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2018 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Septic Systems and Their Maintenance

By: Mike Hoover, Tom Konsler, Jonathan Godfrey SoilFacts

This factsheet tells homeowners how to recognize and prevent problems with home septic systems. How septic systems work, where septic systems can be used, and maintenance on septic systems are covered.

Septic System Owner's Guide

By: Mike Hoover, Jonathan Godfrey SoilFacts

If you use a septic system or if you are buying a home with a septic system, this owner's guide can help you be sure that your septic system is used and maintained properly. This guide also provides a place to record and keep important information, such as a copy of your permit, a sketch of your system, and maintenance records.

Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.

Why Do Septic Systems Fail?

By: David Lindbo, Jonathan Godfrey, Diana Rashash SoilFacts

This publication describes common causes for septic tank failures and suggests steps you can take to prevent failure of your system.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Ethanol and Two-Stroke Cycle Engines: Impacts of an Alternative Fuel in Small Engines

By: Matthew Veal

Because ethanol has different combustion characteristics than gasoline, some people suggest it will cause harm to two-stroke engines found in all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), lawn and garden equipment, and marine engines. Two-stroke engines require an oil and gas mixture for a fuel source, and the oil and gas are mixed in a ratio specified by the engine manufacturer. Fortunately, the concern with ethanol blended fuels is primarily associated with older engines. The majority of engine manufacturers have now designed their engines to run on E-10 blends (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline), but some precautions still remain. This bulletin will discuss the reasoning behind these precautions and why owners of some equipment powered by two-stroke engines may have concerns.

The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

By: Barclay Poling, Sara Spayd

The grape and wine industry in North Carolina is now worth in excess of $30 million dollars. To assist North Carolina growers in the production a quality grapes for quality wines, a newly revised 196 page guide has been written for winegrape growers, called the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication provides grape growers with practical information about choosing an appropriate site for a vineyard, establishment, and operation of commercial vineyards in North Carolina.

Landowner Solar Leasing: Contract Terms Explained

By: Ted Feitshans, Molly Brewer

This factsheet explains the contract terms likely to be found in a solar ground leases.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, M. Nita, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Best Management Practices for Agricultural Nutrients

By: Deanna Osmond, Daniel Line SoilFacts

This factsheet for farmers describes ways to control the harmful effects of excess nutrients while maintaining healthy, productive farm crops. Steps covered include testing your soil and following the soil testing recommendations, setting realistic yield goals, choosing the most suitable nitrogen sources, applying nitrogen correctly, using manure as a nutrient source, controlling erosion, managing water flow and fencing animals away from water flow.

Reconditioning Flood-Damaged Tractors

By: Gary Roberson Disaster Recovery

This publication offers information on how to clean and recondition tractors that have been submerged in floodwaters.

Getting into Hot Water: A Practical Guide to Hot-Water Heating Systems

By: Mike Boyette, R. W. Watkins

This publication provides the operator of a hot-water heating system with important basic information about this type of system and its operation. The first two sections describe a hot-water system and its parts, explain the functions of each part and give some simple design calculations for those who wish to build their own system. The third section will help the reader develop and understanding of wood fuel, and the fourth describes and explains the economics of hot-water systems.

Threshold Issues for Landowner Solar Leasing

By: Ted Feitshans, Molly Brewer

This factsheet covers several factors to consider when leasing farmland for solar farm purposes. Property titles, site selection, easements, zoning, and other legal issues are discussed.

Solar Panel Materials, End of Life, and Regulation

By: Tommy Cleveland, PE

This factsheet discusses issues relating to the end-of-life and decommissioning of a solar farm.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

How to Install a Package of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

A step-by-step instruction and description of how to install and maintain a new colony of honey bees.

North Carolina Women’s Success in Agritourism: Turning Challenges into Opportunities

By: Mirza Farzana Halim, Carla Barbieri, Susan Jakes, Duarte Morais

This publication presents the results of interviews with women in agritourism across North Carolina. It discusses the successes, challenges, and opportunities these women face in the agritourism industry and offers conclusions on strategies to overcome challenges and improve success.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Animal Damage Control

By: C. S. DePerno

This publication explains control measures that can be taken due to animal damage of crops.

The Value of Honey Bees as Pollinators in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy

The impact of honey bees on not only North Carolina, but the entire world is immense.

Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Production

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Larry Stikeleather, Matthew B. Whitfield

This factsheet describes how to process mature sweet sorghum into ethanol and how this process could be implemented on a farm or private residence in the southeastern United States.

Nitrogen Management and Water Quality

By: Deanna Osmond SoilFacts

This factsheet describes the effect of fertilizer nitrogen on water quality and the environment. It provides guidelines for managing soil fertility on farms to preserve water quality.

Chemical Application Equipment

By: Gary Roberson

This publication covers cleaning and calibrating chemical application equipment, such as dusters, spreaders and sprayers.

Balancing Agricultural Productivity with Ground-Based Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Development

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which solar photovoltaic facilities and agricultural production compete for land use, as well as the extent to which agricultural production is affected by solar development.

Improving Storage and Handling of Pesticides

By: Rich McLaughlin Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for farmers explains best management practices for pesticide storage and containment. Topics covered include proper storage techniques, pesticide mobility, pesticide mixing sites, following pesticide label instructions, disposal of pesticide containers and how to handle an accidental pesticide spill.

Health and Safety Impacts of Solar Photovoltaics

By: George Flowers, Tommy Cleveland

This paper addresses the potential health and safety impacts of solar photovoltaic development in North Carolina, organized into the following four categories: (1) Hazardous Materials; (2) Electromagnetic Fields (EMF); (3) Electric Shock and Arc Flash; (4) Fire Safety.

Poultry Farm Biosecurity Field Manual / Manual de campo para la bioseguridad de granjas avícolas

By: Abel Gernat

This pocket-size bilingual field manual in English and Spanish summarizes recommended practices to prevent disease organisms from entering a poultry farm. Covered topics include limiting visitors, recommended sanitary practices, disinfectants and training for employees. The guide also includes a bilingual dictionary of words and phrases used often on poultry farms.

Livestock and Poultry Buildings After the Flood

By: James Barker, Gerald Baughman, Robert Bottcher, Robert Evans, Roberto Munilla, Mark Rice, Ronald Sheffield, Philip Westerman, Morgan Morrow, Jesse Grimes Disaster Recovery

This publication offers a checklist for farmers to ensure the safety and security of poultry and livestock, as well as the buildings that house them, after a flood or other disaster.

Cover Crops for Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

Cover crops are pivotal parts of every organic farmer’s management scheme. They are crucial to the main goals of building soil health and preventing soil erosion. Cover crops are also important tools for increasing fertility and controlling weeds, pathogens, and insects in organic crops. In this publication, we will discuss planting, growing, and incorporating cover crops as amendments into the soil.

Evaluating Conservation Easements, Solar Leases, and Land Lease Proposals

By: Ted Feitshans

This publication offers information on questions and considerations to be aware of when planning for solar energy on a farm.

What is Solar?

By: Tommy Cleveland, George Flowers

This factsheet serves as an overview for North Carolinians interested in learning about the different types of solar technology available and how they can be used.

Improving Lawn Care and Gardening

By: Deanna Osmond, David Crouse, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This question and answer worksheet will help homeowners focus on potential problems with drinking water or other water resources that may be caused by improper lawn or garden care. Use and storage of fertilizers and pesticides, watering plants, landscape design and soil erosion are discussed.

How to Send Specimens for Disease, Insect, and Weed Identification

By: Barbara Shew

This publication explains how and where to send specimens for disease, insect and weed identification.

Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin)

Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin).

Grazing Livestock and Water Quality

By: Noah N. Ranalls, Jim Green, Matt Poore, Roger Hansard, Janet Young Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for farmers describes grazing practices and how they affect the sustainability of a livestock operation and water quality. Grazing management, riparian area management and nutrient management best practices are discussed.

Handling and Cleaning up Damaged Pesticide Containers at Home

Disaster Recovery

This publication offers guidelines if a recent storm resulted in water damage to a pesticide container in your home.

Solar Generation Property Taxation

By: Guido van der Hoeven

This factsheet covers personal property tax evaluation for solar equipment on farms.

Controlling Damage in Pesticide Storage Facilities on the Farm

Disaster Recovery

This publication for farmers covers the guidelines to deal with pesticide storage facilities that may have been damaged by a flood or other disaster.

