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This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.
Although one of the most common stormwater control measures for managing roadway runoff, increased demand for urban stormwater control has resulted in the evolution of swale types. This publication proposes standard definitions for swale terminology for consistent application across communities.
This publication discusses ways in which mosquitoes could become a problem for rainwater harvesting systems and provides solutions and preventative measures to protect cisterns, rain barrels, and other rainwater collection systems from becoming havens for mosquitoes.
This publication provides the operator of a hot-water heating system with important basic information about this type of system and its operation. The first two sections describe a hot-water system and its parts, explain the functions of each part and give some simple design calculations for those who wish to build their own system. The third section will help the reader develop and understanding of wood fuel, and the fourth describes and explains the economics of hot-water systems.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.
A rainwater harvesting system captures stormwater runoff, often from a rooftop, and stores the water in a cistern for later use. In this guide for homeowners, the authors describe the components of a rainwater harvesting system and how they work together. Guidelines for choosing, sizing and installing the components are included.
This publication provides information and describes technologies based on natural stream processes that can be used to restore impaired streams.
This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.
This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.
This publication discusses strategies and techniques for stabilizing stream banks where erosion is an issue.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.
This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater￼ discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.
Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.
This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.
This publication discusses how to use controlled drainage as way to to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural land to surface waters and groundwater. It includes information on controlled drainage systems, structure location and management, and water quality and crop yield benefits.
This publication presents plans and instructions for an easily constructed greenhouse that costs approximately $100 and may be used for many purposes.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.
This publication provides plant recommendations for infiltrating wet ponds constructed in areas with sandy soils. Plants in these areas must be able to withstand periods of both drought and inundation due to the nature of the soils.
This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.
This publication discusses the environmental benefits of planting miscanthus — a tall, perennial grass — on lands that otherwise have poor results with traditional row crops.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.
Anaerobic swine lagoon sludge sampling allows operators to determine the nutrient concentration in the sludge through laboratory analysis. This publication provides information about different options for sampling sludge in these lagoons.
This publication for lagoon managers and operators describes how to carry out a sludge survey and discusses sludge depth measurement, volume determination, and nutrient sampling. It draws upon and supplements the information in another publication on sludge management in anaerobic lagoons: Sludge Management and Closure Procedures for Anaerobic Lagoons (AG-604).
This factsheet is designed to give a brief overview of natural and constructed wetlands and provide key information to help identify these wetlands and the functions they provide.
This publication discusses the practice of leasing estuarine waters on the North Carolina coast for shellfish mariculture. It covers how shellfish are grown in North Carolina, how shellfish leases work, what constitutes a shellfish growing area and shellfish harvest closure, and the process for reopening after a closure.
This publication provides information and guidance on using computer code to access the National Agricultural Statistics Service's survey data to view data from multiple years, crops, and other categories.
An innovative Dune Infiltration System (DIS) has been developed to help prevent polluted stormwater from reaching the ocean. The goal of this factsheet is to introduce this technology to coastal towns that want to reduce the potential impact of stormwater discharge to their beaches.
At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.
Transporting livestock manure to nutrient deficient fields can often be cost prohibitive without manure processing. Pyrolysis converts manure solids into biochar resulting in significant mass and volume reduction, while retaining high nutrient value. This fact sheet introduces the basics of pyrolysis technology, discusses the benefits and end uses of manure-derived biochar, and provides an overview of cost and technology limitations.
This publication provides an overview of historical wetland trends in North Carolina and discusses how wetland regulations have evolved to their current status. It also summarizes the potential new impacts of climate change on North Carolina wetlands.
This publication provides basic information on animal production systems and reviews the movement of nitrogen in concentrated feeding operations for swine.
This River Course publication is part of a factsheet series developed to provide information and technologies related to the use of natural channel design in restoring impaired streams.
This publication looks at historical records to estimate the number of days available for planting and harvesting peanuts in North Carolina. The goal is to provide producers with information to help plan for the available days suitable for field work and make decisions about peanut equipment and working acreage.
This factsheet provides a review of strategies for designing and maintaining stormwater facilities to limit mosquito populations.
This publication describes hose drag systems and their operation as used to apply animal waste and wastewater in North Carolina.
