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An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.
This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.
This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.
This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.
Frost forms on solid objects when the water vapor in the atmosphere changes from its vapor phase to small ice crystals. Frost is not frozen dew. If you see frost than you know that the temperature of the object it is on reached 32°F or lower. However, the air temperature, measured at five feet above ground in the vicinity of this object, is likely several degrees higher. Conversely, not every air temperature recorded at or below 32°F means frost formed on solid objects in the area. In spite of this, the average date of the last spring air temperature of 32°F has traditionally been called the last frost date.
This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.
This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.
This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.
This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production: crop rotation, tillage, variety selection, planting date, seeding rates and drill operation, soil fertility, and harvest.
This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweetpotatoes.
This publication covers chemical weed control and weed response to a variety of crops.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic corn production: hybrid selection, planting date, crop rotation, soil fertility and plant reproduction, and propagation.
This publication, chapter 12 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.
This publication, chapter 1 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2019.
This publication, chapter 1 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describes the soybean plant and its various growth stages.
This vegetable disease factsheet discusses collar rot and Alternaria stem canker of tomato, which are caused by different species of fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria. Both pathogens can cause large, irregularly shaped stem lesions with pronounced concentric rings. However, the concentric rings may not always be pronounced with collar rot.
This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing flue-cured tobacco in North Carolina.
This factsheet for farmers describes ways to control the harmful effects of excess nutrients while maintaining healthy, productive farm crops. Steps covered include testing your soil and following the soil testing recommendations, setting realistic yield goals, choosing the most suitable nitrogen sources, applying nitrogen correctly, using manure as a nutrient source, controlling erosion, managing water flow and fencing animals away from water flow.
Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.
This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.
2019 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.
This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.
This vegetable disease factsheet discusses Southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomato and pepper, and several other economically important crops, including bean, cantaloupe, carrot, pepper, potato, sweetpotato, and watermelons.
This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.
This publication covers insect control in a variety of crops, as well as household pests.
This factsheet discusses pythium root and crown rot in industrial hemp production.
In most of the south, sweet corn can be produced from early spring until fall. However, sweet corn does have some specific environmental and cultural needs that must be met for the plant to produce high-marketable yields. Corn is a warm-season crop that requires high temperatures for optimum germination and rapid growth. In general, sweet corn does not tolerate cold weather, and frost will injure sweet corn at any stage of growth. Other stressful climatic conditions, such as drought or flooding, can reduce yields and cause small, deformed ears.
Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers weed management in corn production.
This publication discusses how to use controlled drainage as way to to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural land to surface waters and groundwater. It includes information on controlled drainage systems, structure location and management, and water quality and crop yield benefits.
This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.
Each year, a portion of the state's fruit and vegetable crop is lost to low temperature damage. Protection methods exist. This leaflet seeks to explain the occurrence of frosts and freezes and to provide information on protection methods.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses common questions and answers about corn production.
This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing peanuts in North Carolina.
Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.
This factsheet shares the symptoms and control of Granville Wilt, a devastating disease of tobacco in North Carolina.
Phosphorus (P) is the second most important nutrient in crop production but is often found in relatively low amounts in native soils. Decades of fertilizer application have led to P enrichment of most North Carolina agricultural soils. Excess soil P that leaves agricultural fields via runoff and drainage can cause algal blooms in water resources that lead to impaired drinking water quality and can limit recreational activities. Maintaining adequate soil P levels for crop growth can reduce P runoff, save money, and protect the environment
This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.
This comprehensive guide covers crop management, fertilizers, irrigation and drought management, tillage, insect and disease management, and marketing concerns for corn production.
This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.
Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.
As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.
Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.
This publication, chapter 2 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses the soybean market in the United States and managing price risk for North Carolina soybean farmers.
Field corn was grown in North America before 200 BC. Field corn is produced primarily for animal feed and industrial uses such as ethanol, cooking oil, etc. In contrast, sweet corn is produced for human consumption as either a fresh or processed product.
