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Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Wool Sower Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the wool sower gall wasp, Callirhytis seminator, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Luke Gatiboni, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

2024 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

Trellis Systems

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various trellis systems for blackberry and raspberry production.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Callery Pear: 'Bradford' and Other Varieties and Their Invasive Progeny

By: Courtney Johnson, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet identifies several varieties of the ornamental Callery Pear tree and their impacts on native ecosystems.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Buck Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the buck moth, Hemileuca maia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mourning Cloak Butterfly / Spiny Elm Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spiny elm caterpillar or mourning cloak butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa.

Yellow and Black Flat Millipede

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow and black flat millipede, Apheloria tigana.

The Different Types of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

Honey bees, like all other living things, vary in traits such as temperament, disease resistance and productivity. The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies (for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops), but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop or bee production.

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

Phorid Flies

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Phorid flies are small flies that breed in moist, decaying organic matter and can be a problem in and around homes. This factsheet covers their identification, biology, habits, management and control.

Organic Lawn Care: A Guide to Organic Lawn Maintenance and Pest Management for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen

This guide to lawn maintenance for North Carolina contains information on establishing a new lawn, maintaining it, and controlling lawn pests using organic methods. It also provides information on renovating an existing lawn.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Take-All Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Cameron Stephens TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of take-all root rot in turf.

Catalpa Worm or Catalpa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the catalpa worm or catawba worm or catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

White Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Green June Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the green June beetle, Cotinus nitida, and provides residential management recommendations.

American Dagger Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American dagger moth, Acronicta americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mugwort or Chrysanthemum Weed (Artemisia vulgaris)

By: Joseph C. Neal

This factsheet covers the identification, distribution, and control of Mugwort (also known as chrysanthemum weed), an aggressive, perennial weed that spreads by persistent rhizomes.

Leatherjackets and Crane Flies

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of crane flies, also called daddy-long-legs or mosquito hawks, in the genera Limonia and Tipula.

Bee Hotel Design and Placement

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This chapter of, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, describes building materials and features of different bee hotels. It covers tunnel size, shelter, shade, orientation, navigation, and other features.

Prevention and Management of Frost Injury in Wine Grapes

By: Mark Hoffmann, David Lockwood, Barclay Poling

This factsheet provides recommended practices and management strategies for protecting wine grapes from spring frost damage.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Damping-off in Flower and Vegetable Seedlings

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Michelle Henson Ornamental Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

The Honey Bee Dance Language

By: David Tarpy

An overview of honey bee dancing, a behavior that constitutes a language telling other workers the location of a food source.

Red Shouldered Bug or Golden Rain Tree Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the golden rain tree bug or red shouldered bug, Jadera haematoloma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Plant Growth

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the growth cycle of blackberry and raspberry plants for proper training and pruning.

Corn Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

2024 Pest Control for Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Lee Butler, Travis Gannon, Kurt Getsinger, Jim Kerns, Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Robert Richardson

This annual guide supplies information concerning pesticides that can be used for controlling pests in turfgrasses. Revised for 2024.

2024 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, M.B. Bertucci, T.R. Bilbo, Katie Jennings, Inga Meadows, C. Rodrigues, Jim Walgenbach, A. L Wszelaki

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group (SEVEW) is proud to offer you the 25th edition of the Southeastern U.S. 2024 Vegetable Crop Handbook. We are excited to provide growers, crop advisers, county educators, Extension agents, and specialists throughout the southeastern United States with this handbook. This handbook represents a joint effort among Extension specialists and researchers from 15 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, food safety, horticulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Matt Martin, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Boxelder Bugs in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxelder bug, Boisea (Leptocoris) trivittata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Puss Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the puss caterpillar, Megalopyge opercularis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Common Insect Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Genista Broom Moth / Genista Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the genista broom moth that is also called the genista caterpillar and sophora worm—Uresiphita reversalis.

Forest Tent Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, and provides residential management recommendations.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Velvet Mites, Brick Mites or Patio Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of trombidiid mites— velvet mites, red velvet mites, large red velvet mites, brick mites, and patio mites.

