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This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.
This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.
This publication provides the operator of a hot-water heating system with important basic information about this type of system and its operation. The first two sections describe a hot-water system and its parts, explain the functions of each part and give some simple design calculations for those who wish to build their own system. The third section will help the reader develop and understanding of wood fuel, and the fourth describes and explains the economics of hot-water systems.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.
This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.
This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.
This publication presents plans and instructions for an easily constructed greenhouse that costs approximately $100 and may be used for many purposes.
Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater￼ discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the most current information and recommendations for proper postharvest handling of sweetpotatoes.
This factsheet provides design information on using root wads and rock vanes for streambank stabilization. Before these structures can be used, the designer must know the cause of the instability and if the problem is local or system wide.
This publication provides information and describes technologies based on natural stream processes that can be used to restore impaired streams.
Because ethanol has different combustion characteristics than gasoline, some people suggest it will cause harm to two-stroke engines found in all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), lawn and garden equipment, and marine engines. Two-stroke engines require an oil and gas mixture for a fuel source, and the oil and gas are mixed in a ratio specified by the engine manufacturer. Fortunately, the concern with ethanol blended fuels is primarily associated with older engines. The majority of engine manufacturers have now designed their engines to run on E-10 blends (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline), but some precautions still remain. This bulletin will discuss the reasoning behind these precautions and why owners of some equipment powered by two-stroke engines may have concerns.
This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.
This factsheet offers instruction on what to do with your well after a flood.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.
This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.
Restoration of impaired streams begins with an understanding of the watershed’s current condition and stream potential. Stream classification offers a way to categorize streams based on channel morphology. This factsheet focuses on a classification system popular with hydrologists, engineers, and biologists—the Rosgen stream classification system.
Stormwater wetlands perform well in reducing peak flows and pollutant removal when properly designed and constructed. These wetland construction guidelines are based on experience gained at more than 30 sites across North Carolina.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.
This River Course publication is part of a factsheet series developed to provide information and technologies related to the use of natural channel design in restoring impaired streams.
This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.
At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.
This publication discusses how to use controlled drainage as way to to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural land to surface waters and groundwater. It includes information on controlled drainage systems, structure location and management, and water quality and crop yield benefits.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.
A good source of water is a necessity for producing quality vegetables. During periods of drought, crop diversification and mulches can be used to cope with drought situations, but nothing will substitute for the timely application of water. This publication covers some guidelines for irrigation systems to help offset periods of drought in the Southeast United States.
An innovative Dune Infiltration System (DIS) has been developed to help prevent polluted stormwater from reaching the ocean. The goal of this factsheet is to introduce this technology to coastal towns that want to reduce the potential impact of stormwater discharge to their beaches.
This publication discusses irrigation decisions that affect water and energy efficiencies.
Hose-drag-type equipment has gained popularity in recent years for land application of wastewater in North Carolina. It offers several advantages over traditional irrigation systems including odor reduction, nitrogen conservation, and a relatively high flow rate that cuts the application time. This publication explains calibration procedures for the “low-profile-type” discharge system and a “boom-type” system.
This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.
This publication provides two simplified recipes for bin composting of routine poultry mortality for producers who may not have complete information about the carbon to nitrogen rations for the amendments available to them.
This publication discusses strategies and techniques for stabilizing stream banks where erosion is an issue.
This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.
The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.
Golf courses provide a unique setting for wetlands that can be used to provide both an environmental benefit and an aesthetic amenity. The research-based recommendations in this publication are intended to help you optimize concepts and designs for your next project.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication describes structural stormwater practices that filter and reduce stormwater runoff from residential and commercial developments: permeable pavements, green roofs and cisterns. The practices described can be used in low-impact development to conserve a site's natural response to rainfall.
As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.
Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.
These new design guidelines for stormwater wetlands focus on four design points: internal wetland zones, herbaceous plants that thrive in stormwater wetlands, a proper growing medium, and the importance of a flexible outlet structure and its construction.
A rainwater harvesting system captures stormwater runoff, often from a rooftop, and stores the water in a cistern for later use. In this guide for homeowners, the authors describe the components of a rainwater harvesting system and how they work together. Guidelines for choosing, sizing and installing the components are included.
This publication provides a step-by-step description of how to use the gravimetric method to calibrate soil-water measuring equipment.
This publication explains how you can make the most efficient use of water and energy by applying the right amount of water to cropland at the right time.
This publication presents maintenance guidelines for stormwater wetlands and wet ponds, two stormwater practices that are being constructed across North Carolina. Stormwater management practices must be kept in proper working order to maintain their intended functions and aesthetic appeal.
This publication gives an overview of biomass fuels, important characteristics for consumers to consider, and the economics of using these fuels.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.
This publication will review a number of the structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) that can be constructed to treat runoff and thereby reduce the amount of pollution entering streams.
This publication explains calibration procedures for stationary and hard-hose traveler irrigation systems and how to determine acceptable application uniformity for the systems as established by the ninth and latest edition of the SB 1217 document (North Carolina 1217 Interagency Group, 2009). It does not invalidate the procedures (commonly referred to as the “catch can” method) described in AG-553-1 and AG-553-2 if operators want to use those for uniformity assessment. However, AG 553-1 and AG 553-2 do not fulfill the flow measurement calibration requirements currently established by the ninth edition of the SB 1217 document.
Hand-move irrigation systems are normally used to irrigate small fields. Solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are used for irrigation, frost/freeze protection, evaporative cooling, and land application of nutrient-rich effluent. Selection and management considerations for hand-move solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
Controlling pathogens in runoff presents a growing challenge for stormwater managers and designers. This fact sheet provides an overview of pathogens: what they are, how they affect people, and how they are regulated; describes their association with stormwater runoff; and investigates stormwater management practices that may limit pathogen presence in surface waters.
This publication reviews methodology for environmental impact assessment and describes an example.
This powerpoint presentation offers information on how to perform maintenance on irrigation equipment and store it during the off season.
This publication focuses on stormwater wetlands: their function, effectiveness, design,advantages and liabilities and costs.
This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.
This publication discusses issues related to global climate change and the process of carbon accounting.
This publication describes hose drag systems and their operation as used to apply animal waste and wastewater in North Carolina.
This question and answer worksheet will help coastal homeowners focus on potential problems with the pollution and health risks of water protection practices and the effects on water sources from stormwater management. Car/truck wastes, yard/garden wastes, animal wastes, rain gardens and rainwater runoff are covered.
This design bulletin for stormwater wetland designers and managers introduces the concept of ecosystem services, reviews how stormwater wetlands provide many of these services and describes how wetland design can enhance ecosystem services.
The North Carolina Pesticide Board has adopted regulations covering chemigation. The purpose of these regulations is to protect water resources from pesticide pollution by reducing the potential for backsiphoning or direct injection of pesticides into water sources. This publication explains the regulations and offers recommendations on fertigation.
This publication explains the pelleting process and considerations for consumers interested in either developing small-scale heating pellet production systems or burning pellets to meet their heating needs.
Low volume irrigation systems are normally used for fruits, vegetables, container nursery plants and in the landscape. For all these uses, growers are interested in highly controlled water management systems. Selection and management considerations for low volume irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
This publication discusses the causes of poor irrigation system performance. Some of these causes can be identified and corrected by the irrigator. Others require specialized evaluation equipment, and the corrections should therefore be performed by specially trained technicians.
This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication provides guidelines and recommendations for proper irrigation scheduling of wastewater.
In this publication, we summarize the current research and describe construction methods that developers can use to more effectively meet the goals of low impact development and stormwater management.