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Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

Average First Fall Frost Dates for Selected North Carolina Locations

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

Frost forms on solid objects when the water vapor in the atmosphere changes from its vapor phase to small ice crystals. Frost is not frozen dew. If you see frost than you know that the temperature of the object it is on reached 32°F or lower. However, the air temperature, measured at five feet above ground in the vicinity of this object, is likely several degrees higher. Conversely, not every air temperature recorded at or below 32°F means frost formed on solid objects in the area. In spite of this, the average date of the last spring air temperature of 32°F has traditionally been called the last frost date.

2018 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Carl Crozier, Greg Hoyt, Michael Wagger SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Bacterial Blight of Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Steve Koenning Cotton Disease Information

This factsheet describes bacterial blight of cotton, including identification and disease management.

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Sweet Corn Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Field corn was grown in North America before 200 BC. Field corn is produced primarily for animal feed and industrial uses such as ethanol, cooking oil, etc. In contrast, sweet corn is produced for human consumption as either a fresh or processed product.

The Soybean Plant

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Jim Dunphy

This publication, chapter 1 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describes the soybean plant and its various growth stages.

Chapter 4: Crop Production Management - Organic Wheat and Small Grains

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger, Dominic Reisig

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production: crop rotation, tillage, variety selection, planting date, seeding rates and drill operation, soil fertility and harvest.

Chapter 3: Crop Production Management - Corn

By: Ron Heiniger, Dominic Reisig, George Place, Major Goodman

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic corn production: hybrid selection, planting date, crop rotation, soil fertility and plant reproduction and propagation.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Guide

By: Blake Brown, Jonathan Phillips, Grant Ellington, Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Matt Inman, Kenneth Barnes, Rick Seagroves, Scott Whitley, W. David Smith, Hannah Burrack, Catherine LePrevost, Lindsey Thiessen, Aurora Toennisson

This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing flue-cured tobacco in North Carolina.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

In most of the south, sweet corn can be produced from early spring until fall. However, sweet corn does have some specific environmental and cultural needs that must be met for the plant to produce high-marketable yields. Corn is a warm-season crop that requires high temperatures for optimum germination and rapid growth. In general, sweet corn does not tolerate cold weather, and frost will injure sweet corn at any stage of growth. Other stressful climatic conditions, such as drought or flooding, can reduce yields and cause small, deformed ears.

Small Grain Production Guide

By: Randy Weisz, Gaylon Ambrose, Stephen Bambara, Christina Cowger, Carl Crozier, Wesley Everman, Ron Heiniger, D. Ames Herbert, David Jordan, Paul Murphy, Dominic Reisig

This production guide for wheat and other small grains grown in North Carolina includes sections on pre-plant considerations, fertility management, pest management and special considerations.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

2018 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Gary Bullen

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2018.

Best Management Practices for Agricultural Nutrients

By: Deanna Osmond, Daniel Line SoilFacts

This factsheet for farmers describes ways to control the harmful effects of excess nutrients while maintaining healthy, productive farm crops. Steps covered include testing your soil and following the soil testing recommendations, setting realistic yield goals, choosing the most suitable nitrogen sources, applying nitrogen correctly, using manure as a nutrient source, controlling erosion, managing water flow and fencing animals away from water flow.

Postharvest Handling of Sweetpotatoes

By: Brooke A. Edmunds, Mike Boyette, Christopher A. Clark, Donald M. Ferrin, Tara P. Smith, Gerald Holmes

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the most current information and recommendations for proper postharvest handling of sweetpotatoes.

The Use of Management Practices to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Corn

By: Megan Meyers, Ron Heiniger, Leah Boerema, Ignazio Carbone

This publication examines the timing and application rate of two biocontrol products based on nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to reduce mycotoxin contamination in corn.

Southern Blight of Vegetable Crops

By: Inga Meadows, Michelle Henson Vegetable Disease Information

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses Southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks several vegetable crops, including bean, cantaloupe, carrot, pepper, potato, sweetpotato, tomato, watermelon, and others.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Soybean Production and Marketing in North Carolina

By: Nick Piggott, Gary Bullen, Jim Dunphy, Wesley Everman, Derek Washburn

This publication, chapter 2 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses the soybean market in the United States and managing price risk for North Carolina soybean farmers.

North Carolina Soybean Production Guide

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Carl Crozier, Gary Bullen, Jim Dunphy, Wesley Everman, David Hardy, Deanna Osmond, Nick Piggott, Sandeep Rana, Dominic Reisig, Gary Roberson, Brandon Schrage, Lindsey Thiessen, Derek Washburn

This publication provides information to growers about soybean production in North Carolina. It discusses economic trends and forecasts, cultural practices, variety selection, planting decisions, nutrient management, diseases and pests, and other production practices.

Soil Sampling for Precision Farming Systems

By: Carl Crozier, Ron Heiniger SoilFacts

This factsheet for farmers describes concepts, terminology, and guidelines concerning precision soil sampling. Proper testing allows farmers to apply the correct amount of lime and fertilizer to fields.