Calibrating a seed drill before planting is an important task that can help to maximize the success of your forage stand. This publication will guide you through the steps of proper calibration.
This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.
Root knot nematodes can cause significant damages to soybean fields in North Carolina. This factsheet describes the different species of root knot nematodes and their management in soybean production.
This factsheet offers FAQs for distillers/brewers/maltsters wishing to use North Carolina-grown grain in their product, as well as FAQs for farmers looking to enter the distilling/brewing/malting market.
This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the most current information and recommendations for proper postharvest handling of sweetpotatoes.
This publication provides an overview of the differences in forage quality by reviewing a summary of forage hay samples submitted to the N.C. State Fair Forage Contest over a 20 year period. It also discusses tools for ranking the quality of forages.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses hybrid characteristics and selection, planting dates, seedbed preparation, and harvest and storage concerns.
This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It presents descriptions and pictures of some of the most common weeds, and it provides references for other weeds that are not in this publication. Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. This publication does not recommend specific chemical control methods because differences in situations, rapidly changing labels, and new products make generalized recommendations impractical.
This factsheet for farmers describes concepts, terminology, and guidelines concerning precision soil sampling. Proper testing allows farmers to apply the correct amount of lime and fertilizer to fields.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.
This publication discusses the methods and results of a study researching the benefits of cover crop mulches in cotton production. Cover crops provide nutrients to subsequent crops while conserving soil moisture and suppressing weeds, pests, and diseases without adversely affecting yield.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.
This publication, chapter 10 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describe harvesting, drying, and storing soybeans.
This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.
Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) first appeared in Arkansas in 1971 and has since spread to almost every soybean producing state. SDS rarely affects plants in North Carolina, but losses are seen when infections are concurrent with soybean cyst nematode infections or cool, wet environmental conditions. This factsheet describes SDS and its management in North Carolina.
Growing season is defined as the number of days without an air temperature of 32°F or lower. This leaflet offers tables indicating the average growing season, as well as he standard deviation (the amount of dispersion around the average) for cities around North Carolina.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic soybean production: variety selection, planting times, plant population, and crop rotation.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide defines the key components of organic production systems: crop sequence, crop management, soil management, and pest management.
This publication covers disease control in a variety of crops.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.
Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.
In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.
Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses diseases in corn production.
This publication describes how cotton growers in the Southeast can use a pocket-size scouting decision aid to assess and manage stink bug damage based on thresholds for different cotton growth stages.
Adequate sulfur is necessary for crops, but there’s no one-size-fits-all recommendation for application in North Carolina. Best management practices take sulfur removal and incidental sulfur inputs for the entire crop rotation, soil type and profile depth layers and soil and plant analysis results.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.
This publication, chapter 7 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, addresses weed management in soybean production.
This publication, chapter 9 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers common insects and their control in soybean production.
This publication, chapter 10 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information on the most efficient use of fuel and electricity while maintaining the highest cured leaf quality.
This publication discusses the symptoms and management of Pythium root rot in stevia production in North Carolina.
Due to the limited availability of methyl bromide, tobacco growers need other methods to sanitize float trays prior to reseeding every year. This factsheet offers information on using steam as an alternative.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic flue-cured tobacco production.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic sweet potato tobacco production.
This publication discusses the results of recent nitrogen rate trials in the North Carolina coastal plain that assessed the recommendations of the Realistic Yield Expectation (RYE) database.
Variable growing environments for wheat can lead to challenges from one season to another. Adaptive management is a system of adjusting management practices based on weather fluctuations. This publication provides information on how environmental extremes influence wheat growth and how to implement adaptive management practices for optimal wheat yield.
Peanut growers in North Carolina can successfully use conservation tillage if they carefully plan the transition from a conventional system. Growers should consider the production details, such as field selection and crop rotation and advisory index in this guide to make a successful transition.
This publication, chapter 6 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers fertilization and nutrient management in soybean production.