Restoration of impaired streams begins with an understanding of the watershed’s current condition and stream potential. Stream classification offers a way to categorize streams based on channel morphology. This factsheet focuses on a classification system popular with hydrologists, engineers, and biologists—the Rosgen stream classification system.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.
Because ethanol has different combustion characteristics than gasoline, some people suggest it will cause harm to two-stroke engines found in all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), lawn and garden equipment, and marine engines. Two-stroke engines require an oil and gas mixture for a fuel source, and the oil and gas are mixed in a ratio specified by the engine manufacturer. Fortunately, the concern with ethanol blended fuels is primarily associated with older engines. The majority of engine manufacturers have now designed their engines to run on E-10 blends (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline), but some precautions still remain. This bulletin will discuss the reasoning behind these precautions and why owners of some equipment powered by two-stroke engines may have concerns.
This publication addresses application techniques that affect drift and odor problems associated with wastewater application, so that managers and designers of land application systems can make wise decisions on how to apply wastewater with minimal impact on neighbors and the environment.
This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.
This publication provides an overview of how satellite remote sensing can be used to help monitor algal blooms in bodies of water. It also explains some of the limitations of using satellite imagery for this purpose.
Stormwater wetlands perform well in reducing peak flows and pollutant removal when properly designed and constructed. These wetland construction guidelines are based on experience gained at more than 30 sites across North Carolina.
This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.
This publication discusses the presence of various pollutants in rooftop runoff and establishes some general guidelines regarding the use of collected rainwater in North Carolina.
This factsheet offers instruction on what to do with your well after a flood.
Subsurface drainage is beneficial to agricultural lands by improving crop yield and eliminating prolonged wet periods without taking land out of production. This publication provides an overview of the costs of installing subsurface drainage on agricultural lands in North Carolina.
As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.
This publication contains important information and safety tips regarding gasoline-powered generators to be used in an emergency or disaster.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage of stationary sprinkler irrigation systems.
These new design guidelines for stormwater wetlands focus on four design points: internal wetland zones, herbaceous plants that thrive in stormwater wetlands, a proper growing medium, and the importance of a flexible outlet structure and its construction.
The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.
Knowing the soil profile of your agricultural land will help determine the spacing needed for installing subsurface drains. This publication provides essential information to producers, landowners, farm managers, and contractors for determining proper drain spacing based on soil types.
This factsheet discusses increased sediment deposits in bivalve aquaculture.
Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.
Hose-drag-type equipment has gained popularity in recent years for land application of wastewater in North Carolina. It offers several advantages over traditional irrigation systems including odor reduction, nitrogen conservation, and a relatively high flow rate that cuts the application time. This publication explains calibration procedures for the “low-profile-type” discharge system and a “boom-type” system.
This publication provides two simplified recipes for bin composting of routine poultry mortality for producers who may not have complete information about the carbon to nitrogen rations for the amendments available to them.
Screw press separators can divide a single by-product stream into a solid and liquid stream to improve handling and management. These processing systems are commonly used in manure handling systems but can be used for management of many organic streams. For example, a wet digestion system that accepts food waste may also integrate the technology following anaerobic digestion. Regardless of the application, screw press separators are more efficient in removing solids from manure slurry streams (greater than four percent total solids or dry matter content) than with more dilute liquid manure streams. The systems are known to improve manure handling as well as reduce environmental impacts of livestock systems.
Including sloped screens for solid-liquid manure separation can have positive impacts on manure management systems by reducing lagoon sludge buildup, recycling manure fiber, and mitigating fibers. This fact sheet reviews the key indices used to evaluate the effectiveness, throughput, and other key factors, along with a summary of the cost and benefits of adopting sloped screen separation in multi-stage manure treatment systems.
This publication offers information how to recondition farm equipment that has been submerged in floodwaters.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the most current information and recommendations for proper postharvest handling of sweetpotatoes.
This publication discusses using poultry waste as a nutrient treatment for field crops. It provides practical information that can be used to calibrate spinner spreaders for the most effective land-application of poultry litter. A spreader calibration worksheet is included.
This publication discusses the challenges of accurately testing for fecal coliform bacteria in coastal waters. It includes information about fecal coliform bacteria and how they affect coast systems and provides options for sampling and computer modeling methods that help growers, regulators, and coastal communities make decisions about coastal activities.