Yucca Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yucca plant bug, Halticotoma valida, and provides residential management recommendations.

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Whitemarked Tussock Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

2024 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management Guide

By: D.F. Ritchie, J.F. Walgenbach, W.E. Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Elm Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm sawfly caterpillar, Cimbex americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Cultivars

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, covers the characteristics of recommended blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the Southeast.

Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Grady Miller, James Kerns, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Wild Violet

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Kenneth Sorensen Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note describes the biology of the Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and provides management recommendations.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

2022 Top Performing Tall Fescue, Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This factsheet offers information on the top-performing tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue turf cultivars in North Carolina.

Verticillium Wilt of Tomato and Eggplant

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet is a brief description of Verticillium wilt of tomato and eggplant. Symptoms, causal agent, and management are included.

Bermudagrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This calendar offers suggestions regarding management practices for all-season care of a bermudagrass athletic field.

Mummy Berry Disease of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Lena Wilson Fruit Disease Information

This publication describes the signs, symptoms and disease cycle of Mummy berry, a fungal disease of blueberry species. Recommendations for best management practices are included.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Comparison of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy, Jeffrey Lee

Italian honey bees are susceptible to two deadly parasitic mites, while Russian bees have shown promise in resistance to these mites. This factsheet offers comparisons between Italian and Russian honey bees.

Pruning and Training

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses how and when to prune blackberry and raspberry canes.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Saddleback Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Saddleback caterpillar,Acharia stimulea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Common Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Jumping Worms

By: Matt Bertone

This factsheet covers the description, biology, and management of the jumping earthworm, a common pest in North Carolina gardening.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Segment (sethoxydim)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Luke Gatiboni, Chris Reberg-Horton SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Carolina Geranium

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina geranium.

Hickory Horned Devil \ Regal Moth

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, the caterpillar of the regal moth. Because hickory horned devils are harmless to humans and are relatively rare, no control measures are needed.

Carpetgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Tersa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tersa sphinx moth, Xylophanes tersa., and provides residential management recommendations.

Common Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Hibiscus Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hibiscus sawfly, Atomacera decepta, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellowstriped Armyworm in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli, and provides residential management recommendations.

Citrus Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, an insect pest of citrus and gardenia in North Carolina.

Azalea Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides, and provides residential management recommendations.

Carolina Athletic Fields: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf on Athletic Fields

By: Grady Miller, Matthew Martin, Fred Yelverton, James Kerns, Ray McCauley

A guide to maintaining quality turf on athletic fields, including recommendations for establishing and caring for new fields, maintaining established fields, and managing pests.

Rosy Wolf Snail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Hop Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Sara Villani, Steven Frank, Dominic Reisig, Katie Jennings, Bill Cline, Meredith Favre, Dave Ritchie

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Yellownecked Caterpillar in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellownecked caterpillar, Datana ministra., and provides residential management recommendations.

Butternut Woollyworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the butternut woollyworm, Eriocampa juglandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Hairy Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy buttercup.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot in the Landscape

By: Michelle Henson, Suzette Sharpe, Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

Many ornamental crop species (including trees, shrubs, and bedding plants) are susceptible to diseases caused by Phytophthora, a genus of plant-pathogenic oomycetes (also known as water molds) that can persist in soil for several years. This publication rates common bedding plants, shrubs, and trees on their resistance to Phytophthora.

Common Insect Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Fire Ants in Pastures

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Michael Waldvogel, Wes Watson TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology, damage, and control of fire ants in pastures.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Field- and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.

Fairy Ring in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fairy ring.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Azalea Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea caterpillar, Datana major, and provides residential management recommendations.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Giant Strong-Nosed Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant strong-nosed stink bug, Alcaeorrhynchus grandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

Algae in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of algae.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Apples

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Yellow Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow patch.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the South

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno, Mark Hoffmann

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Collar Rot and Alternaria Stem Canker of Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses collar rot and Alternaria stem canker of tomato, which are caused by different species of fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria. Both pathogens can cause large, irregularly shaped stem lesions with pronounced concentric rings. However, the concentric rings may not always be pronounced with collar rot.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Conducting a Bioassay For Herbicide Residues

By: Joe Neal

General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil.

Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).

Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth, and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting, and postharvest management.

Large Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large patch.

Moss Control in Turf

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns

Infestations of moss in turf are associated with unfavorable conditions for growing healthy, dense turf. This publication offers control options.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Florida Fern Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida fern caterpillar, Callopistria floridensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Root Mealybugs

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of root mealybugs in the genus Rhizoecus including the ground mealybug, Rhizoecus falcifer, Rhizoecus americanus, and the newly introduced hibiscus mealybug, Rhizoecus hibisci.

Cat's Ear Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cats ear dandelion.

Southern Blight of Tomato and Pepper

By: Inga Meadows, Amanda Scherer, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This plant disease fact sheet discusses southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomatoes and peppers, and several other economically important crops, including beans, cantaloupe, carrots, peppers, potatoes, sweet potato, and watermelon.

Roseslug or Rose Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the roseslug caterpillars, Endelomyia aethiops, also called common roseslugs and American roseslugs.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf spot.

Hairy Bittercress

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy bittercress.

Diseases of Cool-Season Turfgrasses

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Precision Agriculture Technology: Choosing a UAV and Sensor for Agricultural Applications

By: Jason Ward, Ryan Phillips, Enrique Pena Martinez, Sierra Young, Gary Roberson

This publication provides information about unmanned aerial vehicles and what to consider when choosing a drone for precision agriculture applications. Topics include restrictions, definitions, needs assessment, equipment options, and information processing.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Rose Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rose midge, Dasineura rhodophaga, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tall Fescue

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Redheaded Ash Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded ash borer, Neoclytus acuminatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Cicadas in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada, an occasional pest of trees when laying eggs.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Lease Considerations for Landowners and Farmers

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication covers the basics of leasing land for farming operations, from both a landowner and tenant perspective.

Blue-winged Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of scoliid wasps, including Scolia dubia.

Oleander Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Persian Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cottony Camellia Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Florida Predatory Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida predatory stink bug, Euthyrhynchus floridanus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Citrus Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cabbage Palm Caterpillar or Palmetto Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage palm caterpillar, cabbage palm worm, or palmetto borer, Litoprosopus futilis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

Parsley-piert

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of parsley-piert.

Anthracnose of Pepper

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose of pepper.

Common Disease Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common disease pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Barnacle Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the barnacle scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Question Mark Butterfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the question mark butterfly, Polygonia interrogationis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oak Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the oak treehopper, Platycotis vitata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Brown Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of brown patch.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Detachable Woolly Leaf Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the detachable woolly leaf gall wasp, Andricus quercuslanigera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Boxwood Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxwood psyllid, Cacopsylla buxi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leyland Cypress

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers the growth, planting, shaping and pests of Leyland cypress, a popular Christmas tree variety.

Princep, Simazine (simazine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).

Weed Management on Organic Farms

By: Nancy Creamer, Denise Finney CEFS

Organic farmers cite weed management as their number one research priority. This publication in the Organic Production publication series describes weed control strategies for organic farms based on weed characteristics and an integrated cropping system approach. A special section on cultivation practices that limit emerged and future weeds is based on research by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems.

Dismiss (sulfentrazone)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Southern Pine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis.

Dogwood Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the dogwood sawfly, Macremphytus tarsatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Smallflower Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smallflower buttercup.

Appendix 1. Bee Hotel Checklist

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This appendix to the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, summarizes the best practices suggested throughout the document.

Witchhazel Leaf Gall Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the witchhazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis cornu, and provides residential management recommendations.

Crapemyrtle Bark Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

Crapemyrtle bark scales are wide spread disfiguring pests of crape myrtles in landscapes.