Harvesting, Drying, and Storage

By: Gary Roberson, Jim Dunphy, E. O. Beasley

This publication, chapter 10 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describe harvesting, drying, and storing soybeans.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

Soybean cyst nematode limits yields in every major soybean production region worldwide. This disease note describes SCN in North Carolina and its management.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Sweet Corn

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.

2018 Cotton Information

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Alan York, David Hardy, Dominic Reisig, Gary Bullen, Lindsey Thiessen, Rachel Atwell

2018 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (North Carolina)

By: Jim Walgenbach

Brown marmorated stink bug description, life history, damage, and control.

Damping-off in Flower and Vegetable Seedlings

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Michelle Henson Ornamental Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Weed Management in Corn

By: Alan York, A. Stanley Culpepper

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers weed management in corn production.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Chapter 7: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Chapter 5: Crop Production Management - Organic Soybeans

By: Jim Dunphy, George Place, Dominic Reisig, Chris Reberg-Horton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic soybean production: variety selection, planting times, plant population and crop rotation.

Frost/Freeze Protection for Horticultural Crops

By: Katherine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

Each year, a portion of the state's fruit and vegetable crop is lost to low temperature damage. Protection methods exist. This leaflet seeks to explain the occurrence of frosts and freezes and to provide information on protection methods.

Cotton Seedling Diseases

By: Ashley Joyce, Lindsey Thiessen Cotton Disease Information

Seedling diseases are a major disease concern for North Carolina cotton production. Numerous fungi are capable of causing seedling disease, and potential damages are heavily influenced by environmental conditions.

Fertilization and Nutrient Management

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 6 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers fertilization and nutrient management in soybean production.

2018 Peanut Information

By: David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Blake Brown, Gary Bullen, Gary Roberson, Barbara Shew

This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing peanuts in North Carolina.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Insect Management

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 9 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers common insects and their control in soybean production.

North Carolina Grains for Brewing and Distilling: FAQ

By: Molly Hamilton, Chris Reberg-Horton

This factsheet offers FAQs for distillers/brewers/maltsters wishing to use North Carolina-grown grain in their product, as well as FAQs for farmers looking to enter the distilling/brewing/malting market.

Investigating Cover Crop Mulches in North Carolina Cotton Production

By: Rachel Atwell Vann, Chris Reberg-Horton, Keith Edmisten, Alan York

This publication discusses the methods and results of a study researching the benefits of cover crop mulches in cotton production. Cover crops provide nutrients to subsequent crops while conserving soil moisture and suppressing weeds, pests, and diseases without adversely affecting yield.

Avoiding Tobacco Curing Losses Due to Electrical Failures

Disaster Recovery

This publication for tobacco growers describes steps that can be taken to avoid or minimize tobacco curing losses due to an electrical outage.

NC Industrial Hemp Posters

By: Angela Post

Posters available to print regarding industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Black Shank of Tobacco

By: Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Black shank is an economically important disease of tobacco that threatens production in North Carolina. This factsheet provides information about the causal organism (Phytophthora nicotianae) and its management.

Disease Management in Corn

By: Steve Koenning, Gary Payne, Mary Carson

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses diseases in corn production.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Average Growing Season for Selected North Carolina Locations

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing season is defined as the number of days without an air temperature of 32°F or lower. This leaflet offers tables indicating the average growing season, as well as he standard deviation (the amount of dispersion around the average) for cities around North Carolina.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Irrigation and Drought Management

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers irrigation and drought management for corn.

Understanding Climate, Planning, and Response Terms Within the Forestry Context

By: John Hastings, Mark Megalos, Heather Aldridge

New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Weed Management

By: Wesley Everman, Sandeep Rana, Brandon Schrage, Katherine Drake Stowe, Alan York

This publication, chapter 7 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, addresses weed management in soybean production.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Planting Decisions

By: Jim Dunphy, Gary Roberson

This publication, chapter 5 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses soybean planting decisions, including planting dates, depth, and seeding equipment calibration.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Jim Walgenbach

Twospotted spider mite description, life history, damage, and control.

Chapter 4. Vineyard Site Selection

By: Barclay Poling, Ryan Boyles, Carlos Carpio

Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Corn Production Guide

By: Ron Heiniger, Jan Spears, Dan Bowman, M.L. Carson, Carl Crozier, Jim Dunphy, Steve Koenning, Michele Marra, G.C. Naderman, John Van Duyn, Alan York, A.S. Culpepper, G. A. Payne

This comprehensive guide covers crop management, fertilizers, irrigation and drought management, tillage, insect and disease management, and marketing concerns for corn production.

Controlled Drainage – An Important Practice to Protect Water Quality That Can Enhance Crop Yields

By: Chad Poole, Mike Burchell, Mohamed Youssef

This publication discusses how to use controlled drainage as way to to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural land to surface waters and groundwater. It includes information on controlled drainage systems, structure location and management, and water quality and crop yield benefits.

Weed Identification in Pastures, Hayfields, and Sprayfields

By: Becky Spearman, Michelle Shooter, Tiffanee Conrad, Dan Wells, Randy Wood

This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It presents descriptions and pictures of some of the most common weeds, and it provides references for other weeds that are not in this publication. Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. This publication does not recommend specific chemical control methods because differences in situations, rapidly changing labels, and new products make generalized recommendations impractical.