This publication discusses irrigation decisions that affect water and energy efficiencies.
This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication offers information on how to perform maintenance on irrigation equipment and store it during the off-season. Prepared by: Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist Bio. & Ag. Engineering please contact Garry Grabow
This publication provides background information and references for the Water Needs Assessment Tool spreadsheet and its data inputs. It also discusses the methods used to generate output from the model and provides examples.
Manure is among the lowest methane yielding feedstocks in digesters, but it is widely used in agricultural anaerobic digestion systems due to its continuous availability in one location, its capacity to resist changes in pH, and its relatively easy integration into existing manure management systems. System types, costs, and environmental benefits are discussed.
This guide provides a review of recent bioretention research and its impact on design, construction, and maintenance of bioretention stormwater systems.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of hard hose and cable tow irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This question and answer worksheet will help coastal homeowners focus on potential problems with the pollution and health risks of water protection practices and the effects on water sources from stormwater management. Car/truck wastes, yard/garden wastes, animal wastes, rain gardens and rainwater runoff are covered.
A pump for the cistern or tank of a water-harvesting system can increase the system's uses significantly. In this publication get step-by-step guidance on how to choose a pump to best suit the system.
Golf courses provide a unique setting for wetlands that can be used to provide both an environmental benefit and an aesthetic amenity. The research-based recommendations in this publication are intended to help you optimize concepts and designs for your next project.
This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.
This publication provides information about building a simple yet effective system for reducing odors and dust emissions from swine barns.
This publication explains how you can make the most efficient use of water and energy by applying the right amount of water to cropland at the right time.
This factsheet provides information on spring development, protection and disinfection, and water testing.
This publication explains calibration procedures for stationary and hard-hose traveler irrigation systems and how to determine acceptable application uniformity for the systems as established by the ninth and latest edition of the SB 1217 document (North Carolina 1217 Interagency Group, 2009). It does not invalidate the procedures (commonly referred to as the “catch can” method) described in AG-553-1 and AG-553-2 if operators want to use those for uniformity assessment. However, AG 553-1 and AG 553-2 do not fulfill the flow measurement calibration requirements currently established by the ninth edition of the SB 1217 document.
Hand-move irrigation systems are normally used to irrigate small fields. Solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are used for irrigation, frost/freeze protection, evaporative cooling, and land application of nutrient-rich effluent. Selection and management considerations for hand-move solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
This publication provides a step-by-step description of how to use the gravimetric method to calibrate soil-water measuring equipment.
This publication discusses issues related to global climate change and the process of carbon accounting.
Due to the limited availability of methyl bromide, tobacco growers need other methods to sanitize float trays prior to reseeding every year. This factsheet offers information on using steam as an alternative.
Uncrewed vehicles are simply vehicles that operate without a human operator aboard. They can either be autonomous or remotely operated. This factsheet will introduce you to the many different types of uncrewed vehicles that are being used in the sky, on the ground, or in the water.
This fact sheet discusses different types of amendments that can be used to manage ammonia levels in broiler houses.
This fact sheet describes management strategies designed to conserve and use existing water resources more efficiently in coastal plain soils.
This publication describes the major systems used in farm equipment and outlines basic maintenance procedures that equipment operators can use to enhance performance and efficiency.
The home water treatment industry has expanded tremendously in recent years. New products are constantly being introduced which claim to solve a variety of water quality problems. Consumers often make costly decisions about water treatment equipment without being well-informed. Many people simply do not know what questions to ask to ensure wise investments. This fact sheet offers the 12 questions consumers should ask of water treatment manufacturers or distributors.
This factsheet explains how wetlands type and location influence water quality, and it reviews the cases for development or preservation.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.
This publication presents maintenance guidelines for stormwater wetlands and wet ponds, two stormwater practices that are being constructed across North Carolina. Stormwater management practices must be kept in proper working order to maintain their intended functions and aesthetic appeal.
Most water in North Carolina is suitable for drinking and other home uses. There are, however, circumstances which can lead to contamination of water supplies. The question of whether or not to test your water is a serious one which concerns the health of you and your family. The purpose of this factsheet is to give you general guidelines to follow when deciding to test your home water quality.