Weed Management in Onions

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Most commercial onions produced in North Carolina are seeded in the fall and harvested in mid- to late-June. Weed competition can reduce onion yields up to 96 percent, and weeds must be controlled throughout the growing season. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options growers can use to keep onions weed-free in both wide and narrow rows.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Green Peach Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

European Hornet in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and provides residential management recommendations.

Imperial Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Imperial moth, Eacles imperialis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Dimension (dithiopyr)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Dimension (dithiopyr).

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a glyphosate herbicide injury.

Selection and Management of Efficient Center-Pivot and Linear Move Irrigation Systems

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

The center pivot and linear-move type irrigation systems are usually the most practical system for irrigating large, rectangular or regular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for center pivot and linear-move type systems are discussed in this article.

Management of Phytophthora Root Rot in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Will Kohlway, Caleb Cothron, Justin Whitehill Christmas Tree Notes

Phytophthora root rot is the most significant biotic threat to Fraser fir Christmas trees in western North Carolina. This publication covers the symptoms of the Phytophthora root rot, how to avoid an infection, and how to treat it if Phytophthora root rot develops.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Cabbage and Leafy Greens

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Elm Zigzag Sawfly

By: Kelly Oten, Matt Bertone, Delaney Serpan Invasive Forest Pests

The elm zigzag sawfly is an invasive species first reported in North America in 2020. This fact sheet details what is known about its biology, identification, and management.

Persimmon Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Persimmon psyllid or persimmon psylla, Baeoalitriozus diospyri or Trioza diospyri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cudweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Pythium Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium blight.

Globe Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of globe sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Bermudagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Rainbow Scarab

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rainbow scarab, Phanaeus vindex.

Phlox Plant Bug and Other Lopidea Plant Bugs

By: James Baker, Bob Blinn PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the phlox plant bug, Lopidea davisi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Flatheaded Appletree Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the flatheaded appletree borer, Chrysobothris femorata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pavement Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

Harlequin Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sunflower Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma ellectellum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Fruit Development

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the time from flowering to fruit harvest for blackberry and raspberry production.

Pythium Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root rot.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Reward (diquat dibromide)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Reward (diquat dibromide).

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

White Peach Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.

Pudrición de la corona por Phytophthora en fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La infección de fresa por Phytophthora cactorum ocurre en suelos mal drenados, sobre riego, o durante largos períodos de lluvia en climas cálidos. Los síntomas de la enfermedad aumentan durante los períodos de alta necesidad de agua, como después de que se establecen los trasplantes, durante el clima cálido y seco o a medida que aumenta la carga de fruta. El patógeno se ha vuelto muy importante en los últimos 10-15 años (1999-2014).

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Columbine Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the columbine leafminer, Phytomyza miniscula, and provides residential management recommendations.

Southern Purple Mint Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the southern purple mint moth, Pyrausta laticlavia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Amber Snails

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of amber snails in the family Succineidae.

Gypsy Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and provides residential management recommendations.

Orangestriped Oakworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes Orangestriped oakworms, which are often noticed crawling about in August and September

Sedgehammer (halosulfuron)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).

Fine Fescue

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Red Thread in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red thread.

Dogfennel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

Present Use Value: Transferring Property Enrolled in Present Use Value Property Taxation

By: Robert Andrew Branan, Rajan Parajuli Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication provides an overview of the Present-Use Value (PUV) property tax program in North Carolina, with an emphasis on disposition and transfer situations that may imperil continued enrollment.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Chapter 9: Soil Management

By: Luke Gatiboni, Ekrem Ozlu

This chapter from the North Carolina Organic Commodities Production Guide discusses the organic standards for soil management.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Dollar Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollar spot.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Zoysiagrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Rust in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rust.

Mugwort

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mugwort.

Indian Mock Strawberry

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of indian mock strawberry.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Scythe (pelargonic acid) and Axxe (ammonium nonanoate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Scythe (pelargonic acid) or Axxe (ammonium nonanoate).

Pansyworm / Variegated Fritillary

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pansyworm, Euptoieta claudia, the immature stage of the variegated fritillary butterfly, and provides residential management recommendations.

