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Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet describes Fusarium wilt of tomato. Symptoms, pathogen, environmental conditions, and management are included.

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

By: Leighann Murray, Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows Plant Disease Factsheets

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a viral disease of tomato that has limited distribution in the United States. TYLCV can cause devastating losses to tomato growers once established in the production site. This viral disease can also be found in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. TYLCV is transmitted by adult whiteflies and is difficult to control once introduced to an area.

2024 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, M.B. Bertucci, T.R. Bilbo, Katie Jennings, Inga Meadows, C. Rodrigues, Jim Walgenbach, A. L Wszelaki

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group (SEVEW) is proud to offer you the 25th edition of the Southeastern U.S. 2024 Vegetable Crop Handbook. We are excited to provide growers, crop advisers, county educators, Extension agents, and specialists throughout the southeastern United States with this handbook. This handbook represents a joint effort among Extension specialists and researchers from 15 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, food safety, horticulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science.

Weed Management in Watermelon

By: Katie Jennings, Matthew Bertucci

This publication discusses weeds common to watermelon and how to control them. Weed management strategies include mechanical control, cultural control, and herbicide recommendations for grasses and broadleaf weeds such as Palmer amaranth and sedge weed species.

Pudrición gomosa del tallo en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Root-Knot Nematode of Tomato

By: Tanner Schwarz, Adrienne Gorny

This publication discusses the symptoms and treatment of root-knot nematodes in tomatoes in North Carolina.

Southern Blight of Tomato and Pepper

By: Inga Meadows, Amanda Scherer, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This plant disease fact sheet discusses southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomatoes and peppers, and several other economically important crops, including beans, cantaloupe, carrots, peppers, potatoes, sweet potato, and watermelon.

Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry

By: Lena Wilson, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry and provides best management practice recommendations.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Luffa are tropical, vining plants that produce large fruits similar to cucumbers. When young and small the fruit can be cooked and prepared like summer squash. When the fruit mature, they have a rough, fibrous interior which is referred to as the sponge and is used to make a wide variety of products. Currently, luffa sponge products are most popular as personal care products and are readily available in the cosmetic and bath sections of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. This factsheet covers how to plant, harvest, and process luffa gourds in a temperate environment.

Marchitez de Fusarium en sandía

By: Nathan Miller, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Sesame’s Impact on Root-Knot Nematode Populations

By: Norman Harrell, Tommy Batts, Shannon Henriquez Inoa, Adrienne Gorny, David Suchoff

Soils were collected from three farms in Wilson County before and after a sesame crop. These farms have a history of root-knot nematode and the growers were interested to see how sesame might impact nematode populations. Nematode populations dropped between 81% and 97%, depending on the farm. These results indicate that sesame may play an important role as an IPM tool to reduce nematode populations in traditional row crop rotations.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

La Antracnosis de las Cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

In North Carolina, pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. With the rising interest in heirloom vegetables, pole beans are increasing in popularity. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Miscanthus: An Environmental Choice for Marginal Lands

By: Andrew Hillman, Sierra Young, Mari Chinn, Chadi Sayde

This publication discusses the environmental benefits of planting miscanthus — a tall, perennial grass — on lands that otherwise have poor results with traditional row crops.

Gray Leaf Spot of Tomato

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This publication describes gray leaf spot of tomato. Disease management options are provided for conventional and organic growers and for homeowners.

Limited Liability Companies: Operating Agreement Components and Sample Language

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This factsheet explains the components of operating agreements for limited liability companies.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

2024 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management Guide

By: D.F. Ritchie, J.F. Walgenbach, W.E. Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Lease Considerations for Landowners and Farmers

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication covers the basics of leasing land for farming operations, from both a landowner and tenant perspective.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

By: Katie Carson, Aaron Kohutek, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Clavibacter michiganensis, commonly known as bacterial canker, is considered one of the most necessary-to-manage diseases in the greenhouse tomato industry. Bacterial canker spreads quickly to infect both transplanted and directly seeded crops, especially through pruning practices when shears are not properly disinfected. An epidemic can begin with a single infected seed, so disease prevention should always remain a top priority for all growers.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Legal Issues Surrounding Due Diligence for Solar Development

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication is designed to help landowners learn whether their property might be a candidate for a solar lease and what to expect when a solar developer performs due diligence. It also provides a description of legal issues that may arise, such as unclear ownership, zoning restrictions, and other encumbrances such as liens, easements, and existing leases.