Variety Selection

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Jim Dunphy

This publication, chapter 4 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses how to choose a variety of soybean to plant.

Chapter 2: Organic Crop Production Systems

By: Ron Heiniger, Chris Reberg-Horton, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide defines the key components of organic production systems: crop sequence, crop management, soil management and pest management.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Charcoal Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.

Forages for North Carolina: General Guidelines and Concepts

By: Miguel Castillo, Paul Mueller, Jim Green

This publication is an overview of forage species and their use in livestock production systems in North Carolina.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Chapter 1: Introduction

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Molly Hamilton

The North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide provides farmers, Extension personnel and other agricultural educators with information about organic production, certification and marketing of grain crops. The introduction provides background context and additional resources on the topic.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Reduce Soybean Harvest Losses

By: Jim Dunphy, E. O. Beasley

This factsheet covers how to calculate soybean losses and how to check operational guidelines to ensure a greater yield.

Soybean Stem Canker

By: Lindsey Thiessen Soybean Disease Information

This soybean disease factsheet describes southern stem canker, a disease of soybeans in North Carolina.

Soybean Facts

By: Katherine Drake Stowe

This publication, chapter 11 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, presents some facts and figures about soybeans and their production.

Sulfur Fertilization of North Carolina Crops

By: Carl Crozier, Greg Hoyt, David Hardy SoilFacts

Adequate sulfur is necessary for crops, but there’s no one-size-fits-all recommendation for application in North Carolina. Best management practices take sulfur removal and incidental sulfur inputs for the entire crop rotation, soil type and profile depth layers and soil and plant analysis results.

Organic No-Till Corn Production: Cover Crop and Starter Fertilizer Considerations

By: Rachel Atwell, Chris Reberg-Horton, Hanna Poffenbarger, Steven Mirsky, Gladis Zinati, Jeff Moyer

This publication provides research-based guidance on using cover crops in organic corn production to suppress weeds and provide fertility benefits.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Crop Management

By: Ron Heiniger, Jan Spears, D.T. Bowman, Jim Dunphy

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses hybrid characteristics and selection, planting dates, seedbed preparation, and harvest and storage concerns.

Chapter 5. Vineyard Establishment

By: Tony Wolf

Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.

Conservation Tillage Use in Peanut Production

By: Alan Meijer, David Jordan SoilFacts

Peanut growers in North Carolina can successfully use conservation tillage if they carefully plan the transition from a conventional system. Growers should consider the production details, such as field selection and crop rotation and advisory index in this guide to make a successful transition.

Spined Stilt Bug in Tobacco

By: Peter Nelson, Hannah Burrack

The spined stilt is the most abundant predator insect in tobacco and is found in other economically important crops covered with trichomes, including tomatoes. This factsheet offers information on this pest.

SDI Considerations for North Carolina Growers and Producers

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans, Michael Dukes, Dorota Haman, Kerry Harrison, Ahmad Khalilian, W. Bryan Smith, David Ross, Phil Tacker, Daniel L. Thomas, Ronald B. Sorensen, Earl Vories, Heping Zhu Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.

Chapter 6: Soil Management

By: Carl Crozier

This chapter from the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses the organic standards for soil management.

Resources

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide offers a list of resources available to organic grain farmers.

Peanut Weed Management

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses effective weed management in peanut production.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Production and Utilization of Stockpiled Tall Fescue: Understanding the Basic Concepts

By: Miguel Castillo, Joseph Burns, Stephanie Sosinski

This publication discusses the basic concepts of stockpiling as a forage management practice, including the purpose of stockpiling, which grasses can be stockpiled, nutritive valued of stockpiled tall fescue, and fertilization management.

Corn Cropping Systems

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses the components that make up a cropping system and how those components are often combined to reach production goals for a farm or farm field.

Pythium Root Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of Pythium root rot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Evaluating Damage from Deer Feeding On North Carolina Cotton

By: Guy Collins, Keith Edmisten

This publication discusses the yield losses, delayed maturity, and management associated with damaged caused by deer feeding on cotton crops.

Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Production

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Larry Stikeleather, Matthew B. Whitfield

This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.

Determining Peanut Pod Maturity and Estimating the Optimum Digging Date

By: David Jordan

This profile board will help farmers and consultants determine when peanuts should be dug.

Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J. C. Barker, T. A. Carter SoilFacts

This factsheet describes the nutrient composition of poultry manure and land application techniques based on matching the nutritional requirements of the crop with the nutrients available in manure. This publication also includes a worksheet to determine the nutrient needs of your crop.

Irrigation Management Strategies to Improve Water and Energy-Use Efficiencies

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication discusses irrigation decisions that affect water and energy efficiencies.

Planting, Harvesting, and Curing Peanuts

By: Gary Roberson

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the planting and harvesting methods of peanuts.

Peanut Production Practices

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, describes stand establishment and variety selection and characteristics for peanut production.

