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Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Getting into Hot Water: A Practical Guide to Hot-Water Heating Systems

By: Mike Boyette, R. W. Watkins

This publication provides the operator of a hot-water heating system with important basic information about this type of system and its operation. The first two sections describe a hot-water system and its parts, explain the functions of each part and give some simple design calculations for those who wish to build their own system. The third section will help the reader develop and understanding of wood fuel, and the fourth describes and explains the economics of hot-water systems.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Cabbage and Leafy Greens

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Apples

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Natural Stream Processes

By: Greg Jennings, Will Harman River Course

This publication provides information and describes technologies based on natural stream processes that can be used to restore impaired streams.

Options for Backyard Stream Repair

By: Wendi Hartup, Mitch Woodward, Bill Lord, Mike Burchell, Barbara Doll

This publication discusses strategies and techniques for stabilizing stream banks where erosion is an issue.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

A Small Backyard Greenhouse for the Home Gardener

By: Mike Boyette, Ted Bilderback

This publication presents plans and instructions for an easily constructed greenhouse that costs approximately $100 and may be used for many purposes.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Field- and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.

Controlled Drainage – An Important Practice to Protect Water Quality That Can Enhance Crop Yields

By: Chad Poole, Mike Burchell, Mohamed Youssef

This publication discusses how to use controlled drainage as way to to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural land to surface waters and groundwater. It includes information on controlled drainage systems, structure location and management, and water quality and crop yield benefits.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Postharvest Handling of Sweetpotatoes

By: Brooke A. Edmunds, Mike Boyette, Christopher A. Clark, Donald M. Ferrin, Tara P. Smith, Gerald Holmes

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the most current information and recommendations for proper postharvest handling of sweetpotatoes.

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

SDI Considerations for North Carolina Growers and Producers

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans, Michael Dukes, Dorota Haman, Kerry Harrison, Ahmad Khalilian, W. Bryan Smith, David Ross, Phil Tacker, Daniel L. Thomas, Ronald B. Sorensen, Earl Vories, Heping Zhu Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Sweet Corn

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Peppers

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.

Chlorination and Postharvest Disease Control

By: Mike Boyette, Dave Ritchie, S. J. Carballo, Sylvia Blankenship, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Technology Series

At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Onions

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.

Application of the Rosgen Stream Classification to North Carolina

By: Greg Jennings, Will Harman River Course

Restoration of impaired streams begins with an understanding of the watershed’s current condition and stream potential. Stream classification offers a way to categorize streams based on channel morphology. This factsheet focuses on a classification system popular with hydrologists, engineers, and biologists—the Rosgen stream classification system.

Ethanol and Two-Stroke Cycle Engines: Impacts of an Alternative Fuel in Small Engines

By: Matthew Veal

Because ethanol has different combustion characteristics than gasoline, some people suggest it will cause harm to two-stroke engines found in all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), lawn and garden equipment, and marine engines. Two-stroke engines require an oil and gas mixture for a fuel source, and the oil and gas are mixed in a ratio specified by the engine manufacturer. Fortunately, the concern with ethanol blended fuels is primarily associated with older engines. The majority of engine manufacturers have now designed their engines to run on E-10 blends (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline), but some precautions still remain. This bulletin will discuss the reasoning behind these precautions and why owners of some equipment powered by two-stroke engines may have concerns.

Hose Drag Systems for Land Application of Liquid Manure and Wastewater

By: Garry Grabow, Karl Shaffer, Sanjay Shah

This publication describes hose drag systems and their operation as used to apply animal waste and wastewater in North Carolina.

Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Kerry Harrison, Michael D. Dukes, Earl Vories, W. Bryan Smith, Heping Zhu, Ahmad Khalilian Subsurface Drip Irrigation

As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.

Should You Have Your Water Tested?

By: Greg Jennings, Ronald E. Sneed

Most water in North Carolina is suitable for drinking and other home uses. There are, however, circumstances which can lead to contamination of water supplies. The question of whether or not to test your water is a serious one which concerns the health of you and your family. The purpose of this factsheet is to give you general guidelines to follow when deciding to test your home water quality.

Selection and Management of Efficient Self-propelled Gun Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.

Sweet Sorghum Production to Support Energy and Industrial Products

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Matthew Whitfield

This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.

Selection and Management of Efficient Low Volume Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

Low volume irrigation systems are normally used for fruits, vegetables, container nursery plants and in the landscape. For all these uses, growers are interested in highly controlled water management systems. Selection and management considerations for low volume irrigation systems are discussed in this article.

Simplified Recipes for Poultry Mortality Bin Composting

By: Sanjay Shah, Mark Rice, Joseph Stuckey

This publication provides two simplified recipes for bin composting of routine poultry mortality for producers who may not have complete information about the carbon to nitrogen rations for the amendments available to them.