Tobamoviruses that affect tomato (TMV, ToMV, ToBRFV)

By: Lucy White, Andy Cooper, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes three viruses that affect tomato: tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV). It provides information about symptoms and signs, disease cycle, and control.

Guide to Using Turf Colorants

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication offers strategies for maintaining green turf during the winter using turf colorants. It discusses considerations for using colorants, different product types for specific uses, application rates and methods, and cost to help you plan winter turf maintenance.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Southern Regional Strawberry Plasticulture Production Guide

By: Mark Hoffmann, Amanda McWhirt, Jayesh Samtani, Guido Schnabel, Daniel Tregeagle, Hannah Dankbar, Gina Fernandez, Chip Simmons, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling, David Lockwood, Roy Flanagan, Erin Eure, Kathryn Holmes, Rebecca Melanson, Kristin Hicks, Aaron Cato, Sanjun Gu

This guide provides a comprehensive overview of strawberry production in the Southeastern United States. It covers topics like cultivars, marketing, economics, production techniques, and additional considerations such as cropping and food safety. The guide is structured into four chapters, each addressing different aspects of strawberry farming, with useful resources in the appendix.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Brown Spot of Tobacco

By: Marilú Salazar, Yara Rosado Rivera, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Brown spot is a disease of increasing importance in flue cured tobacco production.This disease is most severe on mature or otherwise injured tobacco.

Size Matters: Accounting for Hemp Seed Size When Calibrating Your Grain Drill

By: David Suchoff, Shannon Henriquez Inoa

This article highlights the difference in grain and fiber hemp seed size and the importance of calculating seed rates.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Granville Wilt of Tobacco

By: Daisy Ahumada Tobacco Disease Information

This factsheet shares the symptoms and control of Granville Wilt, a devastating disease of tobacco in North Carolina.

Precision Agriculture Technology: Choosing a UAV and Sensor for Agricultural Applications

By: Jason Ward, Ryan Phillips, Enrique Pena Martinez, Sierra Young, Gary Roberson

This publication provides information about unmanned aerial vehicles and what to consider when choosing a drone for precision agriculture applications. Topics include restrictions, definitions, needs assessment, equipment options, and information processing.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Many organic vegetable farmers are interested in producing sweet corn. Organic sweet corn can be grown in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast, but special considerations for variety selection, insect and disease control, economics, and markets must be made for it to be a profitable crop.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Prevention and Management of Frost Injury in Wine Grapes

By: Mark Hoffmann, David Lockwood, Barclay Poling

This factsheet provides recommended practices and management strategies for protecting wine grapes from spring frost damage.

Lime Equivalence of Fine-Ground Basalt Rock

By: Luke Gatiboni, David Hardy, Deanna Osmond

Fine-ground basalt rock has recently become available as a soil amendment in North Carolina. This publication discusses the agricultural application of fine-ground basalt rock, the results of an incubation study to determine its lime equivalence, and its effects on soil nutrients and fertility.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Present Use Value: Transferring Property Enrolled in Present Use Value Property Taxation

By: Robert Andrew Branan, Rajan Parajuli Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication provides an overview of the Present-Use Value (PUV) property tax program in North Carolina, with an emphasis on disposition and transfer situations that may imperil continued enrollment.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

Management of Phytophthora Root Rot in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Will Kohlway, Caleb Cothron, Justin Whitehill Christmas Tree Notes

Phytophthora root rot is the most significant biotic threat to Fraser fir Christmas trees in western North Carolina. This publication covers the symptoms of the Phytophthora root rot, how to avoid an infection, and how to treat it if Phytophthora root rot develops.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Root Knot Nematode of Tobacco

By: Daisy Ahumada, Adrienne Gorny Tobacco Disease Information

Nematodes are an economically important pest for flue-cured tobacco production. Root knot nematode is particularly damaging due to the wide host range and number of species of root knot nematode found in North Carolina.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Tomato Pith Necrosis

By: Katie Carson, Lucy White, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Tomato pith necrosis, first observed on tomato plants in 1978, continues to be a threat to tomato production across the US. The disease most severely impacts crops where high humidity and stress conditions are present, and as a result, it is mostly a concern for greenhouse and high tunnel tomatoes, but it can also impact field-grown tomatoes. There are currently no tomato varieties resistant to pith necrosis, nor any chemical treatments commercially available, so preventing the disease with good management practices is the best way to limit its occurrence.