Topping, Managing Suckers, and Using Ethephon

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Scott Whitley, Rick Seagroves

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on topping tobacco and using ethephon, the only chemical approved for yellowing tobacco in the field.

US Flue-Cured Tobacco Situation and Outlook

By: Blake Brown

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes the current US tobacco market.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

By: Michael Linker, David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Jack Bailey, D. Ames Herbert, Patrick M. Phipps, Charles W. Swann

This scouting manual will help growers identify peanut pests and determine whether the number of pests is likely to decrease yield and cause profit losses greater than the cost of treatment. Topics covered include scouting for pests; insects; weeds; leaf, root, limb and pod diseases; seed and seedling rots; nematodes; and wilt virus.

Chapter 2. Cost and Investment Analysis of Chardonnay (Vitis Vinifera) Winegrapes in North Carolina

By: Charles Safley, Carlos Carpio, Barclay Poling

Growing Chardonnay grapes, the number one vinifera variety grown in North Carolina, can be a profitable venture in certain areas of the state.The profitability analysis in this chapter, based on 2005 costs, shows that it will take an estimated $12,876 per acre to bring a vineyard up to full production in the fourth year.The vineyard would begin to yield $1,097 per acre in the eighth year, and the producer may be able to break even by the eighth year.

Chapter 9. Vine Nutrition

By: Tony Wolf

Grapevines require 16 essential nutrients for normal growth and development (Table 9.1). Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained as the roots take in water and as the leaves absorb gases. The remaining nutrients are obtained primarily from the soil. Macronutrients are those used in relatively large quantities by vines; natural macronutrients are often supplemented with applied fertilizers.The micronutrients, although no less essential, are needed in very small quantities. When one or more of these elements is deficient, vines may exhibit foliar deficiency symptoms, reduced growth or crop yield, and greater susceptiblity to winter injury or death. The availability of essential nutrients is therefore critical for optimum vine performance and profitable grape production.

Tobacco

By: Catherine LePrevost, Julia Storm, Dana Babbs, Brenda Bunch, Greg Cope Pesticides and Farmworker Health

This crop-specific handout lists pesticides used in tomato production with toxicity levels and restricted entry intervals. Illustrations of toxicity symptoms are included. This handout is part of a WPS-approved Pesticides and Farmworker Toolkit used in farmworker training.

Swine Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J. C. Barker, J. W. Parker, C. Stanislaw SoilFacts

This factsheet explains the three factors of proper swine manure management: the nutrient content of the manure, the percentages of those nutrients that are available to the plant and the nutrient requirements of the plant.

Site Selection for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Michael Dukes, Dorota Z. Haman, Freddie Lamm Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.

Selection and Management of Efficient Self-propelled Gun Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

Curing and Mechanization

By: Grant Ellington

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information on the most efficient use of fuel and electricity while maintaining the highest cured leaf quality.

Managing Diseases

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, covers disease management in tobacco production.

Phosphorus Deficiency of Carinata

By: Angela Post, Paul Cockson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon, Brian Whipker, Michael Mulvaney From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Tillage Considerations for Corn Production

By: George Naderman

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers tillage considerations in corn production.

Corn Management Problems: Q&A

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses common questions and answers about corn production.

Identifying Rust Diseases of Wheat and Barley

By: Christina Cowger, Randy Weisz

This publication covers three distinct rust diseases of wheat and barley: leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust. The fungi that cause these diseases are notorious for their ability to increase rapidly and overcome the resistance of wheat or barley varieties.

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

Chapter 1. Introduction

By: Barclay Poling

New and current grape growers will find practical information on site appraisal, establishment, and operation of commercial winegrape vineyards in the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication focuses on production of vinifera and hybrid wine grapes.

Managing Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia

By: David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg

This publication will help you select and implement practices that minimize damage from TSWV, tomato spotted wilt virus.

Alternative Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizer Products for Row Crop Production

By: Deanna Osmond, Carl Crozier, Ron Heiniger SoilFacts

Nitrogen fertilizer products are being developed and marketed as having the potential to increase yields and nutrient use efficiency, and decrease volatilization (gas). How do these products actually perform on different soils and row crops, under various climatic conditions? This publication summarizes findings from recent studies that investigated alternative nitrogen fertilizer products for row crops in four North Carolina regions.

Starter Phosphorus Fertilizer and Additives in North Carolina Soils: Use, Placement, and Plant Response

By: Sheri Cahill, Deanna Osmond, Ronald Gehl, David Hardy, Carl Crozier SoilFacts

Phosphorus (P) is the second most important nutrient in crop production but is often found in relatively low amounts in native soils. Decades of fertilizer application have led to P enrichment of most North Carolina agricultural soils. Excess soil P that leaves agricultural fields via runoff and drainage can cause algal blooms in water resources that lead to impaired drinking water quality and can limit recreational activities. Maintaining adequate soil P levels for crop growth can reduce P runoff, save money, and protect the environment

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Kerry Harrison, Michael D. Dukes, Earl Vories, W. Bryan Smith, Heping Zhu, Ahmad Khalilian Subsurface Drip Irrigation

As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.

