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Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

Weed Management on Organic Farms

By: Nancy Creamer, Denise Finney CEFS

Organic farmers cite weed management as their number one research priority. This publication in the Organic Production publication series describes weed control strategies for organic farms based on weed characteristics and an integrated cropping system approach. A special section on cultivation practices that limit emerged and future weeds is based on research by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems.

Plant Propagation by Layering

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

1. Soils and Plant Nutrients

By: David Crouse Extension Gardener Handbook

This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.

Choosing and Using Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Many herbal flowers have the same flavor as their leaves, though others, such as chamomile and lavender blossoms, have a subtler flavor.

Agritourism, Farm Visits, Agro-Tourism Oh My! Do Farmers, Residents, and Extension Faculty Speak the Same Language?

By: Samantha Rozier-Rich, Shuangyu Xu, Carla Barbieri, Claudia Gil Arroyo

There is a need for a better understanding of what people mean when they say “agritourism,” so farmers can realize the full economic benefit of this activity. The authors of this publication conducted a study to discover the preferences of farmers, local residents (visitors or potential visitors), and extension faculty in North Carolina and Missouri with regard to labels for and definitions of agritourism, and to determine where common ground lies among these groups.

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Landowners

By: Robert Bardon

This publication offers tips on marketing and selling, timber terminology, examples of timber sale agreements and advice on seeking professional help from a consulting forester. By using this guide, landowners can make their next (or first) timber sale a pleasant and profitable experience.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

By: Jeanine Davis, Jean Harrison

This guide provides techniques for small-scale outdoor cultivation of shiitake mushrooms on logs. Tree selection and log preparation, spawn selection, inoculation, fruiting, pest and disease management and harvesting are covered.

How to Organize a Community Garden

By: Lucy Bradley, Keith Baldwin

This publication covers the keys to a successful community garden of individual plots including forming a strong planning team, choosing a safe site accessible to the target audience with sunlight and water, organizing a simple transparent system for management and designing and installing the garden. Appendices offer a sample layout, sample by-laws, sample budgets and a list of resources.

Growing Blackberries in North Carolina

By: Gina Fernandez, Jim Ballington

This publication provides information to help the commercial grower increase crop production when growing blackberries in North Carolina.

9. Lawns

By: Grady Miller Extension Gardener Handbook

This lawns chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews installation and care of turfgrass as well as management strategies for turfgrass problems. This chapter also reviews options for turfgrass alternatives.

A Gardener's Guide to Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans

This publication provides basic information on the nutrient needs of trees and shrubs, types of fertilizers to apply and recommended methods and times of application.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

Producing Tree Fruit for Home Use

By: Michael Parker

This publication explains how to plant and take care of fruit trees in the home garden or yard.

Estimating the Volume of a Standing Tree Using a Scale (Biltmore) Stick

By: Robert Bardon Woodland Owner Notes

This publication explains how to determine the volume of a tree using a scale (Biltmore) stick and provides a template for making a scale stick.

Home Vegetable Gardening

By: Larry Bass

If you have a home vegetable garden, this publication can help you learn about selecting a site, gardening tools, fertilizer, watering techniques and more.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Coccidiosis, the Most Common Cause of Diarrhea in Young Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

This factsheet offers some information on the signs, symptoms, and treatment of coccidiosis, the most common cause of diarrhea in young goats.

What is the Difference Between a Sweetpotato and a Yam?

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Several decades ago, when orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were introduced in the southern United States, producers and shippers desired to distinguish them from the more traditional, white-fleshed types. The African word nyami, referring to the starchy, edible root of the Dioscorea genus of plants, was adopted in its English form, yam. Yams in the U.S. are actually sweetpotatoes with relatively moist texture and orange flesh. Although the terms are generally used interchangeably, the U.S. Department of Agriculture requires that the label "yam" always be accompanied by "sweetpotato." The following information outlines several differences between sweetpotatoes and yams.

2017 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences 2017 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Washing and Sanitizing Kitchen Items

Disaster Recovery

This factsheet offers instructions for cleaning and sanitizing kitchen dishes, utensils and cooking implements after a flood.

Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage

By: Rhonda Sherman, Donald Cassel, Ronald E. Sneed Water Quality & Waste Management

This factsheet explains how you can set up and maintain a worm composting bin for your home or office. Worm composting reduces the amount of material that ends up in the landfill and provides compost that can enrich the soil.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair, Lucy Bradley, Anthony LeBude Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Nutritional Feeding Management of Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

Goats raised for meat need high quality feed in most situations and require an optimum balance of many different nutrients to achieve maximum profit potential. This publication covers nutritional requirements for meat goats, including water, protein and vitamins.

3. Botany

Extension Gardener Handbook

This Botany Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses plant taxonomy or how to name plant, plan anatomy of cells, leaves, stems, buds, roots, flowers, seeds and fruit, and the physiology of plants including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and plant growth chemicals.

Selection and Care of Living Christmas Trees

By: Craig McKinley, Extension Forestry Staff Christmas Tree Notes

One of the more enjoyable Christmas traditions is to replant a living Christmas tree into your landscape after the holiday season. This article describes the process of successfully selecting, caring for and replanting a living Christmas tree.

Using Plastic Mulches and Drip Irrigation for Vegetables

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Muskmelons, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, squash, eggplant, watermelons and okra are vegetable crops that have shown significant increases in earliness, yield, and fruit quality when grown on plastic mulch. Some less valuable crops such as sweet corn, snap beans, southern peas and pumpkins have shown similar responses. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using plastic mulches are outlined in this publication.

5. Diseases and Disorders

By: Mike Munster Extension Gardener Handbook

This Diseases and Disorders chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses how to keep plants healthy through cultural practices. The types of plant pathogens including: fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and parasitic plants are discussed. Strategies are reviewed for managing diseases using an integrated pest management approach.

Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Linda Blue, Jeanine Davis, Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Life Cycle Assessment: Description and Methodology

By: Kevin Caffrey, Mari Chinn

This publication reviews methodology for environmental impact assessment and describes an example.

Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers propagating (by seed and by transplant) ginseng, which requires a period of stratification before germination.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone Extension Gardener Handbook

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the Integrated pest management chapter.

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in the Home Vegetable Garden

By: Harry Duncan, Charles Averre, Kenneth Barker

This publication describes ways to minimize nematode problems by employing several control measures such as a rotational scheme, resistant varieties and selected cultural practices.

Growing a Fall Vegetable Garden

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Many vegetables are well adapted to planting in the summer for fall harvest. Planting a fall garden will extend the gardening season so you can continue to harvest fresh produce after earlier crops have finished. The fall harvest can be extended even further by providing protection from early frosts or by planting in cold frames or hotbeds.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude Extension Gardener Handbook

This Propagation Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Growing Blueberries in the Home Garden

By: Charles Mainland, Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflet

Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.

Using Fire to Improve Wildlife Habitat

By: Christopher Moorman, Terry Sharpe, Jennifer Evans, Liessa Thomas

This publication discusses the benefits that land managers derive by managing wildlife habitat through controlled burning. The importance of fire to wildlife, when to burn, how to burn, and wildlife considerations are covered.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Benny Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Pruning and Training Thornless Blackberries

By: Barclay Poling, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflet

This leaflet covers the training and pruning of thornless blackberry canes for the home gardener.

Growing Herbs for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

An herb is any plant used whole or in part as an ingredient for health, flavor, or fragrance. Herbs can be used to make teas; perk up cooked foods such as meats, vegetables, sauces, and soups; or to add flavor to vinegars, butters, dips, or mustards. Many herbs are grown for their fragrance and are used in potpourris, sachets, and nosegays; or to scent bath water, candles, oils, or perfumes. More than 25% of our modern drugs contain plant extracts as active ingredients, and researchers continue to isolate valuable new medicines from plants and confirm the benefits of those used in traditional folk medicine.

Africanized Honey Bees: Where Are They Now, and When Will They Arrive in North Carolina?

By: David Tarpy Africanized Honey Bees

This factsheet outlines the history, movement, distribution, and present status of the Africanized honey bee in the United States. (Part 1 of a 3-part series)

19. Landscape Design

By: Anne Spafford, Michelle Wallace, Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore Extension Gardener Handbook

This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create an environmentally friendly landscape design.