Red-Headed Flea Beetle Management in Container Nurseries

By: Danny Lauderdale, Steven Frank

The red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is a serious pest of broadleaved ornamental plants in nurseries. This document describes current knowledge of the pest and best practices for its management in nurseries.

Building Local Food Economies: A Guide for Governments

By: Emily Edmonds, Rebecca Dunning, Taylor Smith

This publication serves as a guide on building local food economies for planners, economic developers, and local government professionals.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

How to Sell Produce to Distributors

By: Keirstan Kure, Lauren Horning, Rebecca Dunning

This publication provides information about how producers can prepare for selling produce to wholesale distributors. It includes tips and examples to help farmers expand their businesses.

Understanding the Relationship between THC and CBD in Hemp

By: David Suchoff, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Maggie Short

This publication discusses recent research that clarifies the relationship between CBD and THC produced in floral hemp. This information can help producers adhere to USDA compliance thresholds.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Pudrición de la raíz negra de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La pudrición de la raíz negra (BRR) es un complejo de enfermedades en la fresa, lo que significa que uno o más organismos pueden estar involucrados en la infección, incluidos los hongos Pythium spp., Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. y varias especies de nematodos. Es una enfermedad común en Carolina del Norte y la razón principal por la que los productores fumigan en la región sureste. En los sistemas anuales, la enfermedad se acumula con el tiempo y generalmente alcanza un pico de daño el punto máximo de la cosecha. Sin embargo, el daño temprano causa retraso en el crecimiento de la planta que es evidente dentro de 1-2 meses después de la siembra. BRR puede causar reducciones de rendimiento de hasta 20 a 40%.

Evaluation of Variety, Row Spacing, and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Sesame Yields in North Carolina

By: Marcela Chavez, Angela Post, David Suchoff

With growing demand for sesame and production limitations in traditional sesame-producing states, there is a need to explore new areas suitable for producing sesame in the United States. This publication discusses research findings that demonstrate the feasibility of sesame production in North Carolina. Topics include yield results related to row spacing, variety, and nitrogen rates.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Sweetpotato Root Knot Nematode

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of root knot nematode of sweetpotato.

Grapevine Virus Distribution, Identification, and Management in North Carolina

By: Mark Hoffmann, Emma Volk, Win Talton, Maher Al Rwahnih, Christie Almeyda, Hannah Burrack, Brett Blaauw, Matt Bertone

This publication reviews the results of a survey conducted to assess the distribution of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV) and grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) in North Carolina. It provides information on identifying disease symptoms, collecting samples, submitting samples for virus testing, and best grapevine virus management practices for new vineyards and established mature vineyards.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Green June Bug in North Carolina Grapes

By: Aurora Toennisson, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the green June bug (Cotinus nitida), an occasional pest of grapes in North Carolina

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Interpreting Freeze / Frost Probabilities from the National Centers for Environmental Information

By: Natalie Nelson, Layla El-Khoury, Mike Boyette

This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.

The H-2A Visa Program in North Carolina

By: Alejandro Gutierrez-Li, Ph.D.

This factsheet shares some statistics about the H-2A visa program in North Carolina.

Apple Powdery Mildew

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes apple powdery mildew, including identification and disease management.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of geotrichum sour rot of sweetpotato.

Getting Data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Using R

By: Sheila Saia, Natalie Nelson, Jason Ward

This publication provides information and guidance on using computer code to access the National Agricultural Statistics Service's survey data to view data from multiple years, crops, and other categories.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Calcium (Ca) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of calcium deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Lesion Nematode in Potato

By: Adrienne Gorny, Ari Grode Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

Lesion nematode damage in white or Irish potato is caused by plant-parasitic roundworms. This publication discusses the signs, symptoms, and management of the disease.

Hemp Leaf Tissue Nutrient Ranges: Refinement of Reference Standards for Floral Hemp

By: David Suchoff, Michelle McGinnis, Jeanine Davis, Brian Whipker, Kristin Hicks

As a newly legal crop, little information exists about optimum nutrient levels in hemp. This publication provides additional information on hemp leaf tissue nutrient ranges from a survey conducted between 2017 and 2020.