Critical Management Issues for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Dorota Z. Harman, Ronald B. Sorenson, David S. Ross, Robert Evans, Phil Tacker Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.

Chapter 10: Marketing Organic Grain Crops and Budgets

By: Molly Hamilton, Ron Heiniger

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide offers enterprise budgets for organic corn, wheat and soybeans.

Soil Management Can Maximize Water Availability

By: Alan Meijer, Joshua L. Heitman, Jeffrey G. White SoilFacts

This publication discusses water capacity, soil's effect on water availability, and proper soil management to maximize water availability. Soil texture and structure, soil density, soil crusting, tillage and controlled traffic are covered.

Center Pivot and Linear Move Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, Jonathan Smith, R.E. Sheffield Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.

Cultural Practices

By: Jim Dunphy, Deanna Osmond

This publication, chapter 3 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses tillage, crop rotation, and cover crops in soybean production.

Selecting a Variety

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Kenneth Barnes

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco varieties and variety testing.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Alan York, Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Atwell, Alan York, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Chapter 7. Canopy Management

By: Tony Wolf

High-quality wines — those that command premium prices — can be produced only from high-quality grapes. Grape quality can be defined in various ways, but ripeness and freedom from rots are two of the chief qualities. Producing ripe fruit with minimum rot and maximum varietal character is not easy in North Carolina. As described elsewhere in this publication, the combination of climate, soils, and vine vigor often leads to excessive vegetative growth. For reasons that will be discussed, luxurious vegetative growth can reduce vine fruitfulness, decrease varietal character, degrade other components of fruit quality, and hamper efforts at disease control. Canopy management practices can help alleviate these problems.

Deep Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management

By: Deanna Osmond, David Hardy, David Crouse SoilFacts

Soil samples that determine lime and fertilizer needs of crops routinely come from the top 4 to 8 inches of soil. However, deep soil samples will be needed for the Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT), and this publication describes how to take these 28- to 32-inch deep samples.

Tobacco - Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.

Forage Quality Indices for Selecting Hay

By: Miguel Castillo, Juan José Romero

This publication provides an overview of the differences in forage quality by reviewing a summary of forage hay samples submitted to the N.C. State Fair Forage Contest over a 20 year period. It also discusses tools for ranking the quality of forages.

Dairy Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J.C. Barker, D. Wesen SoilFacts

This factsheet explains how to use dairy manure as a fertilizer source. Included are descriptions of nutrient content, application rates and application methods to ensure optimum benefit from the manure. A worksheet is provided for calculating application rates.

2016 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Angela Post, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.

Calibrating Soil-Water Measuring Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, Ronald E. Sneed

This publication provides a step-by-step description of how to use the gravimetric method to calibrate soil-water measuring equipment.

Situation and Outlook

By: Blake Brown, Gary Bullen, David Jordan

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, describes the current landscape of peanut production in North Carolina.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

Fertilizer and Lime Management in Corn

By: Carl Crozier

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses fertilizer and lime management in corn production.

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Managing Equipment Traffic to Limit Soil Compaction

By: Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Joshua L. Heitman SoilFacts

Most soil compaction from equipment traffic occurs where tires contact soil during the first pass over soil. Farmers can reduce compaction by limiting traffic to interrows that have already been trafficked. The authors report their research on traffic patterns and recommend ways that farmers can manage field traffic to limit soil compaction.

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Irrigation Scheduling to Improve Water and Energy-Use Efficiency

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication explains how you can make the most efficient use of water and energy by applying the right amount of water to cropland at the right time.

Extension Personnel Working with Peanuts

This publication, part of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, provides information on North Carolina extension personnel that work with peanuts.

Producing Healthy Transplants in a Float System

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco management practices that improve stands and promote uniform growth.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2018 Cotton Information book.

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Fertilization

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, part of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

A Recipe for Seed - Drill Edition

By: Deidre Harmon, Dennis Hancock

Calibrating a seed drill before planting is an important task that can help to maximize the success of your forage stand. This publication will guide you through the steps of proper calibration.

Guidelines for Sweetpotato Seed Stock and Transplant Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sweetpotato production should be planned as a part of your total annual farm management scheme. Sweetpotatoes should not be grown just "once in a while" or just in those years you think you'll be able to "get rich quick." Commitment to an ongoing production program is required in order for you to be a successful grower.

Scouting for Stink Bug Damage in Southeast Cotton: Description and Use of a Pocket Scouting Decision Aid

By: Jack Bacheler, D. Ames Herbert, Jeremy Greene, Phillip Roberts, Michael Toews, Eric Blinka, Ron Smith

This publication describes how cotton growers in the Southeast can use a pocket-size scouting decision aid to assess and manage stink bug damage based on thresholds for different cotton growth stages.

2014 Soil Conditioners, Additives, and Plant Growth Regulator Tests

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This publication covers soil conditioners, amendments, additives, and plant growth regulators during six trials that were held in North Carolina in the 2013-14 wheat season.