Finding Bankfull Stage in North Carolina Streams

By: William Harman River Course

This River Course publication is part of a factsheet series developed to provide information and technologies related to the use of natural channel design in restoring impaired streams.

Crushed and Liquid Ice Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.

Life Cycle Assessment: Description and Methodology

By: Kevin Caffrey, Mari Chinn

This publication reviews methodology for environmental impact assessment and describes an example.

Water Needs Assessment Tool—A Guide for Technical Specialists

By: Garry Grabow

This publication provides background information and references for the Water Needs Assessment Tool spreadsheet and its data inputs. It also discusses the methods used to generate output from the model and provides examples.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Site Selection for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Michael Dukes, Dorota Z. Haman, Freddie Lamm Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.

Dune Infiltration Systems for Reducing Stormwater Discharge to Coastal Recreational Beaches

By: Mike Burchell, Bill Hunt, William Price

An innovative Dune Infiltration System (DIS) has been developed to help prevent polluted stormwater from reaching the ocean. The goal of this factsheet is to introduce this technology to coastal towns that want to reduce the potential impact of stormwater discharge to their beaches.

Cool and Ship: A Low-Cost, Portable Forced-Air Cooling Unit

By: Mike Boyette Postharvest Technology Series

This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.

Steam: An Alternative Method of Float Tray Sanitation

By: Kyle Bostian, Grant Ellington, Lindsey Thiessen, Justin Macialek

Due to the limited availability of methyl bromide, tobacco growers need other methods to sanitize float trays prior to reseeding every year. This factsheet offers information on using steam as an alternative.

Weight-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Solid and Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Load-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Critical Management Issues for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Dorota Z. Harman, Ronald B. Sorenson, David S. Ross, Robert Evans, Phil Tacker Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.

Stormwater Wetlands for Golf Courses

By: Kris Bass, Mike Burchell, Robert Evans, Bill Hunt, Daniel Line, Danesha Seth Carley

Golf courses provide a unique setting for wetlands that can be used to provide both an environmental benefit and an aesthetic amenity. The research-based recommendations in this publication are intended to help you optimize concepts and designs for your next project.

Stormwater Management for Coastal Homeowners

By: Bill Hunt, Gloria Putnam, Lin Xu, Grace R. Lawrence Coast*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet will help coastal homeowners focus on potential problems with the pollution and health risks of water protection practices and the effects on water sources from stormwater management. Car/truck wastes, yard/garden wastes, animal wastes, rain gardens and rainwater runoff are covered.

Stationary and Traveling Irrigation Systems

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans Calibration and Uniformity Assessment for Animal Wastewater Application Equipment

This publication explains calibration procedures for stationary and hard-hose traveler irrigation systems and how to determine acceptable application uniformity for the systems as established by the ninth and latest edition of the SB 1217 document (North Carolina 1217 Interagency Group, 2009). It does not invalidate the procedures (commonly referred to as the “catch can” method) described in AG-553-1 and AG-553-2 if operators want to use those for uniformity assessment. However, AG 553-1 and AG 553-2 do not fulfill the flow measurement calibration requirements currently established by the ninth edition of the SB 1217 document.

Ground Water in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces of North Carolina

By: Rodney Huffman

Ground water is one of our most important natural resources, as over half of the population of North Carolina depends on it for drinking water. More and more, we are learning that this resource is in danger. This publication will provide an understanding of ground water and its sources. Understanding will make our task of preserving this valuable resource much easier.

Offsetting Drought for Small-Scale Vegetable Production in North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis, Robert Evans, Garry Grabow, Bill Jester, Billy Little, Allan Thornton, Jonathan Schultheis

A good source of water is a necessity for producing quality vegetables. During periods of drought, crop diversification and mulches can be used to cope with drought situations, but nothing will substitute for the timely application of water. This publication covers some guidelines for irrigation systems to help offset periods of drought in the Southeast United States.

Choosing a Pump for Rainwater Harvesting

By: Bill Hunt, Matthew Jones Urban Waterways

A pump for the cistern or tank of a water-harvesting system can increase the system's uses significantly. In this publication get step-by-step guidance on how to choose a pump to best suit the system.

Additives for Improving Hog Farm Air Quality

By: Sanjay Shah, Philip Westerman, Garry Grabow

Air quality in hog production can be improved by dietary manipulation (e.g., reducing crude protein), technology (spraying oil in the houses), management (regular washdown of pens), or additives. This paper focuses on additives used in shallow pits and lagoons.

Stormwater Wetland Construction Guidance

By: Mike Burchell, Bill Hunt, Kris Bass, Jason Wright Urban Waterways

Stormwater wetlands perform well in reducing peak flows and pollutant removal when properly designed and constructed. These wetland construction guidelines are based on experience gained at more than 30 sites across North Carolina.

Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Production

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Larry Stikeleather, Matthew B. Whitfield

This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.