This publication, chapter 11 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, presents some facts and figures about soybeans and their production.
This publication provides information to growers about soybean production in North Carolina. It discusses economic trends and forecasts, cultural practices, variety selection, planting decisions, nutrient management, diseases and pests, and other production practices.
This publication examines the timing and application rate of two biocontrol products based on nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to reduce mycotoxin contamination in corn.
This publication discusses the basic concepts of stockpiling as a forage management practice, including the purpose of stockpiling, which grasses can be stockpiled, nutritive valued of stockpiled tall fescue, and fertilization management.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses fertilizer and lime management in corn production.
Gray mold of industrial hemp is common to most regions that produce this crop. It is favored by cool, wet conditions, and may cause significant losses.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.
This publication, chapter 3 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses tillage, crop rotation, and cover crops in soybean production.
This publication, chapter 3 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco varieties and variety testing.
Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.
This publication discusses water capacity, soil's effect on water availability, and proper soil management to maximize water availability. Soil texture and structure, soil density, soil crusting, tillage and controlled traffic are covered.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.
This publication explains plant growth regulators for a variety of crops.
This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.
This publication, chapter 5 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses soybean planting decisions, including planting dates, depth, and seeding equipment calibration.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers irrigation and drought management for corn.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers tillage considerations in corn production.
This publication discusses how the Nitrogen Loss Estimation Worksheet Tool can be used to account for agricultural nitrogen levels as an alternative to water quality monitoring.
Cotton root knot nematodes are capable of causing significant losses to cotton production. In addition to direct damage, root knot nematode can allow for secondary pathogens to impact yields, as well. This publication describes root knot nematodes and their management in cotton.
This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.
Sweetpotato seed roots should be pre-sprouted for maximum transplant production. Presprouting is the process by which sweetpotato seed stock is conditioned to produce sprouts (transplants) prior to bedding. Some refer to this as "waking up" the sweetpotatoes after they have been asleep in storage during the winter. This reinforces the often overlooked fact that sweetpotatoes are still alive.
New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”
This publication provides research-based guidance on using cover crops in organic corn production to suppress weeds and provide fertility benefits.
Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.
Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.
The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.
This publication, chapter 16 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2018 Cotton Information book.
This publication summarizes the findings of a three-year study that analyzed the effects of fungicides, bio controls, and Bt hybrids on reducing mycotoxins in corn. It reviews effectiveness, application rate, and yield for each control option.
This publication provides background information and references for the Water Needs Assessment Tool spreadsheet and its data inputs. It also discusses the methods used to generate output from the model and provides examples.
This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.
Nitrogen fertilizer products are being developed and marketed as having the potential to increase yields and nutrient use efficiency, and decrease volatilization (gas). How do these products actually perform on different soils and row crops, under various climatic conditions? This publication summarizes findings from recent studies that investigated alternative nitrogen fertilizer products for row crops in four North Carolina regions.
Most soil compaction from equipment traffic occurs where tires contact soil during the first pass over soil. Farmers can reduce compaction by limiting traffic to interrows that have already been trafficked. The authors report their research on traffic patterns and recommend ways that farmers can manage field traffic to limit soil compaction.
Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.
This publication offers fertilizer suggestions for a variety of crops, including field, pasture and hay crops, tree fruit, small fruit, ornamental plants and vegetable crops.
Posters available to print regarding industrial hemp in North Carolina.
This publication, chapter 3 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, describes stand establishment and variety selection and characteristics for peanut production.
This publication, chapter 8 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, covers disease management in tobacco production.
This publication, chapter 15 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.
This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.
This publication, chapter 12 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, discusses organic production of peanuts in North Carolina.
Grapes are subject to attack by many different pests, including nematodes, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, insects, and wildlife, such as deer and birds.Weeds, which compete with the vines for soil moisture and nutrients, may also be included in this list. Recognizing and understanding the nature of these pests is essential to minimizing crop losses.This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.
Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses rolled cover crop mulches for organic corn and soybean production.
Soil samples that determine lime and fertilizer needs of crops routinely come from the top 4 to 8 inches of soil. However, deep soil samples will be needed for the Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT), and this publication describes how to take these 28- to 32-inch deep samples.
This chapter from the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses the organic standards for soil management.
This factsheet explains how to use dairy manure as a fertilizer source. Included are descriptions of nutrient content, application rates and application methods to ensure optimum benefit from the manure. A worksheet is provided for calculating application rates.
This publication helps farmers decide whether to reduce fertilization rates in order to achieve maximum profits due to increases in nitrogen fertilizer prices.
Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.
This publication, chapter 5 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information of managing nutrients in tobacco production.
This publication, chapter 14 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.
This publication, chapter 11 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.
This publication, chapter 7 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.
Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.
Grapevines require 16 essential nutrients for normal growth and development (Table 9.1). Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained as the roots take in water and as the leaves absorb gases. The remaining nutrients are obtained primarily from the soil. Macronutrients are those used in relatively large quantities by vines; natural macronutrients are often supplemented with applied fertilizers.The micronutrients, although no less essential, are needed in very small quantities. When one or more of these elements is deficient, vines may exhibit foliar deficiency symptoms, reduced growth or crop yield, and greater susceptiblity to winter injury or death. The availability of essential nutrients is therefore critical for optimum vine performance and profitable grape production.
Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.
Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.
Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.
The spined stilt is the most abundant predator insect in tobacco and is found in other economically important crops covered with trichomes, including tomatoes. This factsheet offers information on this pest.
Table of contents for the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide.
This factsheet explains how proper land application of municipal biosolids can protect public health and maintain or improve environmental quality and it encourages the beneficial use of wastes.
Corn starter fertilizers have been used successfully to increase early plant growth, nutrient uptake, and yields in research trials and on the farm. They also promote earlier maturity, improve southern corn billbug control, and help suppress weeds through earlier shading. Use of starter fertilizers is increasing in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. This factsheet presents the principles of successful starter fertilizer use, research results relevant to North Carolina, and management suggestions for corn producers.
With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.
The North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide provides farmers, Extension personnel and other agricultural educators with information about organic production, certification and marketing of crops. The introduction provides background context and additional resources on the topic.
Forages can be conserved in the form of hay, baleage, and silage. It is important to keep in mind that, at best, conserved forages can rarely match the nutritive value of fresh forage. Some losses of highly digestible nutrients start immediately after cutting and are unavoidable. The goal in forage conservation is to focus on minimizing losses.
This publication, chapter 7 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the planting and harvesting methods of peanuts.
This publication, chapter 2 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.
Sweetpotato production should be planned as a part of your total annual farm management scheme. Sweetpotatoes should not be grown just "once in a while" or just in those years you think you'll be able to "get rich quick." Commitment to an ongoing production program is required in order for you to be a successful grower.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses the components that make up a cropping system and how those components are often combined to reach production goals for a farm or farm field.
This factsheet offers information on the signs, symptoms, and control of cylindrocladium black rot in peanut production.
Potato leafhopper description, life history, damage, and control.
This publication is the third in a series on greenhouse transplant production. It discusses the sources and quality of water essential to success in economically producing uniform, high-quality transplants.
This publication discusses a study to compare five winter pea genotypes to crimson clover and hairy vetch for biomass production in mixture with various small grains.
This publication discusses the trends identified by research on the impacts of foliar fungicides and fertilizers on soybean yields in various environments across North Carolina.
This factsheet presents findings from studies to evaluate different starter fertilizer sources and their impacts on yield and weed competition in organic no-till corn production, using a cover crop mulch for weed suppression.
Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.
This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide offers information on marketing organic grains.
This factsheet covers how to calculate soybean losses and how to check operational guidelines to ensure a greater yield.
This publication, chapter 4 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses how to choose a variety of soybean to plant.