Production and Utilization of Pastures and Forages in North Carolina

By: D. S. Chamblee, J. T. Green

This publication addresses a wide spectrum of forage production and utilization principles and practices. Contributions to this effort were made by 37 authors from four organizations: Agricultural Research Service, USDA; North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services; North Carolina State University (researchers and extension specialists from eight departments); and Soil Conservation Service, USDA.

Sweetpotatoes

By: Catherine LePrevost, Julia Storm, Dana Babbs, Brenda Bunch, Greg Cope Pesticides and Farmworker Health

This crop-specific handout lists pesticides used in sweet potato production with toxicity levels and restricted entry intervals. Illustrations of toxicity symptoms are included. This handout is part of a WPS-approved Pesticides and Farmworker Toolkit used in farmworker training.

Tobacco (Flue-Cured and Burley)

By: Sterling Southern Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of flue-cured and burley tobacco in North Carolina is covered in detail.

What is the Cost of Selecting the Wrong Cotton Variety?

By: Guy Collins, Keith Edmisten

This publication discusses the factors involved in selecting cotton varieties and the potential economic impacts of making improper selections.

Forage Economics

By: Geoff Benson, Jim Green

This 8-page publication will help producers make decisions about growing or buying forage, and about harvesting, storage, and feeding options. Forages are an essential part of a ruminant animal's diet and are an important factor in a profitable farm business.

Tobacco - Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.

Hard Hose Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, Ronald E. Sneed, Jonathan Smith, Ron Sheffield Irrigated Acreage Determination Procedures for Wastewater Application Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Long-Term Tillage Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield in the Piedmont

By: Alan Meijer, R. D. Walters, Jeffrey G. White, Joshua Heitman, A. M. Howard SoilFacts

This publication discusses tillage treatments for large-seeded crops like corn and soybeans in the Piedmont region and recommends minimizing tillage based on research at the Upper Piedmont Research Station.

Selection and Management of Efficient Hand-Move Solid Set and Permanent Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

Hand-move irrigation systems are normally used to irrigate small fields. Solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are used for irrigation, frost/freeze protection, evaporative cooling, and land application of nutrient-rich effluent. Selection and management considerations for hand-move solid-set and permanent sprinkler irrigation systems are discussed in this article.

Peanut Seed

By: David Jordan, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, presents information on peanut seed.

Protecting People and the Environment When Using Pesticides

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson, Catherine LePrevost

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes some measures that tobacco producers and professional applicators can take to minimize the threat to people and water quality and reduce pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Alan York

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Alan York, Charles Cahoon

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

Corn Marketing

By: Michele Marra, Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses how to marketing corn.

Tobacco Insect Management

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toenisson

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, covers insect management in tobacco production.

Weather and Climate Information for North Carolina Farmers

By: Katherine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The use of weather information in crop management and particularly the aspects of disease and insect management is growing at a fast pace. Two things drive this growth. Research has provided the understanding of the weather disease and weather insect interactions and technological advances in meteorology and communications have allowed easier and faster access to weather observations. Also, the relatively low cost of the computer systems that provide the decision support for applying this knowledge to every day operations have made them more affordable and practical.

Part 1: Quality Maintenance - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

Fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers must be in excellent condition and have excellent quality if maximum shelf life is desired. The best possible quality of any commodity exists at the moment of harvest. From that point on, quality cannot be improved, only maintained. Remember that shelf life begins at harvest.

Chapter 8. Pest Management

By: Turner Sutton, Jean Harrison, Wayne Mitchem

Grapes are subject to attack by many different pests, including nematodes, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, insects, and wildlife, such as deer and birds.Weeds, which compete with the vines for soil moisture and nutrients, may also be included in this list. Recognizing and understanding the nature of these pests is essential to minimizing crop losses.This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.

Sweet Sorghum Production to Support Energy and Industrial Products

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Matthew Whitfield

This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Load-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Increasing Diversity in Grasslands: Grazing Management Effects

By: Miguel Castillo Forage Notes

Grazing management can have profound impact on how forage mixtures develop and persists over time. It is the art and science of grazing management that determines whether a potentially good forage, or mixture of forages, will actually be a good one.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Scouting for Freeze Injury in Winter Wheat

By: Angela Post, Ryan Heiniger

This publication covers the signs and symptoms of freeze injury in winter wheat.

Peanut Growth and Development and Peanut Industry Terminology

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, offers information on peanut growth and development, including grading.

Peanut Insect and Mite Management

By: Rick Brandenburg

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, reviews insect control issues in peanut production.

Peanut Disease Management

By: Barbara Shew

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, provides details on how to use integrated methods to manage major peanut diseases.

Managing Weeds

By: Matthew Vann, Loren Fisher, Matthew Inman, Rick Seagroves, Scott Whitley

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on a weed management program for tobacco production.

Complying with North Carolina Farm Labor Regulations

By: Jonathan Phillips

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides a general overview of the laws that affect farm workers.

Extension Personnel Working with Tobacco

This publication, part of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, lists North Carolina extension personnel that work in tobacco production.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

A Guide to Price-Risk Management in Grain Marketing for North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia

By: Nick Piggott

This guide summarizes marketing options for grain and soybean growers and explains how to use basis, the difference between cash and futures prices, to evaluate marketing options.