Hose-Drag Wastewater Equipment

By: Garry Grabow, Karl Shaffer, Sanjay Shah Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

Hose-drag-type equipment has gained popularity in recent years for land application of wastewater in North Carolina. It offers several advantages over traditional irrigation systems including odor reduction, nitrogen conservation, and a relatively high flow rate that cuts the application time. This publication explains calibration procedures for the “low-profile-type” discharge system and a “boom-type” system.

Solar and Wind Energy Development Opportunities: Tax Implications

By: Guido van der Hoeven

This factsheet covers solar and wind energy tax implications for landowners, businesses, and government.

Purchasing a Back-Up Generator for the Farm

Disaster Preparedness

This publication contains important information and safety tips regarding gasoline-powered generators to be used in an emergency or disaster.

A Recipe for Seed - Drill Edition

By: Deidre Harmon, Dennis Hancock

Calibrating a seed drill before planting is an important task that can help to maximize the success of your forage stand. This publication will guide you through the steps of proper calibration.

Firewise Landscaping in North Carolina

By: Robert Bardon, Kelley Van Druten Firewise

This publication summarizes some basic firewise concepts to use when creating a landscape around your home. It also provides lists of native plants by their flammability ratings so homeowners can make informed decisions when selecting and maintaining plants.

Stationary and Traveling Irrigation Systems

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans Calibration and Uniformity Assessment for Animal Wastewater Application Equipment

This publication explains calibration procedures for stationary and hard-hose traveler irrigation systems and how to determine acceptable application uniformity for the systems as established by the ninth and latest edition of the SB 1217 document (North Carolina 1217 Interagency Group, 2009). It does not invalidate the procedures (commonly referred to as the “catch can” method) described in AG-553-1 and AG-553-2 if operators want to use those for uniformity assessment. However, AG 553-1 and AG 553-2 do not fulfill the flow measurement calibration requirements currently established by the ninth edition of the SB 1217 document.

Reconditioning Flood-Damaged Farm Equipment

By: Gary Roberson Disaster Recovery

This publication offers information how to recondition farm equipment that has been submerged in floodwaters.

Solar Energy Resources for Local Government and Residents in North Carolina

By: Tommy Cleveland, PE

This factsheet lists solar energy resources for residents of North Carolina.

Recordkeeping Form for the USDA Restricted-Use Pesticides Regulation and the Worker Protection Standard

By: Wayne Buhler, Issac Lewis

Use this form to maintain records of pesticide applications in compliance with the USDA Restricted-Use Pesticides Regulations and the Worker Protection Standard. Records of all pesticide applications must be maintained for at least 2 years. This form is available online in three versions: Adobe PDF, RTF (for word processing programs), and Microsoft Excel.

Christmas Tree Production Best Management Practices to Protect Water Quality and the Environment

By: Jeff Owen, Rich McLaughlin Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for Christmas tree growers describes best management practices to minimize the environmental impacts of production. Farm roads, field borders and stream buffers, pest scouting, safe pesticide application, managing ground covers, nutrient management plans and pesticide storage and disposal are covered in this publication.

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

In our drive to meet the food and fiber needs of ever-increasing populations, we are taxing the resilience of the planet’s natural resources. This fevered quest to pursue ever-increasing crop yields has had devastating impacts: widespread soil erosion, atmospheric pollution, over- grazed forage areas, over-cultivated fields, salinated water supplies, cleared land that is unsuitable for crops, and desertification —the loss of agricultural land to desert. The serious degradation of our soil resources has motivated some researchers and farmers to investigate management systems that are less input-intensive and generally more sustainable.

Avoiding Tobacco Curing Losses Due to Electrical Failures

Disaster Recovery

This publication for tobacco growers describes steps that can be taken to avoid or minimize tobacco curing losses due to an electrical outage.


This publication lists abbreviations used in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Good Soil Management Helps Protect Groundwater

By: Maurice G. Cook SoilFacts

This publication discusses best practices management to prevent agricultural activities from contaminating groundwater. It covers the role of soil on the quality of groundwater, soil characteristics, characteristics of potential pollutants and management practices such as nitrogen and pesticide management.

Riparian Buffers and Controlled Drainage to Reduce Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution

By: Deanna Osmond, J. Wendell Gilliam, Robert Evans

This technical bulletin discusses riparian buffers and controlled drainage as best practices to reduce nonpoint (diffuse runoff) water pollution in North Carolina's basins. The article covers in-depth explanations of riparian buffers and controlled drainage; designs, how they work to protect stream health and reduce nitrogen and pesticides. Recommendations for best practices are provided for the coastal plain, lower coastal plain and Tidewater, middle and upper coastal plain, Piedmont and mountain regions. A glossary of terms is included.