This publication, chapter 10 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, offers information on peanut growth and development, including grading.
This publication, chapter 1 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes the current US tobacco market.
This publication, part of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, lists North Carolina extension personnel that work in tobacco production.
This publication, chapter 10 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.
This publication, chapter 8 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.
This publication, chapter 6 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.
This publication, chapter 3 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.
Common and southern corn rusts may affect corn in North Carolina. Management for each is specific to the rust, and proper identification is necessary to determine the appropriate tools to use.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers key management practices for organic peanut production.
The use of weather information in crop management and particularly the aspects of disease and insect management is growing at a fast pace. Two things drive this growth. Research has provided the understanding of the weather disease and weather insect interactions and technological advances in meteorology and communications have allowed easier and faster access to weather observations. Also, the relatively low cost of the computer systems that provide the decision support for applying this knowledge to every day operations have made them more affordable and practical.
Solar radiation provides the energy to warm our atmosphere and allow plant growth and animal life to exist on earth. The amount of “possible solar radiation” does not depend on the weather and is constant for a given date from year to year. The variation in “possible solar radiation” by date throughout the year is due to the earth’s axis of rotation, which affects the hours of daylight and the angle (directness) of the sun’s rays. The amount actually received, however, does vary, mainly due to the variation in amount of cloudiness.
This wheat publication presents data on the impact of late harvest on yield, test weight, falling numbers, deoxynivalenol (DON) levels, grain protein content, and milling and baking characteristics.
Growing Chardonnay grapes, the number one vinifera variety grown in North Carolina, can be a profitable venture in certain areas of the state.The profitability analysis in this chapter, based on 2005 costs, shows that it will take an estimated $12,876 per acre to bring a vineyard up to full production in the fourth year.The vineyard would begin to yield $1,097 per acre in the eighth year, and the producer may be able to break even by the eighth year.
High-quality wines — those that command premium prices — can be produced only from high-quality grapes. Grape quality can be defined in various ways, but ripeness and freedom from rots are two of the chief qualities. Producing ripe fruit with minimum rot and maximum varietal character is not easy in North Carolina. As described elsewhere in this publication, the combination of climate, soils, and vine vigor often leads to excessive vegetative growth. For reasons that will be discussed, luxurious vegetative growth can reduce vine fruitfulness, decrease varietal character, degrade other components of fruit quality, and hamper efforts at disease control. Canopy management practices can help alleviate these problems.
New and current grape growers will find practical information on site appraisal, establishment, and operation of commercial winegrape vineyards in the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication focuses on production of vinifera and hybrid wine grapes.
In this publication, we describe the factors that affect forage quality and discuss prediction indices that can be used to assign a science-based measure of quality to forages.
This bulletin publishes the results of 10 experiments that addressed aspects of nutritive value (i.e., laboratory estimates of dry matter disappearance and chemical composition) and quality (i.e., animal responses) of cool-season perennial forages preserved as hay. The focus of this bulletin is the evaluation of tall fescue cultivars, forage maturity, drying methods, and diurnal changes in forages. However, experiments on other forages (i.e., reed canarygrass and alfalfa) have also been included. The purpose of this bulletin is to provide original research data in a summarized format, with associated methodology, for future reference.
This publication discusses the factors involved in selecting cotton varieties and the potential economic impacts of making improper selections.
Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.
Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.
This publication discusses tillage treatments for large-seeded crops like corn and soybeans in the Piedmont region and recommends minimizing tillage based on research at the Upper Piedmont Research Station.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.
This publication, chapter 6 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, provides details on how to use integrated methods to manage major peanut diseases.
This publication, chapter 4 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, discusses effective weed management in peanut production.
This publication, chapter 1 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, describes the current landscape of peanut production in North Carolina.
This publication, chapter 6 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on a weed management program for tobacco production.
This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.
This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses how to marketing corn.
This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.