Presprouting Sweetpotatoes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, George Wilson Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sweetpotato seed roots should be pre-sprouted for maximum transplant production. Presprouting is the process by which sweetpotato seed stock is conditioned to produce sprouts (transplants) prior to bedding. Some refer to this as "waking up" the sweetpotatoes after they have been asleep in storage during the winter. This reinforces the often overlooked fact that sweetpotatoes are still alive.

2014 Small Grain Field Day Report

SmartGrains

The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2014. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.

Avoiding Wheat and Barley Scab

By: Christina Cowger, Randy Weisz

This publication covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of fusarium head blight (scab) in small grains.

2008 Wheat Variety Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Judd Maxwell SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2006-07 and 2007-08.

2014 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2012-13 and 2013-14.

Potential for High Nitrate Levels in Drought-Stressed Corn Silage

By: Ron Heiniger, Jim Dunphy

This publication discusses elevated nitrate levels in drought-stressed corn silage, which can result in harm to humans and livestock.

Forage Quality: Concepts and Practices

By: J.J. Romero, Miguel Castillo, J.C. Burns, Shannon Davidson, Philipe Moriel

In this publication, we describe the factors that affect forage quality and discuss prediction indices that can be used to assign a science-based measure of quality to forages.

Average Monthly Precipitation for Selected North Carolina Locations

By: Katherine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication presents tables of average monthly precipitation values for several North Carolina cities and towns.

Extending the Grazing Season: Growing Annual or Perennial Grasses or Legumes in Mixture with Hybrid Bermudagrass

By: D. S. Chamblee, Paul Mueller

The studies described in this publication show the potential productive capacity of combinations of hybrid bermudagrass with different annual or perennial grasses or legumes.

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Corn (Sweet and Field)

By: John Van Duyn Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of field and sweet corn in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Planting Rate Recommendations for Organic Soybean Producers

By: Jim Dunphy, George Place, Chris Reberg-Horton

For organic soybean producers increased seeding rates improve early soybean canopy density, which shades out weeds in the early stages of weed competition. Organic soybean producers can increase seeding rates with much less of a negative impact on economic return than for conventional production with herbicides.

Organic Certification for Field Crops: A Guide

By: Molly Hamilton, Tony Kleese, J. Riddle, Amy Griner, Myron Fountain, Chris Reberg-Horton

This guide provides an overview of the organic certification process and describes the records that farmers must maintain to meet the requirements for organic certification. It includes sample forms that illustrate a recordkeeping system for an organic farm.

The Calibration of Turfgrass Boom Sprayers and Spreaders

By: Wayne Buhler, Emily Erickson, Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Gary Roberson, Joe Neal, Fred Yelverton

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.

Land Application of Municipal Sludge: Advantages and Concerns

By: Albert Rubin, L. M. Safley, Joe Zublena SoilFacts

This factsheet explains how proper land application of municipal biosolids can protect public health and maintain or improve environmental quality and it encourages the beneficial use of wastes.

Starter Fertilizers for Corn Production

By: Joe Zublena, John R. Anderson SoilFacts

Corn starter fertilizers have been used successfully to increase early plant growth, nutrient uptake, and yields in research trials and on the farm. They also promote earlier maturity, improve southern corn billbug control, and help suppress weeds through earlier shading. Use of starter fertilizers is increasing in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. This factsheet presents the principles of successful starter fertilizer use, research results relevant to North Carolina, and management suggestions for corn producers.

Pumping Plant Performance

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed, J.H. Hunt

This publication discusses the causes of poor irrigation system performance. Some of these causes can be identified and corrected by the irrigator. Others require specialized evaluation equipment, and the corrections should therefore be performed by specially trained technicians.

Forage Conservation: Troubleshooting Hay and Silage Production

By: Miguel Castillo, J. J. Romero Forage Notes

Forages can be conserved in the form of hay, baleage, and silage. It is important to keep in mind that, at best, conserved forages can rarely match the nutritive value of fresh forage. Some losses of highly digestible nutrients start immediately after cutting and are unavoidable. The goal in forage conservation is to focus on minimizing losses.

Selection and Management of Efficient Low Volume Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

Low volume irrigation systems are normally used for fruits, vegetables, container nursery plants and in the landscape. For all these uses, growers are interested in highly controlled water management systems. Selection and management considerations for low volume irrigation systems are discussed in this article.

Compatibility of Agrochemicals Applied to Peanut

By: David Jordan, Barbara Shew, Rick Brandenburg

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the interactions of agrochemicals used in peanut production.

Guidelines for the North Carolina Peanut Production Contest

By: David Jordan, Bob Sutter

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, contains information on the North Carolina Peanut Growers Association's annual peanut production contest.

Managing Nutrients

By: Matthew Vann, Matthew Inman

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information of managing nutrients in tobacco production.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

Delineating Agriculture in the High Rock Lake Watershed

By: Deanna Osmond

Under the proposed High Rock Lake Rules, the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) is tasked with submitting agricultural information on a yearly basis. Unfortunately, some of this information, such as fertilizer rates, is based on best professional judgment; there are no fertilizer-use statistics that are reliable. In addition, best management practices (BMPs) are only captured if they are cost shared. To obtain a better estimate of agricultural practices, this onetime statistically valid area sampling frame was applied to agricultural fields in the High Rock Lake Watershed in order to collect an agricultural baseline of cropping systems, soil types and currently used best management practices, livestock types and numbers, and producer information.