Fertility Management

By: John Havlin, Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses fertilization and soil fertility for blackberry and raspberry plants.

Creeping Bentgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of creeping bentgrass.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Maple Eyespot Gall Midge

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses the biology and control of ocellate gall midges, which cause red and yellow spots on the surface of red maple leaves.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Native Elm Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes, and provides residential management recommendations.

Juniper Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper scale insect, Carulaspis juniperi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Antracnosis de la corona de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La antracnosis es una enfermedad importante de la fruta de fresa, coronas, hojas, pecíolos y estolones. Tres especies relacionadas del hongo Colletotrichum, incluyendo C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y C. fragariae pueden asociarse con plantas de fresa. Esta hoja informativa destaca la antracnosis de la corona (ACR) causada principalmente por C. gloeosporioides y ocasionalmente por C. fragariae (algunos los clasifican dentro del mismo grupo de especies; otros los consideran especies diferentes).

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.

Pink Purslane

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pink purslane.

Bahiagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Cabbage Looper on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and provides residential management recommendations.

Larger Yellow Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the larger yellow ants, Acanthomyops interjectus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhododendron Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rhododendron borer moth, Synanthedon rhododendri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Dichondra

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Matt Martin Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Interpreting Freeze / Frost Probabilities from the National Centers for Environmental Information

By: Natalie Nelson, Layla El-Khoury, Mike Boyette

This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.

Palm Leaf Skeletonizer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the palm leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabalella, and provides recommendations for management.

Soil pH Management for Fraser Fir Christmas Tree Production

By: David Hardy, Luke Gatiboni SoilFacts

This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Preparing Nursery Plants for Winter

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Helen Kraus, S.A. White, M. Chappell, J. Owen

This publication for nursery managers and homeowners describes how to protect nursery plants and keep them healthy through the winter.

Anthracnose in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of anthracnose.

Annual Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Getting Data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Using R

By: Sheila Saia, Natalie Nelson, Jason Ward

This publication provides information and guidance on using computer code to access the National Agricultural Statistics Service's survey data to view data from multiple years, crops, and other categories.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Robert Baldwin Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Green June Beetles in Turfgrass

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet describes the biology and management of Green June beetles (GJB), Cotinis nitida. The larvae can cause direct damage to turfgrass by feeding on plant roots and organic matter in the soil.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Pythium Root Dysfunction in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root dysfunction.

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Marengo (indaziflam), Specticle, or Esplanade

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Fusarium Wilt of Blackberry

By: Bill Cline, Sara Villani Plant Disease Factsheets

Fusarium wilt is an emerging disease of blackberry in commercial plantings in southeastern North Carolina. This factsheet covers symptoms, signs, and best management practices for Fusarium wilt of blackberry.

Imported Willow Leaf Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the imported willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolor, and provides residential management recommendations.

Privet Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the privet rust mite, Aculus ligustri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

White Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white patch.

Sureguard (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Euonymus

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in euonymus.

Parsleyworm \ Eastern Black Swallowtail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black swallowtail, American swallowtail, parsnip swallowtail, parsley swallowtail, celeryworm, caraway worm, and eastern black swallowtail, and provides residential management recommendations.

Maple Bladdergall Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the maple bladder gall mite, Vasates quadripedes, and provides residential management recommendations.

Spring Rose Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spring rose beetle, Strigoderma arboricola, and provides residential management recommendations.

Black Onion Fly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black onion fly, Tritoxa flexa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Greenhouse Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leafcutter Bees

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of leafcutter bees, genus Megachile.

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Crowfootgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Controlling Sedges in Landscape Plantings

By: Joseph C. Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Arthropod Pests of Rhododendron

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This publication offers information on the various insect pests and their management in rhododendron.

Bandedwinged Whitefly on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the bandedwinged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutiloneus).

Tizón de la hoja por Phomopsis en fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

Las hojas jóvenes son muy susceptibles al tizón de la hoja de Phomopsis. La enfermedad también puede debilitar las hojas más viejas en las plantaciones perennes, lo que resulta en rendimientos reducidos al año siguiente. En el sureste durante la producción de viveros, puede ocurrir una defoliación severa y las plantas hijas pueden marchitarse y morir debido a la infección de estolones con síntomas que a menudo se confunden con antracnosis.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Peppers

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.