This publication discusses the yield losses, delayed maturity, and management associated with damaged caused by deer feeding on cotton crops.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide offers information on organic market outlooks and budgets.
This publication explains how to create a crop maze with GPS (global positioning system).
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2013-14 and 2014-15.
This publication discusses elevated nitrate levels in drought-stressed corn silage, which can result in harm to humans and livestock.
This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.
This publication discusses appropriate fertilizer application for forages in North Carolina.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.
Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.
This publication describes fertilizer management strategies for optimum potato yields and to prevent problems (such as reduced stands, diseases, or poor tuber quality) that can be caused by improper fertilization.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide offers a list of resources available to organic grain farmers.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.
This publication, chapter 5 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, reviews insect control issues in peanut production.
This publication, chapter 13 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.
This publication, part of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.
This publication, chapter 11 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, describes integrated pest management and pesticide stewardship in peanut production.
This publication discusses a study that sought to investigate alternatives to sole reliance on mechanical cultivation for weed control in organic cotton production, and to evaluate experimental varieties for use in organic cotton production.
This publication discusses trends identified in how nonfoliar yield enhancement products affected soybean yield over the past five years across 15 locations in North Carolina.
This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.
This publication describes differences between cold injury and boron deficiency in tobacco seedlings grown in float greenhouses and provides management tips.
This publication addresses a wide spectrum of forage production and utilization principles and practices. Contributions to this effort were made by 37 authors from four organizations: Agricultural Research Service, USDA; North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services; North Carolina State University (researchers and extension specialists from eight departments); and Soil Conservation Service, USDA.
This crop-specific handout lists pesticides used in tomato production with toxicity levels and restricted entry intervals. Illustrations of toxicity symptoms are included. This handout is part of a WPS-approved Pesticides and Farmworker Toolkit used in farmworker training.
This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.
This 8-page publication will help producers make decisions about growing or buying forage, and about harvesting, storage, and feeding options. Forages are an essential part of a ruminant animal's diet and are an important factor in a profitable farm business.
Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.
This publication provides guidelines and recommendations for proper irrigation scheduling of wastewater.
This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.
This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.
This publication explains how you can make the most efficient use of water and energy by applying the right amount of water to cropland at the right time.
This publication, chapter 2 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, presents information on peanut seed.
This publication, chapter 7 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on topping tobacco and using ethephon, the only chemical approved for yellowing tobacco in the field.
This publication, chapter 2 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides a general overview of the laws that affect farm workers.
This publication, chapter 9 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.
This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.
This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide covers obtaining organic certification for growers and processors who sell organic products.
Fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers must be in excellent condition and have excellent quality if maximum shelf life is desired. The best possible quality of any commodity exists at the moment of harvest. From that point on, quality cannot be improved, only maintained. Remember that shelf life begins at harvest.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2006-07 and 2007-08.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008 and 2009.
This publication covers three distinct rust diseases of wheat and barley: leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust. The fungi that cause these diseases are notorious for their ability to increase rapidly and overcome the resistance of wheat or barley varieties.
This publication presents tables of average monthly precipitation values for several North Carolina cities and towns.
The studies described in this publication show the potential productive capacity of combinations of hybrid bermudagrass with different annual or perennial grasses or legumes.
This crop-specific handout lists pesticides used in sweet potato production with toxicity levels and restricted entry intervals. Illustrations of toxicity symptoms are included. This handout is part of a WPS-approved Pesticides and Farmworker Toolkit used in farmworker training.
Expanding organic grain markets have increased interest in mechanical weed control. Learn how the rotary hoe can be used to control weeds in large-seeded grain crops such as corn and soybeans.
For organic soybean producers increased seeding rates improve early soybean canopy density, which shades out weeds in the early stages of weed competition. Organic soybean producers can increase seeding rates with much less of a negative impact on economic return than for conventional production with herbicides.
Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.
This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.
This publication for tobacco growers describes steps that can be taken to avoid or minimize tobacco curing losses due to an electrical outage.