Cold Injury and Boron Deficiency in Tobacco Seedlings

By: James Rideout, Laura F. Overstreet SoilFacts

This publication describes how the symptoms of cold injury and boron deficiency in tobacco seedlings in the float greenhouse are often confused.

Average Solar Radiation and Wind Information for North Carolina

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

Solar radiation provides the energy to warm our atmosphere and allow plant growth and animal life to exist on earth. The amount of “possible solar radiation” does not depend on the weather and is constant for a given date from year to year. The variation in “possible solar radiation” by date throughout the year is due to the earth’s axis of rotation, which affects the hours of daylight and the angle (directness) of the sun’s rays. The amount actually received, however, does vary, mainly due to the variation in amount of cloudiness.

2015 Small Grain Field Day Report

SmartGrains

The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2015. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.

Late Harvest Effects on Wheat Yield, Test Weight, and Grain Quality

By: Dianne Farrer, Randy Weisz, Jessica Engle SmartGrains

This wheat publication presents data on the impact of late harvest on yield, test weight, falling numbers, deoxynivalenol (DON) levels, grain protein content, and milling and baking characteristics.

Protect Your Wheat Yield

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger, Dominic Reisig

This guide covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of soil virus disease, cereal leaf beetle, powdery mildew, leaf rust, and stagonospora nodorum blotch in wheat.

Soil Virus Disease

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This factsheet offers information on how to treat soil virus diseases, such as spindle streak and soil borne mosaic virus, in wheat.

Wheat Fungicide Chemistry and Timing 2013-14 Test Results

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This publication presents results from fungicide chemistry and timing wheat tests in 2013-14.

Monty's Liquid Carbon Impact on Wheat Yield: Summary of Tests Conducted Between 2010 and 2014

By: Ron Heiniger, Randy Weisz, Deanna Osmond SmartGrains

This factsheet reports the results from two different types of experiments that were conducted to determine the impact of Monty’s Liquid Carbon (MLC) on winter wheat yield in North Carolina.

Quick-Sol Impact on Wheat Yield 2013-14 Tests

By: Randy Weisz, Andrew Baucom, Jessica Morgan SmartGrains

This factsheet reports test results on two experiments that were conducted in the 2013-14 season to examine the use of Quick-Sol (QS) and its impact on winter wheat in North Carolina.

2015 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Ron Heiniger, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2013-14 and 2014-15.

2009 Wheat Variety Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008 and 2009.

Planting Before Soybean Harvest: Piedmont Early Planting 2009 Test Report

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This factsheet describes a new wheat no-till early planting system has been shown to work for beating soybean harvest in the North Carolina Piedmont.

Potential in the Upper South for Interseeding a Legume into Upland Switchgrass: Yield and Nutritive Value

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a long-term perennial, warm-season grass, declines in nutritive value with advancing maturity and increased yield potential. This experiment evaluated the potential of interseeding either perennial legumes or an annual legume into an established stand of upland switchgrass to improve nutritive value while attaining desirable dry matter yields.

2010 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008-09 and 2009-10.

2011 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2009-10 and 2010-11.

Peanuts

By: Rick Brandenburg Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests in peanuts in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Evaluating Starter Fertilizer Sources in Organic No-Till Corn Production

By: Rachel Atwell, Chris Reberg-Horton, Steven Mirsky, Gladis Zinati

This factsheet presents findings from studies to evaluate different starter fertilizer sources and their impacts on yield and weed competition in organic no-till corn production, using a cover crop mulch for weed suppression.

Rotary Hoe: A Blind Cultivation Tool for In-Row Weed Control

By: George Place, Chris Reberg-Horton

Expanding organic grain markets have increased interest in mechanical weed control. Learn how the rotary hoe can be used to control weeds in large-seeded grain crops such as corn and soybeans.

2012 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2010-11 and 2011-12.

Irrigation Scheduling to Achieve Proper Application of Wastewater

By: Robert Evans, Karl Shaffer, R.E. Sheffield, Jonathan Smith

This publication provides guidelines and recommendations for proper irrigation scheduling of wastewater.

Weight-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Solid and Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Soil Fertility Management for Irish Potato Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Carl Crozier, Nancy Creamer, Marc Cubeta SoilFacts

This publication describes fertilizer management strategies for optimum potato yields and to prevent problems (such as reduced stands, diseases, or poor tuber quality) that can be caused by improper fertilization.

How Rising Fertilizer Prices Affect Optimum Nitrogen Rates

By: John Havlin, Geoff Benson SoilFacts

This publication helps farmers decide whether to reduce fertilization rates in order to achieve maximum profits due to increases in nitrogen fertilizer prices.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Sweetpotatoes

By: Jonathan Schultheis Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests in sweetpotatoes in North Carolina is covered in detail; this is part of the Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture series.