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This Plants Grown in Containers chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches gardeners about selecting appropriate plants and containers, and their maintenance. Both indoor houseplants and outdoor container gardening are covered.
This weeds chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses weed life cycles, how to properly identify weeds, and how to manage them using an integrated pest management approach.
Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.
This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.
Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).
This publication is a compilation of ideas from a few specialists based on research, reports in the landscape, experience, and intuition on how to manage storm and disaster damage in landscapes and nurseries.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).
Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.
This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).
This publication covers chemical weed control and weed response to a variety of crops.
This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of natural oil and acid herbicide injuries.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of HGH 75 (oxyfluorfen + trifluralin).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Dimension (dithiopyr).
Preemergence herbicide efficacy summary chart, Ranking the efficacy of preemergence herbicides on most weeds of nursery and landscape plantings.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Lontrel (clopyralid).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).
This publication discusses best practices for managing and controlling weeds in container nurseries and greenhouses, focusing on woody plant propagation and containerized liner production.
This publication describes the evaluation of plant survival and vigor on 11 extensive green roofs in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina and provides plant selection guidelines for future green roof installations.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem I (PS I) inhibitor herbicide injury.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).
Research has shown that up to 75% of the preemergence herbicides broadcast-applied to container nursery crops falls to the ground between the pots. As the size of the crop increases, the space between pots increases - -resulting in greater and greater percentages of the applied herbicide falling between pots. This factsheet covers how to apply preemergence herbicides to individual pots uniformly and accurately.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Snapshot TG (isoxaben +trifluralin).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Reward (diquat dibromide).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.
This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.
Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a carotenoid pigment inhibitor herbicide injury.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a glyphosate herbicide injury.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.
Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.
General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil
Even the best herbicides will not provide effective weed control if they're not applied accurately and uniformly. This publication describes the steps required to calibrate hand-held spreaders commonly used in container nurseries.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.
Immediately after a flood, most farmers, nursery crops producers and grounds maintenance staff have much more urgent matters to worry about than weeds. But, eventually the questions arise: Has my preemergence herbicide washed away? How do I know? Should I re-treat? What’s going to happen now? Unfortunately there is no way to provide definitive answers to these questions. But this publication offers some tips and suggestions that will help you plan a response.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Surflan (oryzalin).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gemini (isoxaben + prodiamine).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Basagran T/O (bentazon).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Goal and GoalTender (oxyfluorfen).
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Tower (dimethenamid-p).
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.
In container nurseries -- frequent hand weeding reduces cumulative weeding costs by an average of ~ 36% compared to weeding only before herbicide reapplications. Based on research conducted at North Carolina State University.
This article contains an overview of weed management practices and recommendations for pansy and viola plantings
Efficacy of preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and landscape plantings
This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses the safe use, handling, and disposal of pesticides.
For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.
Weeds compete with conifer seedlings for light, water, nutrients and space. Of these, light competition is probably the most detrimental to conifer seedlings. Shading will reduce growth, and generally weaken seedlings making them more susceptible to insects, mites and diseases. Weed competition has also been known to reduce winter hardiness. Consequently, an intensive weed control program is required to produce quality seedlings and transplants.
More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Envoy Plus (clethodim).
Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.
This table presents information on postemergence herbicides registered for use on woody ornamentals.
This table presents information on preemergence herbicides registered for use on woody ornamentals.
This table presents information on preemergence herbicides for herbaceous ornamentals.
Various mulches, including fabric or organic disks, plastic pot-toppers, and organic mulches, have been investigated for weed control in containers. Advantages, disadvantages, and cost estimates, of using mulches in container nursery crops are presented.
Sanitation is an under-utilized component of container nursery weed management. Nursery sanitation is a commitment to weed prevention and management throughout the nursery and throughout the production cycle. This publication describes strategies to prevent weeds from spreading into and within container nurseries.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Biathlon (oxyfluorfen + prodiamine).
Color guide to identification of weeds common in container nursery crop production. Also includes a table of preemergence herbicide efficacy on these species.
This table includes a list of fungicides labeled for use on ornamental plants and trees to control specific diseases as noted. The table is organized alphabetically according to plant disease common name or a pathogen. Fungicides labeled to control the disease and their labeled rate are provided in the table as a general guide only. Not all information provided on the fungicide label is duplicated within this table. It is the user’s responsibility to consult the current label for rates and restrictions and follow all directions provided on the label. This table is also not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of every fungicide name brand available to green industry professionals. It is impossible to include all brands, particularly generic brands.
This publication covers the identification and control of Florida betony, an aggressive, rhizomatous perennial in the mint family categorized as a category B noxious weed in North Carolina.
A table of efficacy rankings for preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and/or ornamental landscape plantings.
Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops -- fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.
This chart presents the grams of herbicide needed for circular landscape beds of various diameters.
When it comes to weeds, “start clean – stay clean” should be the moto of every nursery manager. This is especially true for producers of herbaceous perennials. Although we can control most grassy weeds with postemergence herbicide; otherwise, we have few herbicides to use when weeds get out of hand. Furthermore, the herbicides labeled for use in herbaceous ornamentals are either safe on many ornamentals and do not control many weeds, or control lots of weeds but are safe on only a few ornamentals. Consequently, to manage weeds effectively a comprehensive nursery weed management program including exclusion, sanitation, preemergence herbicides, some postemergence herbicides and hand weeding will be needed.
There are many species of bamboo sold in the nursery trade, some more invasive than others. The plants spread by thick, tough, underground stems (rhizomes). These rhizomes are resilient to adverse environmental conditions and most herbicides. To control such aggressive weeds you must eradicate or contain the entire infestation. Bamboo control programs will require an intensive control strategy over several years.
Phoma macrostoma, a potential biocontrol agent for turfgrass weeds, was isolated from Cirsium arvense plants in Canada and is being tested in other regions of North America for control of broadleaf weeds in turf. This research was conducted to investigate the effects of varying temperature conditions on Phoma macrostoma control of seedling broadleaf weeds. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers to compare the efficacy of three doses of Phoma macrostoma on two species, Senecio vulgaris and Lamium amplexicaule grown in 4 temperature regimes – 15/20, 20/25, 25/30 and 30/35°C (dark / light period) temperatures. These data suggest that high temperatures common in the southeastern United States should not be an impediment to activity of Phoma macrostoma efficacy, and may actually improve the control of some broadleaf weed species.
Weeds reduce the aesthetic qualities of landscape plantings and compete with nursery crops for nutrients, water, and light. Root systems compete for nitrogen and water. Even seemingly non-competitive weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) have been shown to reduce growth of container-grown plants. Tall weeds and vines shade crops, reducing photosynthesis and growth. Vining weeds such as morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) are particularly damaging because they disfigure stems and new growth. In landscape plantings, weeds must be controlled or removed to maintain quality aesthetics. Weeds may also need to be removed for health and safety reasons