Fruit Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Oriental fruit moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Squash Bees

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses how to identify and conserve squash bees, an important pollinator of squash, zucchini, pumpkins and many gourds.

Pudrición Gomosa del tallo en Cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Elongate Hemlock Scale

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the symptoms, life cycle and control of the elongate hemlock scale, a pest that causes white, waxy spots on the upper surface of Christmas tree needles.

Mosquito Control Around Homes and in Communities

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note addresses mosquito biology and how to control mosquitoes around homes and in communities.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Fire Blight

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes fire blight in apple, including identification and disease management.

Horse Flies and Deer Flies

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying horse and deer flies and how to control them.

Plum Curculio

By: Jim Walgenbach

Plum curculio description, life history, damage, and control.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Africanized Honey Bees: Some Questions and Answers

By: David Tarpy, John T. Ambrose Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet answers basic questions about Africanized honey bees. (Part 3 of a 3-part series)

Thrips in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Black Shank of Tobacco

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Caterpillars in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

Chemical Application Equipment

By: Gary Roberson

This publication covers cleaning and calibrating chemical application equipment, such as dusters, spreaders and sprayers.

Flies and Maggots in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Mites in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Fertilization

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

Termites - Preventing Problems in Existing Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication deals with measures you can take to help prevent problems with termites.

Syrphid flies

By: Jim Walgenbach

Syrphid fly description, life history, and predation.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Codling Moth

By: Jim Walgenbach

Codling moth description, life history, damage, and control.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Scale Insects in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying scale insects in commercial flower and plant production.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Alan York, Charles Cahoon

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Glomerella Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes Glomerella leaf spot and fruit rot in apple, including identification and disease management.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Camilo Parada Rojas, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Phytophthora blight of peppers is caused by a fungal-like pathogen that can cause crown rot and fruit rot. This publication offers information on symptoms and treatment.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Control of Root Feeding Insects in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication covers the identification, life cycles and treatment of several species of insects, such as May and June beetle grubs and root aphids, that feed on and affect root growth of Fraser fir Christmas trees.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (North Carolina)

By: Jim Walgenbach

Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Spruce Spider Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes scouting for and controlling the spruce spider mite, an insect that causes yellow spots on needles of Fraser firs.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Animal Damage Control

By: C. S. DePerno

This publication explains control measures that can be taken due to animal damage of crops.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Balsam Twig Aphid on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle, scouting and treatment of the balsam twig aphid, a small, pale green aphid that feeds on fir trees in the spring.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes and addresses how to control them in turf.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Green Apple Aphid / Spirea Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green apple and spirea aphids - description, life history, damage, and control.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Mole Crickets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the mole cricket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Annual and Periodical Cicada

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Cicada impacts on apple - description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of Fusarium root rot, a fungus that causes lesions on sweetpotatoes.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Mealybugs in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Bugs in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different bugs in commercial garden and plant production.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Lady Beetles

By: Jim Walgenbach, Stephen Schoof

Lady beetle description, life cycle, and predation.

Whiteflies in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying whiteflies in commercial flower and plant production.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes the peachtree borer's life history, damage, and control.

Greenstriped mapleworm, Dryocampa rubicunda (F.), Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Aphids in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying aphids in commercial flower and plant production.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Biology and Control of Human Lice

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle of human lice and how to treat infestations.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Redbanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Redbanded leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Lacewings

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lacewing description, life history, and predation.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Tips on Selecting Pest Control Services

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder

Pest management involves more than just applying pesticides. This publication provides advice on how to select pest control services.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Weed Control

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble, Andrew Senesac

Weeds reduce the aesthetic qualities of landscape plantings and compete with nursery crops for nutrients, water, and light. Root systems compete for nitrogen and water. Even seemingly non-competitive weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) have been shown to reduce growth of container-grown plants. Tall weeds and vines shade crops, reducing photosynthesis and growth. Vining weeds such as morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) are particularly damaging because they disfigure stems and new growth. In landscape plantings, weeds must be controlled or removed to maintain quality aesthetics. Weeds may also need to be removed for health and safety reasons

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Rosy Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Rosy apple aphid description, life cycle, history, and control.

Rust Mites in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the life cycle and control of the hemlock rust mite, which causes needles to turn a dusty rust color and drop from several species of Christmas trees.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Formosan Termites in North Carolina

By: Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

The Formosan subterranean termite is considered to be one of the most destructive termite species in the world today. This publication discusses the biology and control of this pest.

Aphid Predatory Midge

By: Jim Walgenbach

Midge description, life history, and predation.

Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

By: Michael Linker, David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Jack Bailey, D. Ames Herbert, Patrick M. Phipps, Charles W. Swann

This scouting manual will help growers identify peanut pests and determine whether the number of pests is likely to decrease yield and cause profit losses greater than the cost of treatment. Topics covered include scouting for pests; insects; weeds; leaf, root, limb and pod diseases; seed and seedling rots; nematodes; and wilt virus.

How to Send Specimens for Disease, Insect, and Weed Identification

By: Barbara Shew

This publication explains how and where to send specimens for disease, insect and weed identification.

