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8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Squash Bees

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses how to identify and conserve squash bees, an important pollinator of squash, zucchini, pumpkins and many gourds.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Insects Found on Yellow Sticky Traps in the Greenhouse

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to recognize the most common insects found on sticky traps in the greenhouse, which allows the grower to select an appropriate pest control strategy.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Fall Webworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the biology and control of the fall webworm.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Boxwood Leafminer

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of boxwood leafminers, the most common pest of boxwoods in North Carolina.

Cicadas in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada, an occasional pest of trees when laying eggs.

Barklice

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of barklice, insect pests of smooth-barked shrubs and trees.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Impervious Surface Thresholds for Sustainable Urban Tree Planting and Landscape Design

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

A foundation of IPM in urban landscapes is to put the right plant in the right place. This reduces plant stress and thus the long term costs of pest management. Impervious surface cover is linked to red maple condition and scale insect infestations. This publication describes impervious surface thresholds to use when selecting sites for planting red maples in urban landscapes.

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Woolly Alder Aphid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the woolly alder aphid, a pest of both alder and silver maple trees.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Twobanded Japanese Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twobanded Japanese weevil, an insect pest of many trees and shrubs.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Elm Leaf Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the elm leaf beetle and the larger elm leaf beetle, the most serious defoliators of elm in the United States.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease in North Carolina

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the identification, biology and control of the walnut twig beetle, which carries a fungus that leaves black walnut trees at risk of death.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

Insect Screening for Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank, E. A. Shearin, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses methods and materials for insect screening in greenhouses.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Maple Eyespot Gall Midge

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses the biology and control of ocellate gall midges, which cause red and yellow spots on the surface of red maple leaves.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

White Pine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the white pine weevil, a pest of pines and spruces in North Carolina.

Silverleaf Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the silverleaf whitefly, an insect pest of ornamentals and vegetables grown in commercial greenhouses.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Fungus-Infected Seedcorn Maggot Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fungus-infected seedcorn maggot flies, an insect pest that feeds on the seeds and seedlings of vegetables.

Cottony Maple Leaf Scale

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony maple leaf scale, an insect pest that feeds primarily on maple and dogwoods in North Carolina.

Cypress Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cypress weevil, an insect pest of Leyland cypress in North Carolina.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Fuller Rose Beetle

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.