Using a Hand-Cranked, Hand-Held Spreader to Apply Herbicides in Container Nurseries

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Buffalograss

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buffalograss.

Centipedegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Barnyardgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of barnyardgrass.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Horticultural Oils for Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet covers the use of horticultural oils to control insects on plants in North Carolina.

Walnut Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the walnut caterpillar, Datana integerrima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Red-Headed Flea Beetle Management in Container Nurseries

By: Danny Lauderdale, Steven Frank

The red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is a serious pest of broadleaved ornamental plants in nurseries. This document describes current knowledge of the pest and best practices for its management in nurseries.

Botrytis Blight of Greenhouse Ornamentals

By: Inga Meadows, Mike Munster, Leighann Murray Ornamental Disease Information

Botrytis blight, or gray mold, is a fungal disease that is widespread in the United States and globally. This fungus spreads via spores in the air and can result in economic losses if not managed early. In North Carolina, this pathogen is most threatening in the spring when temperatures are cool. This factsheet provides information about the disease, how it spreads, when it is a problem, and how to manage it through cultural and chemical practices.

Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish, John Havlin

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses soil testing, nursery stock, and spacing for blackberry and raspberry production.

Chlorination and Postharvest Disease Control

By: Mike Boyette, Dave Ritchie, S. J. Carballo, Sylvia Blankenship, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Technology Series

At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.

Whiteflies Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying whiteflies in commercial flower and plant production.

Rough Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rough bluegrass.

Gray Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray leaf spot.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Green Foxtail

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green foxtail.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Dogs and Turfgrass Interactions

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley

This publication answers common questions dog owners may have about lawn care. Topics include what kinds of grasses to use in high traffic areas; how to deal with damage to lawns caused by dogs; dogs' exposure to pesticides; and why dogs occasionally eat turfgrass.

Black Thread Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black thread scale, Ischnaspis longirostris, and provides residential management recommendations.

Crowned Slug Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the crowned slug caterpillar, Isa textula.

Soil Testing and Interpretation of Results for Christmas Tree Plantations

By: Craig McKinley, James Shelton, Ray Tucker, Jeff Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides general guidelines for obtaining soil samples in Christmas tree fields, a summary of soil test result categories, and information for evaluating those results to develop an efficient Christmas tree fertilization program.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Dallisgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Red Sorrel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red sorrel.

Blackseed Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of blackseed plantain.

Virginia Buttonweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of virginia buttonweed.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Hannah Burrack, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and provides management recommendations.

White Pine Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the white pine aphid, Cinara strobi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cattail Toothpick Grasshopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cattail toothpick grasshopper, Leptysma marginicollis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Lantana Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the lantana lace bug, Teleonemia scrupulosa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rustic Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Ailanthus Webworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the ailanthus webworm, Atteva aurea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leafroller Weevils

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the leafroller weevil and the oak roller weevil, Attelabus bipustulatus and Homoeolabus analis.

Mulberry Whitefly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the mulberry whitefly, Tetraleurodes mori, and provides residential management recommendations.

Strawberries: Late Planting and the Use of Floating Row Covers

By: Mark Hoffmann, Amanda McWhirt, Jayesh Samtani

Planting date, pre-plant soil and bed preparation and plant quality are the three important pillars that make the foundations for a successful crop. In this guide we will describe what to do before and after a late planting, as well as how to use floating row covers to improve growing degree days and plant growth.

Podredumbre de la fruta por antracnosis

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La antracnosis es una enfermedad importante de la fresa con todas las partes de la planta (fruto, coronas, hojas, pecíolos y estolones) siendo susceptibles al patógeno. Tres especies relacionadas del hongo Colletotrichum, incluyendo C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y C. fragariae pueden asociarse con la antracnosis. Sin embargo, C. acutatum es el principal patógeno asociado con la fase de podredumbre de la fruta por antracnosis (AFR) y el tema principal de esta hoja informativa.