Tobacco - Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Weed Identification & Control Request Form

By: Joe Neal

Weed specimen submission form.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Woolly Apple Aphid

By: Jim Walgenbach

Woolly apple aphid description, life history, damage, and control.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Apple Maggot

By: Jim Walgenbach

Apple maggot description, life history, and control.

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Hornets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hornets and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Abbreviations

This publication lists abbreviations used in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Alan York, Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Atwell, Alan York, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

Añublo Lanoso en Cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Añublo Polvoriento en Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Lesser Peachtree Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser peachtree borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Japanese Beetle

By: Jim Walgenbach

Japanese beetle description, life history, damage, and control.

Green Fruitworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Green fruitworm description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced Zn deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2018 Cotton Information book.

Insidious Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Insidious plant bug description, life history, and predation.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

San Jose Scale

By: Jim Walgenbach

San Jose scale description, life history, damage, and control.

Leafhoppers in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying leafhoppers in commercial flower and plant production.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Tarnished Plant Bug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Tarnished plant bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Alan York

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

European Red Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

European red mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Disease Control

By: Joe Neal, Jean Williams-Woodward

This table includes a list of fungicides labeled for use on ornamental plants and trees to control specific diseases as noted. The table is organized alphabetically according to plant disease common name or a pathogen. Fungicides labeled to control the disease and their labeled rate are provided in the table as a general guide only. Not all information provided on the fungicide label is duplicated within this table. It is the user’s responsibility to consult the current label for rates and restrictions and follow all directions provided on the label. This table is also not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of every fungicide name brand available to green industry professionals. It is impossible to include all brands, particularly generic brands.

Potato Leaf Hopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

Potato leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

2016 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Mangement

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, part of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Master Gardener Insect Guide for Ornamentals and Turf

By: James Baker, Rick Brandenburg

This comprehensive guide will help master gardeners diagnose many insect and mite problems and to decide whether to bring a particular problem to the attention of a county agent.

Impervious Surface Thresholds for Sustainable Urban Tree Planting and Landscape Design

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

A foundation of IPM in urban landscapes is to put the right plant in the right place. This reduces plant stress and thus the long term costs of pest management. Impervious surface cover is linked to red maple condition and scale insect infestations. This publication describes impervious surface thresholds to use when selecting sites for planting red maples in urban landscapes.

Principles of Integrated Pest Management

By: Joe Neal, Wayne Buhler

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Fuller Rose Beetle, Naupactus gomanni (Crotch), Coleoptera: Curculionidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Scouting for Stink Bug Damage in Southeast Cotton: Description and Use of a Pocket Scouting Decision Aid

By: Jack Bacheler, D. Ames Herbert, Jeremy Greene, Phillip Roberts, Michael Toews, Eric Blinka, Ron Smith

This publication describes how cotton growers in the Southeast can use a pocket-size scouting decision aid to assess and manage stink bug damage based on thresholds for different cotton growth stages.

Beetles in the Greenhouse

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discussing identifying and controlling beetles in commercial flower and plant production.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Soybean Stem Canker

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.

White Apple Leafhopper

By: Jim Walgenbach

White apple leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.

Rosette Bud Mite on Fraser Fir

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This publication describes the control of the rosette bud mite, a mite that destroys the buds of Fraser firs resulting in holes in the canopy, flat sides, weak bottoms and uneven and/or light density.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Comstock Mealybug

By: Jim Walgenbach

Comstock mealybug description, life history, damage, and control.

Rhodesgrass Mealybugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the rhodesgrass mealybug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Spotten tentiform leafminer description, life history, damage, and control.

Mosquito Control for Stormwater Facilities

By: Bill Hunt, Charles Apperson, Bill Lord Urban Waterways

This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.

2016 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Angela Post, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Variegated Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Variegated leafroller description, life cycle, damage, and control.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops -- fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Tobacco - Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.

Pesticide Application – Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

By: Joe Neal, Amy Barker, Gary Roberson

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy in Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

Efficacy of preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and landscape plantings

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Yellow Jackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellow jacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Twolined Spittlebugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the twolined spittlebug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Obliquebanded Leafroller

By: Jim Walgenbach

Obliquebanded leafroller description, life history, damage, and control.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Lesser Appleworm

By: Jim Walgenbach

Lesser appleworm description, life history, damage, and control.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

After the Flood - Weed Management Concerns for Nurseries and Landscapes

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon

Immediately after a flood, most farmers, nursery crops producers and grounds maintenance staff have much more urgent matters to worry about than weeds. But, eventually the questions arise: Has my preemergence herbicide washed away? How do I know? Should I re-treat? What’s going to happen now? Unfortunately there is no way to provide definitive answers to these questions. But this publication offers some tips and suggestions that will help you plan a response.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy

By: Joe Neal

A table of efficacy rankings for preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and/or ornamental landscape plantings.

Biological Control of Mites on Apples in North Carolina

By: Jim Walgenbach

This publication describes how to enhance the activity of mite predators in North Carolina apple systems, and how to determine if natural enemies alone can maintain pest mites below damaging levels, or if miticides also will be needed.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.