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2022 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Avoiding a "Hot" Crop: Minimizing the Risk of Non-compliant THC Tests through Proper Harvest Timing

This publication discusses the results of field trials conducted in 2020 and 2021 to understand how CBD and THC accumulate throughout floral development. It includes recommendations for appropriate sampling and harvest timing for floral hemp farmers in North Carolina.

COVID-19 and Other Viral Respiratory Illnesses: Preventative Measures

This factsheet offers practical guidelines for keeping yourself healthy during a viral respiratory outbreak like the coronavirus (COVID-19).

Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

1. Soils & Plant Nutrients

By: Luke Gatiboni

This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.

15. Tree Fruit and Nuts

By: Michael Parker

This Tree Fruit and Nuts chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how to select, plant, and maintain home orchard trees. This chapter also discusses common problems and integrated pest management solutions.

Controlling Millipedes In and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the life cycle, habits, and management of millipedes in and around homes and other buildings.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Vegetable Gardening: A Beginner's Guide

By: Shawn Banks, Lucy Bradley

This publication provides information about planning and maintaining a home vegetable garden. Topics include site selection, soil preparation, and pest and disease management.

Coccidiosis, the Most Common Cause of Diarrhea in Young Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

This factsheet offers some information on the signs, symptoms, and treatment of coccidiosis, the most common cause of diarrhea in young goats.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Plant Propagation by Layering

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

5. Diseases and Disorders

By: Mike Munster

This diseases and disorders chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses how to keep plants healthy through cultural practices. The types of plant pathogens including: fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and parasitic plants are discussed. Strategies are reviewed for managing diseases using an integrated pest management approach.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Washing and Sanitizing Kitchen Items

By: Benjamin Chapman Disaster Recovery

This factsheet offers instructions for cleaning and sanitizing kitchen dishes, utensils, and cooking implements after a flood.

9. Lawns

By: Grady Miller

This lawns chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews installation and care of turfgrass as well as management strategies for turfgrass problems. This chapter also reviews options for turfgrass alternatives.

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

12. Native Plants

By: Charlotte Glen

This native plants chapter of the Extension Gardener Handbook defines the term native, why gardeners would want to use native plants, basic principles of gardening with natives and also reviews common misconceptions around native plants.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

Weed Identification in Pastures, Hayfields, and Sprayfields

By: Becky Spearman, Michelle Shooter, Tiffanee Conrad, Dan Wells, Randy Wood

This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It presents descriptions and pictures of some of the most common weeds, and it provides references for other weeds that are not in this publication. Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. This publication does not recommend specific chemical control methods because differences in situations, rapidly changing labels, and new products make generalized recommendations impractical.

Mites That "Bug" People

By: Michael Waldvogel, Matt Bertone, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses different mite pests whose biting and bloodsucking behavior may cause discomfort or allergic reactions to their hosts (domestic animals and people).

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in the Home Vegetable Garden

By: Inga Meadows, Charles Averre, Harry Duncan, Kenneth Baker

This publication describes ways to minimize nematode problems by employing several control measures such as a rotational scheme, resistant varieties and selected cultural practices.

North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook

This 21 chapter handbook covers research-based gardening information that helps readers be successful gardeners and good stewards of the environment. Chapter titles include: Soils and Plant Nutrients, Composting, Botany, Insects, Diseases, Weeds, Diagnostics, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Lawns, Herbaceous Ornamentals, Woody Ornamentals, Native Plants, Propagation, Small Fruits, Tree Fruits and Nuts, Vegetable Gardening, Organic Gardening, Plants Grown in Containers (Houseplants and Outdoor Containers), Landscape Design, Wildlife, Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening. Included also are a glossary and appendix topics: Garden Journaling, Pesticides and Pesticide Safety, History of Landscape Design, Permaculture Design, and Greenhouses.

Clothes Moths and Carpet Beetles: Identifying and Controlling Fabric Pests

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone Household Pests

This publication describes common fabric pests, their habits, and what to do if you find an infestation of these pests and how to prevent damage.

Biology and Control of Non-Biting Aquatic Midges

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson, Stephen Bambara Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying aquatic midges and how to control them.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Luke Gatiboni, Chris Reberg-Horton SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Before You Recycle, Choose to Reuse

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This publication for individuals and groups describes how to reduce waste by reusing materials, including clothing and household items.

Understanding Forestry Terms: A Glossary for Private Landowners

By: Mark Megalos, James Kea, Robert Bardon Woodland Owner Notes

This publication lists and defines more than 150 forest resource terms to help you in conversing with others about forestry matters and in making informed decisions about your forestland.

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Careful Soil Sampling—The Key to Reliable Soil Test Information

By: Luke Gatiboni, Deanna Osmond, David Hardy SoilFacts

This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis. Where and when to take samples, proper sampling techniques, and submitting the samples for analysis are all covered.

19. Landscape Design

By: Anne Spafford, Michelle Wallace, Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create an environmentally friendly landscape design.

Phorid Flies

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Phorid flies are small flies that breed in moist, decaying organic matter and can be a problem in and around homes. This factsheet covers their identification, biology, habits, management and control.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

2022 Top Performing Tall Fescue, Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This factsheet offers information on the top-performing tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue turf cultivars in North Carolina.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Nutritional Feeding Management of Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

Goats raised for meat need high quality feed in most situations and require an optimum balance of many different nutrients to achieve maximum profit potential. This publication covers nutritional requirements for meat goats, including water, protein and vitamins.

European Hornets

By: Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara, Matt Bertone Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of European hornets.

18. Plants Grown in Containers

By: Diane Mays, Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Julie Sherk, Mark Kistler, Joe Neal

This Plants Grown in Containers chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches gardeners about selecting appropriate plants and containers, and their maintenance. Both indoor houseplants and outdoor container gardening are covered.

Paper Wasp Swarming Around Structures

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses the behavior and control of paper wasps during times of swarming.

Eastern North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Danny Lauderdale, Charlotte Glen

In eastern North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

How to Organize a Community Garden

By: Lucy Bradley

This publication covers the keys to a successful community garden of individual plots including forming a strong planning team, choosing a safe site accessible to the target audience with sunlight and water, organizing a simple transparent system for management and designing and installing the garden. Appendices offer a sample layout, sample by-laws, sample budgets and a list of resources.