NC State Extension Publications Numbered Publications, Factsheets, Hard Copy Documents, Authoritative Sources & more …

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Quantifying Pasture Productivity

By: Miguel Castillo

This publication discusses methods to measure the amount of grass available for grazing to help farmers better manage their fields and animals. It covers techniques like hand-clipping and indirect methods such as using tools to estimate grass height. Estimating forages is important for ensuring animals have enough food and maintaining healthy pastures.

Mitigating Zinc and Copper Toxicity in North Carolina Soils

By: Steph Kulesza, Nathan Khot, Luke Gatiboni, Marissa Cohen

This publication discusses how excess zinc and copper from animal manure can lead to soil toxicity and harm crops in North Carolina. It covers where zinc and copper come from, potential harmful effects, and ways to prevent toxicity. Management strategies include soil testing, accurate manure application, record-keeping, and adjusting animal feed. Mitigation methods like soil turnover and pH modification are also discussed.

Guide to Understanding and Addressing PFAS in our Communities

By: Khara Grieger, Katlyn May

This FactSheet provides a guide to understanding and addressing PFAS in our communities, which may be helpful for Extension agents, community members, and others who are interested in learning more about PFAS and their potential impacts.

Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

1. Soils & Plant Nutrients

By: Luke Gatiboni

This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.

9. Lawns

By: Grady Miller

This lawns chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews installation and care of turfgrass as well as management strategies for turfgrass problems. This chapter also reviews options for turfgrass alternatives.

Vegetable Gardening: A Beginner's Guide

By: Shawn Banks, Lucy Bradley

This publication provides information about planning and maintaining a home vegetable garden. Topics include site selection, soil preparation, and pest and disease management.

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

Controlling Millipedes In and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and management of millipedes in and around homes and other buildings.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Luke Gatiboni, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook

This gardening handbook, developed for NC State Extension Master Gardener volunteers and home gardeners, is a primary source for research-based information on gardening and landscaping in North Carolina and the Southeast. It explains the basics of gardening from soils and composting to vegetable gardening and wildlife management. Advice on garden design, preparation, and maintenance covers all types of plantings including lawns, ornamentals, fruits, trees, and containers.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Coccidiosis, the Most Common Cause of Diarrhea in Young Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

This factsheet offers some information on the signs, symptoms, and treatment of coccidiosis, the most common cause of diarrhea in young goats.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Eastern North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Danny Lauderdale, Charlotte Glen

In eastern North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

15. Tree Fruit and Nuts

By: Michael Parker

This Tree Fruit and Nuts chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how to select, plant, and maintain home orchard trees. This chapter also discusses common problems and integrated pest management solutions.

12. Native Plants

By: Charlotte Glen

This native plants chapter of the Extension Gardener Handbook defines the term native, why gardeners would want to use native plants, basic principles of gardening with natives and also reviews common misconceptions around native plants.

Biology and Control of Non-Biting Aquatic Midges

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying aquatic midges and how to control them.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Plant Propagation by Layering

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

18. Plants Grown in Containers

By: Diane Mays, Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Julie Sherk, Mark Kistler, Joe Neal

This Plants Grown in Containers chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches gardeners about selecting appropriate plants and containers, and their maintenance. Both indoor houseplants and outdoor container gardening are covered.

Black and Yellow Garden Spider

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the black and yellow garden spider, Argiope aurantia, a common spider around residential homes.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Matt Bertone, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

Clothes Moths and Carpet Beetles: Identifying and Controlling Fabric Pests

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone Household Pests

This publication describes common fabric pests, their habits, and what to do if you find an infestation of these pests and how to prevent damage.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Yellow and Black Flat Millipede

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow and black flat millipede, Apheloria tigana.

Spicebush Swallowtail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus.

2024 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Weed Identification in Pastures, Hayfields, and Sprayfields

By: Becky Spearman, Michelle Shooter, Tiffanee Conrad, Dan Wells, Randy Wood

This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It presents descriptions and pictures of some of the most common weeds, and it provides references for other weeds that are not in this publication. Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. This publication does not recommend specific chemical control methods because differences in situations, rapidly changing labels, and new products make generalized recommendations impractical.

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

Growing Blueberries in the Home Garden

By: Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.

Identification of Common Trees of North Carolina

By: Robert Bardon, Will Braun, Renee Strnad

This publication provides the basic concepts of tree identification using observation and a dichotomous key. It features an illustrated guide to distinguishing leaf characteristics, instructions for using a dichotomous key, and illustrated descriptions of 21 common trees in North Carolina.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and provides residential management recommendations.

What is a Bee Hotel?

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This is the first chapter in the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel. It covers the benefits of bees, pollination in cities and towns, and how bee hotels can support native bees.

The Different Types of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

Honey bees, like all other living things, vary in traits such as temperament, disease resistance and productivity. The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies (for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops), but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop or bee production.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

19. Landscape Design

By: Anne Spafford, Michelle Wallace, Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create an environmentally friendly landscape design.

Raising Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) for a Commercial Enterprise

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication discusses how to set up a worm-growing business. It includes information on potential markets, earthworm biology, and setting up an earthworm-growing operation.

11. Woody Ornamentals

By: Lucy Bradley, Barbara Fair

This woody ornamentals chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews the types of vines, shrubs, and trees as well as proper landscape design, plant selection, planting, staking, and pruning practices. It also reviews common insect and disease problems of woody ornamentals.

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This publication will help you identify the several species of ticks found in North Carolina and the diseases they transmit. It also describes chemical and non-chemical ways you can protect yourself from ticks outdoors and control ticks in and around your home.

Termites - Biology and Control

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Wood-Damaging Pests

This publication discusses the biology, behavior, and control of termites.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.