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.

Strawberry Viruses

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.

Site Selection

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the benefits and limitations of selecting various sites to plant blackberries and raspberries.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Disease and Nematode Management

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Adrienne Gorny

This publication, chapter 8 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses disease management in soybean production.

Common Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Buckhorn Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buckhorn plantain.

Barricade, Prodiamine, Resolute, Regalkade G (prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Oxadiazon or Ronstar (oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Oxadiazon (oxadiazon).

Asian Longhorned Beetle

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive forest pest in the United States.

Insect Pests of Dogwood in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet compiles common arthropod pests of dogwood trees (Cornaceae) in North Carolina. It contains brief descriptions with links to reputable and more thorough fact sheets.

Redbud Leaffolder

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbud leaffolder, Fascista Cercerisella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Longtailed Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Giant Conifer Aphids

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant conifer aphid, Cinara spp, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bristly Roseslug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bristly roseslug, Cladius difformis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sugarcane Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sugarcane beetle, Euetheola rugiceps, and provides residential management recommendations.

Snowy Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the snowy planthopper, Flatormenis proxima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Locust Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Australian Cockroach in Interiorscapes

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Australian cockroach, also known as a waterbug and the shad roach, Periplaneta australasiae.

Fern Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the fern scale, Pinnaspis aspidistrae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Needle Cast, Diaporthe eres/Phomopsis in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom, Jamie Bookwalter Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet describes the symptoms, life cycles and control of needle cast diseases in Christmas trees.

Introduction

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers an introduction to caneberry (blackberry and raspberry) production in the Southeast.

Bugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different bugs in commercial garden and plant production.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Broomsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Red Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red leaf spot.

Yellow Tuft in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow tuft.

Knawel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of knawel.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Prevention and Management of Soilborne Diseases of Ornamental Plants and Vegetables in the Greenhouse

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication details strategies for to prevent and manage soilborne diseases in greenhouse crop production using soilless media. Tactics include sanitation measures, cultural practices, and the application of treatments to limit the development and spread of these diseases in the greenhouse.

Elm-Grass Root Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm-grass root aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mancha angular de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La mancha angular de la fresa, causada por la bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae, a menudo se confunde con otras enfermedades comunes como la Mancha foliar y el Tizón de la hoja. Una vez que se establece la infección, poco se puede hacer hasta que las condiciones de frío y alta humedad disminuyan. Afortunadamente, esta enfermedad generalmente no afecta severamente los rendimientos.

Pudrición de la raíz negra de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La pudrición de la raíz negra (BRR) es un complejo de enfermedades en la fresa, lo que significa que uno o más organismos pueden estar involucrados en la infección, incluidos los hongos Pythium spp., Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. y varias especies de nematodos. Es una enfermedad común en Carolina del Norte y la razón principal por la que los productores fumigan en la región sureste. En los sistemas anuales, la enfermedad se acumula con el tiempo y generalmente alcanza un pico de daño el punto máximo de la cosecha. Sin embargo, el daño temprano causa retraso en el crecimiento de la planta que es evidente dentro de 1-2 meses después de la siembra. BRR puede causar reducciones de rendimiento de hasta 20 a 40%.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Commercial Production of Staked Tomatoes in the Southeast

By: Kelly Ivors

This production guide covers all aspects of commercial staked tomato production--from varieties and transplants to site selection, cover cropping, production systems, fertilization, pest management, and harvesting. An online appendix of tomato pests includes color photographs to assist growers in identifying insect and disease pests.

Compost Production and Use in Sustainable Farming Systems

By: Nathan McClintock CEFS Field Notes for Farmers

This field note for farmers published by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) describes the composting process, how to make compost, and how to use it. Included are instructions for determining an application rate and the results of research by CEFS on integrating cover crops and compost.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Prickly Lettuce

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prickly lettuce.

Hairy Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy vetch.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.