Hard Hose Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, Ronald E. Sneed, Jonathan Smith, Ron Sheffield Irrigated Acreage Determination Procedures for Wastewater Application Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for determining irrigated acreage for hard hose traveler irrigation systems are presented. Proper calibration helps protect the environment and is required by law.

Conservation Compliance: The Clock Is Ticking

By: Maurice Cook, Dana Hoag SoilFacts

This factsheet traces the progress that has been made in achieving conservation compliance, describes conservation practices that can be used to reduce erosion and discusses the economic factors to be considered when implementing conservation practices.

Maintenance and Off-Season Storage of Irrigation Equipment

By: Ron Sheffield

This powerpoint presentation offers information on how to perform maintenance on irrigation equipment and store it during the off season.

Using Planted Habitat on Farms To Increase Insect Biological Control

By: David Orr, Michael Linker, Lisa Forehand CEFS Field Notes for Farmers

This special topic has three components: Part 1. Using Beneficial Insect Habitat on the Farm: An Introduction; Part 2. Evaluating the Quality of Commercial Beneficial Insect Habitat; Part 3. Beneficial Insects Attracted to Planted Habitat: Do They Contribute to Pest Insect Control?

Load-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the load-area method, one of the two methods in which semi-solid animal waste applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Soil Fertility on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

Throughout this manual we have discussed how organic farmers strive to build healthy soil in order to create the best possible environment for plant growth. A healthy soil is primarily defined by its fertility, which in turn depends largely on the interactions of its physical, chemical, and biological properties.

Good Agricultural Practices Fresh Produce Safety Plan for Field Practices

By: Diane Ducharme

This document was developed in workshops with North Carolina growers to provide a framework for them to develop their own food safety plans. Each grower's conditions are different. Some may find that th eplan does not adequately address their specific conditions. In those cases, the plan will need to be supplemented.

Minimizing Wildfire Risk - A Forest Landowner's Guide

By: Robert Bardon, Robin Carter

There are simple, proven ways to reduce the risk of wildfire. This publication explains how following basic forest stewardship practices can help reduce the risk of wildfire on forested property.

Protecting People and the Environment When Using Pesticides

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson, Catherine LePrevost

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes some measures that tobacco producers and professional applicators can take to minimize the threat to people and water quality and reduce pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife.

Weight-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Solid and Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Stormwater Management for Coastal Homeowners

By: Bill Hunt, Gloria Putnam, Lin Xu, Grace R. Lawrence Coast*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet will help coastal homeowners focus on potential problems with the pollution and health risks of water protection practices and the effects on water sources from stormwater management. Car/truck wastes, yard/garden wastes, animal wastes, rain gardens and rainwater runoff are covered.

Deciding How to Structure Your Business

By: Ted Feitshans

This publication provides basic information about the forms of business organizations (corporations, partnerships, etc.) available in North Carolina.

Chemigation and Fertigation: Anti-Pollution Devices for Irrigation Systems

By: Henry Wade, Dwight Seal, Charles Clark, Jimmy Perry, Bobby Walls, Kent Messick, Garry Grabow

The North Carolina Pesticide Board has adopted regulations covering chemigation. The purpose of these regulations is to protect water resources from pesticide pollution by reducing the potential for backsiphoning or direct injection of pesticides into water sources. This publication explains the regulations and offers recommendations on fertigation.

Center Pivot and Linear Move Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, Jonathan Smith, R.E. Sheffield Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of center pivot and linear move irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.

Organic Livestock Production and Marketing

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

Passage of the the National Organic Program’s final rule in 2001 marked the beginning of an exciting era of growth for organic livestock production in the United States. The 2001 national standards replaced multiple and often conflicting sets of standards that private and state- sanctioned certifying groups established beginning in the early 1970s. Conflict- ing interpretations frequently arose on farms and in the marketplace as the various certifying organizations tried to enforce multiple sets of standards. As a result, organic proponents lobbied through the 1980s for passage of federal legislation to establish uniform rules and unite the fractionalized organic farming community. The Organic Foods Production Act was passed in 1990, but it took another 10 years of work by proponents and legislators to produce the 2001 final rule.