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Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, James P. Kearns, Rick Brandenburg, Dan C. Bowman, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

2020 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, Inga Meadows, Katie Jennings, Jim Walgenbach

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group offers this handbook, a joint effort among Extension Specialists and Researchers from 12 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, olericulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science. This handbook comprises up-to-the-minute information developed from research and Extension projects conducted throughout the southeastern United States.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Pudrición gomosa del tallo en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Luffa are tropical, vining plants that produce large fruits similar to cucumbers. When young and small the fruit can be cooked and prepared like a summer squash. When the fruit mature, they have a rough, fibrous interior which is referred to as the sponge and is used to make a wide variety of products. Currently, luffa sponge products are most popular as personal care products and are readily available in the cosmetic and bath sections of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. This factsheet covers how to plant, harvest, and process luffa gourds in a temperate environment.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

How to Sell Produce to Distributors

By: Keirstan Kure, Lauren Horning, Rebecca Dunning

This publication provides information about how producers can prepare for selling produce to wholesale distributors. It includes tips and examples to help farmers expand their businesses.

Sweetpotato Root Knot Nematode

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

By: Jeanine Davis, Jean Harrison

This guide provides techniques for small-scale outdoor cultivation of shiitake mushrooms on logs. Tree selection and log preparation, spawn selection, inoculation, fruiting, pest and disease management and harvesting are covered.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Marchitez de Fusarium en sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Guide to Using Turf Colorants

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication offers strategies for maintaining green turf during the winter using turf colorants. It discusses considerations for using colorants, different product types for specific uses, application rates and methods, and cost to help you plan winter turf maintenance.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

North Carolina Basil Production Guide

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication specifically discusses fresh-market basil, examining the selection, production, harvesting and marketing of the product.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Gray Mold of Industrial Hemp

By: Shelby Ferrell, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

Gray mold of industrial hemp is common to most regions that produce this crop. It is favored by cool, wet conditions, and may cause significant losses.

Strawberry Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Boron deficiency of strawberries is described and corrective information provided.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Glomerella Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes Glomerella leaf spot and fruit rot in apple, including identification and disease management.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Grafting for Disease Resistance in Heirloom Tomatoes

By: Frank Louws, Cary Rivard

Learn about grafting techniques that growers can use to unite the disease resistance and enhanced vigor of hybrid tomato cultivars with the high fruit quality of heirloom varieties. The authors describe the benefits of grafting and provide a step-by-step guide to grafting tomato transplants, healing and acclimating them to growing conditions and planting them in the field.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Strawberry Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Building Local Food Economies: A Guide for Governments

By: Emily Edmonds, Rebecca Dunning, Taylor Smith

This publication serves as a guide on building local food economies for planners, economic developers, and local government professionals.

Septoria Leaf Spot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of septoria leaf spot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of geotrichum sour rot of sweetpotato.

Root Knot Nematode of Tobacco

By: Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.

Southern Stem Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.

Weed Identification & Control Request Form

By: Joe Neal

Weed specimen submission form.

Success with Container Production of Twelve Herb Species

By: Brian Whipker, James Gibson, Raymond Cloyd

Interest in growing herbs for the retail and wholesale market has increased greatly over the past few years. Growers who have had success in the production of bedding plants have found another profitable avenue in herb production. Herbs have cultural requirements similar to bedding plants and it should be easy for greenhouse growers to add herbs to their production schedule. The majority of herbs discussed in this article can be sown, transplanted, and finished by the grower. This publication will focus on the production of the “top twelve” herbs and provides general guidelines for seed propagation.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Ginseng Production Guide for North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication discusses the best techniques for growing quality ginseng. It includes descriptions and stages of growth, and information on general culture, site preparation and mulching.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Fire Blight

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes fire blight in apple, including identification and disease management.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Granville Wilt of Tobacco

By: Raymond Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

This factsheet shares the symptoms and control of Granville Wilt, a devastating disease of tobacco in North Carolina.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Brown Spot of Tobacco

By: Marilú Salazar, Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Brown spot is a disease of increasing importance in flue cured tobacco production.This disease is most severe on mature or otherwise injured tobacco.

Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Cost in North Carolina

By: Chad Poole, Mohamed Youssef, Wayne Skaggs

Subsurface drainage is beneficial to agricultural lands by improving crop yield and eliminating prolonged wet periods without taking land out of production. This publication provides an overview of the costs of installing subsurface drainage on agricultural lands in North Carolina.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Strawberry Rootworm in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry rootworm beetles in strawberries.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Carmine Mites in Stawberries

This publication covers carmine mites in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Cyclamen Mites in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Añublo polvoriento en cucurbitáceas

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Stem and Root Rot of Stevia Caused by A. rolfsii

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and control of stem and root rot of stevia in North Carolina.

Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Stem Rot on Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication describes the symptoms and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the production of stevia.

Apple Powdery Mildew

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes apple powdery mildew, including identification and disease management.

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided for strawberry crops.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

2019 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

2019 Sod Producers’ Report for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication reports the results of an annual survey of sod growers in North Carolina to determine and track relative inventory levels and project price changes for the year.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Añublo lanoso en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops

By: Jim Owen Jr., Anthony LeBude, Amy Fulcher, Jane Stanley, Loren Oki

Monitoring leachate can be a helpful tool to successfully schedule irrigation and avoid the inefficiencies associated with over-irrigation. This publication, a collaboration between several states, describes irrigation scheduling and the factors that affect it, explains the concept of leaching and methods for measuring leaching fraction and how to use that information to schedule irrigation, and illustrates how to manage high salinity in irrigation source water through leaching.

Pythium Root and Crown Rot of Industrial Hemp

By: Ashley Troth, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

This factsheet discusses pythium root and crown rot in industrial hemp production.

Strawberry Crown Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry crown borer.

Fumigant Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.

Suggested Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for North Carolina Medicinal Herbs

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication provides introductory information about growing and wild-harvesting medicinal herbs in North Carolina. The practices suggested here apply to all raw herbal plant material used to make herbal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods, and drugs.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Fig Culture in North Carolina

By: Melvin Kolbe, Kathleen Williams

The fig is native to the Mediterranean Basin. You may already be familiar with some members of the fig family, such as the ornamental rubber tree, the mulberry, and the Osage orange or hedge apple. Figs are grown over much of eastern North Carolina and westward into the Piedmont. If your soil is well-drained and reasonably fertile, you most likely will have success growing figs in North Carolina.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Pythium Root Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This publication discusses the symptoms and management of Pythium root rot in stevia production in North Carolina.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Fresh Market Tomato Production Piedmont and Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The tomato is a warm season crop. With special production practices you can produce your first tomatoes in 60 days. This crop can be grown for production from June through November by choosing the right varieties and production practices. Generally, tomatoes require a large investment in time and labor, but increase in intensity of management is repaid by increased yields and profits.

Industrial Hemp in North Carolina: A Guide to Understanding and Evaluating Contracts

By: Marne Coit, Robert Elliott, Angela Post

This guide provides an overview of contraction options for the growing industrial hemp industry in North Carolina. It offers insight into common contract provisions and highlights provisions that may need careful evaluation.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Spotted Wing Drosophila in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.

Water Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of water damage in strawberry production.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Good Agricultural Practices for the Production and Handling of Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackberry, and Blueberry

By: Dennis Osborne, Douglas Sanders, Donn Ward

Maintaining good sanitation throughout production and handling of strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries is important. It is vital that growers and, in turn, their employees understand just how critical any food poisoning outbreak could be to their livelihoods. Pathogens harmful to humans can be transmitted by direct contact (infected employees or animals) or through contaminated water or soil. Once a fruit is infected, pathogens are difficult or impossible to remove. Only thorough cooking (or other similar treatment, such as pasteurization) will reliably neutralize pathogens. Fruits that are field-packed without washing have a higher likelihood of reaching consumers with field contamination. This document focuses on how to best reduce contamination.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Leafrollers in Strawberries

This publication covers leafrollers in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Social Relationships Between Wineries and Local Communities: Perspectives of North Carolinians from the Piedmont

By: Jing Li, Shuangyu Xu, Mirza Farzana Halim, Carla Barbieri

This publication discusses the perspectives of locals in the North Carolina Triad with regard to social relationships between wineries and the communities.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Charcoal Rot of Stevia

By: Alyssa Koehler, David Shew Diseases of Stevia

This factsheet summarizes the symptoms and control of charcoal rot in stevia.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Drought Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of drought injury in strawberries.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Commercial Pepper Production in North Carolina

By: D.C. Sanders, Charles Averre, Kenneth Sorensen, Ed Estes, E.O. Beasley, Rich Bonanno

This comprehensive publication covers all aspects of commercial pepper production in North Carolina, including soils, insect issues, fertilization, weed management and harvesting and handling.

Corn Earworm in Strawberries

This publication covers the corn earworm in strawberries and its impact in North Carolina.

Phosphorus Deficiency of Carinata

By: Angela Post, Paul Cockson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon, Brian Whipker, Michael Mulvaney From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.