This publication explains the pelleting process and considerations for consumers interested in either developing small-scale heating pellet production systems or burning pellets to meet their heating needs.
Before installing a dual-purpose subsurface drainage and subirrigation system on your farm, have your site evaluated by the local Soil Conservation Service (SCS) to determine whether this option is suitable for your farm and your needs. If your site is found to be physically suitable, this publication will help you determine whether installing this type of system will be a wise investment.
North Carolina farmers grow crops on over 2 million acres of poorly drained soils. These fields represent nearly 40 percent of the state's cropland. This publication offers information on controlled drainage management guidelines for improving drainage water quality.
As heat stress is one of the most significant management challenges facing the N.C. turkey industry, this publication reviews ventilation for the cooling of heaving strains of turkeys during the growing period after brooding.
Due to pollution concerns federal and state regulations and incentives (discussed in this publication) have been established to store poultry waste in a way that reduces pollution and minimizes nutrient losses and odors. Because poultry waste storage regulations vary among states, it is important to check whether a storage method (depending on duration of storage) is acceptable in a particular state.
This publication reviews methodology for environmental impact assessment and describes an example.
This factsheet summarizes key technologies used to produce pellets from animal manures and the impact of process variables (temperature, pressure, moisture content) on the final product. The factsheet reviews key quality indices used to evaluate manure pellet quality. It also presents an overview of how scale, cost and environmental benefits, and trade-offs impact technology adoption.
This publication summarizes design considerations, system operations and information on monitoring controlled drainage and subirrigation systems.
This publication explains how to plan and maintain subirrigation systems by providing information on types of water supplies and pumps and water quality.
This publication explains how future agricultural practices must be designed and managed to protect water quality.
This guide describes common types of well construction in North Carolina and offers advice for safely constructing and caring for a well.
This factsheet explains the problems related to nitrate in drinking water and how to prevent it from affecting your water supply.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of stationary sprinkler irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.
Air quality in hog production can be improved by dietary manipulation (e.g., reducing crude protein), technology (spraying oil in the houses), management (regular washdown of pens), or additives. This paper focuses on additives used in shallow pits and lagoons.
Ethanol is an alternative fuel source that can be produced domestically from renewable materials. Learn about the different mixtures of ethanol available and how their use can affect vehicles, gas mileage, and fuel costs. This publication answers basic consumer questions about ethanol, its production, and its relationship to the U.S. corn crop, food prices, and sustainable energy.
As the use of permeable pavement increases in North Carolina, practitioners can look to research findings for guidance. Recent research in North Carolina and elsewhere has focused on four aspects: runoff reduction, clogging, long-term hydrology and water quality. This overview highlights research findings, discusses research implications, and provides direct links to the research.
This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.
This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.
The center pivot and linear-move type irrigation systems are usually the most practical system for irrigating large, rectangular or regular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for center pivot and linear-move type systems are discussed in this article.
Low volume irrigation systems are normally used for fruits, vegetables, container nursery plants and in the landscape. For all these uses, growers are interested in highly controlled water management systems. Selection and management considerations for low volume irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
This publication discusses the causes of poor irrigation system performance. Some of these causes can be identified and corrected by the irrigator. Others require specialized evaluation equipment, and the corrections should therefore be performed by specially trained technicians.
Ground water is one of our most important natural resources. Fifty-five percent of the population depends on ground water for drinking. More and more, we are learning that this resource is in danger. This publication will provide an understanding of ground water and its sources. Understanding will make our task of preserving this valuable resource much easier.
Ground water is one of our most important natural resources, as over half of the population of North Carolina depends on it for drinking water. More and more, we are learning that this resource is in danger. This publication will provide an understanding of ground water and its sources. Understanding will make our task of preserving this valuable resource much easier.
This publication will help you understand hydrology (the movement of water above and below ground) and how it influences the effectiveness of management practices aimed at improving coastal water quality.
This publication covers information on hydraulic ram pumps and offers guidelines on installation and purchasing a system.
Most North Carolina homeowners could easily reduce their indoor water consumption by about 30 percent through the installation of very simple water conserving devices. This publication covers a few suggestions to reduce household water use.