Selecting Sites for Fraser Fir Production

By: Jeff Owen Christmas Tree Notes

This publication covers a full range of site factors that can help growers avoid Phytophthroa root rot disease and other production issues. Readers will better understand the influence of topography and landscape positon on the movement of soil water in their fields. Activities and tools that can help a grower assess a new site are dicussed.

Southern Stem Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Biopesticides for Disease Management in Vegetable Crops

By: Inga Meadows, Ella Reeves

This publication provides information about what biopesticides are, how they control plant diseases, and how they are used to control diseases of vegetables.

Avoiding a "Hot" Crop: Minimizing the Risk of Non-compliant THC Tests through Proper Harvest Timing

By: David Suchoff, Eric Linder, Shannon Henriquez Inoa

This publication discusses the results of field trials conducted in 2020 and 2021 to understand how CBD and THC accumulate throughout floral development. It includes recommendations for appropriate sampling and harvest timing for floral hemp farmers in North Carolina.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Cost in North Carolina

By: Chad Poole, Mohamed Youssef, Wayne Skaggs

Subsurface drainage is beneficial to agricultural lands by improving crop yield and eliminating prolonged wet periods without taking land out of production. This publication provides an overview of the costs of installing subsurface drainage on agricultural lands in North Carolina.

Japanese Beetles in North Carolina Grapes

By: Aurora Toennisson, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), a minor pest of grapes in North Carolina.

Target Spot of Tobacco

By: Spencer Haroldson, Lindsey Thiessen Tobacco Disease Information

Target spot is a potentially devastating leaf spot disease in tobacco in North Carolina. This factsheet summarizes the signs and symptoms and offers treatment plans.

Prevention and Management of Soilborne Diseases of Ornamental Plants and Vegetables in the Greenhouse

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication details strategies for to prevent and manage soilborne diseases in greenhouse crop production using soilless media. Tactics include sanitation measures, cultural practices, and the application of treatments to limit the development and spread of these diseases in the greenhouse.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Pythium Root and Crown Rot of Industrial Hemp

By: Ashley Troth, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

This factsheet discusses pythium root and crown rot in industrial hemp production.

Strawberries: Late Planting and the Use of Floating Row Covers

By: Mark Hoffmann, Amanda McWhirt, Jayesh Samtani

Planting date, pre-plant soil and bed preparation and plant quality are the three important pillars that make the foundations for a successful crop. In this guide we will describe what to do before and after a late planting, as well as how to use floating row covers to improve growing degree days and plant growth.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Pierce’s Disease Vectors in North Carolina Grapes

By: Aurora Toennisson, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet offers information on Pierce's Disease, a bacterial disease of grapes in North Carolina.

Spotted Wing Drosophila in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Establishing Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Rates for Floral Hemp Production

By: Maggie Short, Matthew Vann, David Suchoff, Michelle McGinnis, Keith Edmisten, Brian Whipker

This publication provides nitrogen and potassium fertilizer recommendations for optimum floral hemp yield and cannabidiol production while also understanding how nutrient rates affect THC production.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Añublo lanoso en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Emma Wallace Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2013 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. La Dra. Angela M. Linares Ramírez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tradujo la hoja informativa al español en 2017.

Gray Mold of Industrial Hemp

By: Shelby Ferrell, Lindsey Thiessen Industrial Hemp Disease Information

Gray mold of industrial hemp is common to most regions that produce this crop. It is favored by cool, wet conditions, and may cause significant losses.

Moho gris en fresa

By: Frank Louws, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La podredumbre de Botrytis, o Moho gris como se le llama a menudo, es una enfermedad grave en todas las áreas de producción de fresas y es una enfermedad preocupante en la mayoría de los años. La enfermedad es un problema no solo en el campo, sino también durante el almacenamiento, el tránsito y la comercialización de la fruta de fresa, debido a la aparición de podredumbre severa a medida que las frutas comienzan a madurar. Otras partes infectadas por el hongo incluyen hojas, corona, pétalos, tallos de flores y frutas. La podredumbre de la corona se discute en otra parte. La enfermedad es más grave durante la floración y la cosecha en temporadas con largos períodos de nubes y lluvia complementados por temperaturas frescas.

Working Safely: Ergonomic Issues in Christmas Tree Harvest

By: Jeff Owen Christmas Tree Notes

This publication discusses ergonomic practices that can be implemented during Christmas tree harvests to reduce and avoid typical injuries.