This publication discusses irrigation decisions that affect water and energy efficiencies.
This publication provides a step-by-step description of how to use the gravimetric method to calibrate soil-water measuring equipment.
This publication, chapter 8 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, contains information on the North Carolina Peanut Growers Association's annual peanut production contest.
This publication, chapter 11 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes some measures that tobacco producers and professional applicators can take to minimize the threat to people and water quality and reduce pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife.
This publication, chapter 5 of the 2019 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.
Under the proposed High Rock Lake Rules, the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) is tasked with submitting agricultural information on a yearly basis. Unfortunately, some of this information, such as fertilizer rates, is based on best professional judgment; there are no fertilizer-use statistics that are reliable. In addition, best management practices (BMPs) are only captured if they are cost shared. To obtain a better estimate of agricultural practices, this onetime statistically valid area sampling frame was applied to agricultural fields in the High Rock Lake Watershed in order to collect an agricultural baseline of cropping systems, soil types and currently used best management practices, livestock types and numbers, and producer information.
This guide summarizes marketing options for grain and soybean growers and explains how to use basis, the difference between cash and futures prices, to evaluate marketing options.
The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2015. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.
The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2014. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.
This publication covers soil conditioners, amendments, additives, and plant growth regulators during six trials that were held in North Carolina in the 2013-14 wheat season.
This publication covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of fusarium head blight (scab) in small grains.
This guide covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of soil virus disease, cereal leaf beetle, powdery mildew, leaf rust, and stagonospora nodorum blotch in wheat.
This factsheet offers information on how to treat soil virus diseases, such as spindle streak and soil borne mosaic virus, in wheat.
This publication presents results from fungicide chemistry and timing wheat tests in 2013-14.
This factsheet reports the results from two different types of experiments that were conducted to determine the impact of Monty’s Liquid Carbon (MLC) on winter wheat yield in North Carolina.
This factsheet describes a new wheat no-till early planting system has been shown to work for beating soybean harvest in the North Carolina Piedmont.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2012-13 and 2013-14.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a long-term perennial, warm-season grass, declines in nutritive value with advancing maturity and increased yield potential. This experiment evaluated the potential of interseeding either perennial legumes or an annual legume into an established stand of upland switchgrass to improve nutritive value while attaining desirable dry matter yields.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008-09 and 2009-10.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2009-10 and 2010-11.
This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2010-11 and 2011-12.
Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.
This factsheet explains the three factors of proper swine manure management: the nutrient content of the manure, the percentages of those nutrients that are available to the plant and the nutrient requirements of the plant.
This factsheet describes the nutrient composition of poultry manure and land application techniques based on matching the nutritional requirements of the crop with the nutrients available in manure. This publication also includes a worksheet to determine the nutrient needs of your crop.
This publication discusses the causes of poor irrigation system performance. Some of these causes can be identified and corrected by the irrigator. Others require specialized evaluation equipment, and the corrections should therefore be performed by specially trained technicians.
Grazing management can have profound impact on how forage mixtures develop and persists over time. It is the art and science of grazing management that determines whether a potentially good forage, or mixture of forages, will actually be a good one.
This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.
Hand-move irrigation systems are normally used to irrigate small fields. Solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are used for irrigation, frost/freeze protection, evaporative cooling, and land application of nutrient-rich effluent. Selection and management considerations for hand-move solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
Low volume irrigation systems are normally used for fruits, vegetables, container nursery plants and in the landscape. For all these uses, growers are interested in highly controlled water management systems. Selection and management considerations for low volume irrigation systems are discussed in this article.
This publication covers the signs and symptoms of freeze injury in winter wheat.
This publication, part of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, provides information on North Carolina extension personnel that work with peanuts.
This publication, chapter 9 of the 2019 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the interactions of agrochemicals used in peanut production.
This publication, chapter 4 of the 2019 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco management practices that improve stands and promote uniform growth.