Ground Water in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Rodney Huffman

Ground water is one of our most important natural resources. Fifty-five percent of the population depends on ground water for drinking. More and more, we are learning that this resource is in danger. This publication will provide an understanding of ground water and its sources. Understanding will make our task of preserving this valuable resource much easier.

Carbon Accounting: Description and Methodology

By: Kevin Caffrey, Mari Chinn

This publication discusses issues related to global climate change and the process of carbon accounting.

Purchasing a Back-Up Generator for the Farm

By: Grant Ellington Disaster Preparedness

This publication contains important information and safety tips regarding gasoline-powered generators to be used in an emergency or disaster.

Center Pivot and Linear Move Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, Jonathan Smith, R.E. Sheffield Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.

Hard Hose Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, Ronald E. Sneed, Jonathan Smith, Ron Sheffield Irrigated Acreage Determination Procedures for Wastewater Application Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.

Irrigation Scheduling to Achieve Proper Application of Wastewater

By: Robert Evans, Karl Shaffer, R.E. Sheffield, Jonathan Smith

This publication provides guidelines and recommendations for proper irrigation scheduling of wastewater.

Hose-Drag Wastewater Equipment

By: Garry Grabow, Karl Shaffer, Sanjay Shah Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

Hose-drag-type equipment has gained popularity in recent years for land application of wastewater in North Carolina. It offers several advantages over traditional irrigation systems including odor reduction, nitrogen conservation, and a relatively high flow rate that cuts the application time. This publication explains calibration procedures for the “low-profile-type” discharge system and a “boom-type” system.

A Guide to Biomass Fuels in North Carolina

By: Matthew Veal, William G. Brown

This publication gives an overview of biomass fuels, important characteristics for consumers to consider, and the economics of using these fuels.

Bioretention Performance, Design, Construction, and Maintenance

By: Bill Hunt, Bill Lord Urban Waterways

This guide provides a review of recent bioretention research and its impact on design, construction, and maintenance of bioretention stormwater systems.

Irrigation Management Strategies to Improve Water and Energy-Use Efficiencies

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication discusses irrigation decisions that affect water and energy efficiencies.

Nitrate in Drinking Water

By: Greg Jennings, Ronald E. Sneed

This factsheet explains the problems related to nitrate in drinking water and how to prevent it from affecting your water supply.

Protecting Water Supply Springs

By: Greg Jennings Water Quality & Waste Management

This factsheet provides information on spring development, protection and disinfection, and water testing.

Energy Pellets: A Heating Fuel Resource for North Carolina Farms and Homes

By: Matthew Veal, Edward Godfrey III

This publication explains the pelleting process and considerations for consumers interested in either developing small-scale heating pellet production systems or burning pellets to meet their heating needs.

Selection and Management of Efficient Hand-Move Solid Set and Permanent Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

Hand-move irrigation systems are normally used to irrigate small fields. Solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are used for irrigation, frost/freeze protection, evaporative cooling, and land application of nutrient-rich effluent. Selection and management considerations for hand-move solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are discussed in this article.

Calibrating Soil-Water Measuring Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, Ronald E. Sneed

This publication provides a step-by-step description of how to use the gravimetric method to calibrate soil-water measuring equipment.

Pumping Plant Performance

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed, J.H. Hunt

This publication discusses the causes of poor irrigation system performance. Some of these causes can be identified and corrected by the irrigator. Others require specialized evaluation equipment, and the corrections should therefore be performed by specially trained technicians.

Maintenance and Off-Season Storage of Irrigation Equipment

By: Ron Sheffield

This powerpoint presentation offers information on how to perform maintenance on irrigation equipment and store it during the off season.

Reconditioning Flood-Damaged Farm Equipment

By: Gary Roberson Disaster Recovery

This publication offers information how to recondition farm equipment that has been submerged in floodwaters.

Irrigation Scheduling to Improve Water and Energy-Use Efficiency

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication explains how you can make the most efficient use of water and energy by applying the right amount of water to cropland at the right time.

Creating a Crop Maze With GPS

By: Gary Roberson

This publication explains how to create a crop maze with GPS (global positioning system).

Ethanol: A Gasoline Alternative for North Carolina

By: Matthew Veal, Mari Chinn

Ethanol is an alternative fuel source that can be produced domestically from renewable materials. Learn about the different mixtures of ethanol available and how their use can affect vehicles, gas mileage, and fuel costs. This publication answers basic consumer questions about ethanol, its production, and its relationship to the U.S. corn crop, food prices, and sustainable energy.

Poultry Waste Stockpiling Methods: Environmental Impacts and Their Mitigation

By: Sanjay Shah, Garry Grabow, Lingjuan Wang Li

Due to pollution concerns federal and state regulations and incentives (discussed in this publication) have been established to store poultry waste in a way that reduces pollution and minimizes nutrient losses and odors. Because poultry waste storage regulations vary among states, it is important to check whether a storage method (depending on duration of storage) is acceptable in a particular state.