Japanese Beetle in Industrial Hemp

By: Hannah Burrack, Melissa Pulkoski

This factsheet describes the biology of Japanese beetles and their impact on industrial hemp plants grown on commercial farms.

Screening Sesame for Resistance to Multiple Root-Knot Nematode Species

By: David Suchoff, Adrienne Gorny, Marcela Chavez, Angela Post

This publication discusses the results of greenhouse trials that screened seven sesame varieties for resistance to North Carolina's most common root-knot nematode species. The results of this research will help determine if sesame may play a role in crop rotations for producers managing these pests.

Christmas Tree Production Best Management Practices to Protect Water Quality and the Environment

By: Jeff Owen Farm*A*Syst

This publication identifies best management practices (BMP's) that protect water quality and the environment on Christmas tree farms in North Carolina. Profitable Christmas tree production can go hand-in-hand with sustainable goals that protect land and water resources. Several water quality BMP's described here also have the potential to slow the spread of Phytophthora root rot, a dire soil-borne disease that threatens Christmas tree production. BMP's are identified for road construction, stream buffers, site preparation, scouting-based pesticide decisions, selecting least-toxic pesticides, weed and ground cover management, fertilizer management, pesticide handling and storage, and well head protection. Growers who invest in BMP’s usually show a greater long-term profit because their land is maintained at higher productivity. With a multiple choice question for each BMP, readers can evaluate their level of compliance with each practice.

Botrytis Blight of Greenhouse Ornamentals

By: Inga Meadows, Mike Munster, Leighann Murray Ornamental Disease Information

Botrytis blight, or gray mold, is a fungal disease that is widespread in the United States and globally. This fungus spreads via spores in the air and can result in economic losses if not managed early. In North Carolina, this pathogen is most threatening in the spring when temperatures are cool. This factsheet provides information about the disease, how it spreads, when it is a problem, and how to manage it through cultural and chemical practices.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Añublo polvoriento en cucurbitáceas

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Hoja informativa de patógenos de vegetales

Esta Hoja de Datos de Patología Vegetal fue publicada en inglés en 2015 por la Dra. Lina Quesada, Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal de la NCSU. Traducido y revisado al español por: Angela Linares-Ramírez Catedrática Auxiliar, UPRM Fecha de traducción al español: 23 de marzo de 2017

Industrial Hemp in North Carolina: A Guide to Understanding and Evaluating Contracts

By: Marne Coit, Robert Elliott, Angela Post

This guide provides an overview of contraction options for the growing industrial hemp industry in North Carolina. It offers insight into common contract provisions and highlights provisions that may need careful evaluation.

Spider Mites in North Carolina Grapes

By: Aurora Toennisson, Hannah Burrack

Two-spotted spider mites are a common pest of North Carolina grapes. This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and control of these pests.

Corn Earworm and Tobacco Budworm in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the corn earworm and tobacco budworm in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Selecting Plants for Garden Coherency

By: Hunter Kornegay, Anne Spafford, Barbara Fair, Anthony LeBude Horticulture Information Leaflets

Despite the popularity and necessity of landscaping, it can be quite daunting thinking through how to select plants for a chosen site. The purpose of this factsheet is to provide both consumers and landscapers with a few hints to select landscape plants that will best fit their current project. Several takeaways include understanding the importance of the environment and location of the planting area, mature size of the plant and its characteristics, as well as how layering can increase seasonal interest and diversity of the landscape. These tips will ensure that gardeners are better equipped to make the best selection for their landscapes.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Hemp Russet Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the symptoms and management of the hemp russet mite, a pest of industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Road Map to the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides

By: Wayne Buhler, Carmina Hanson, Tom Bowman, Gwen Minton

This publication provides a simplified tool that can quickly guide farm managers, handlers, workers, and family farmers in understanding compliance with the Worker Protection Standard.

Strawberry Rootworm in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry rootworm beetles in strawberries.

Leafrollers in Strawberries

This publication covers leafrollers in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Phosphorus (P) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Angela Post, Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon, Brian Whipker, Michael Mulvaney From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Management of Palmer Amaranth in Sweetpotato

By: Stephen C. Smith, Katie Jennings

Palmer amaranth is the most common and most troublesome weed in North Carolina sweetpotato. This publication discusses Palmer amaranth identification, reproduction and growth habit, impacts on sweetpotato yield and quality, and weed management options.

Manganese (Mn) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of manganese deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Management Guide for Sour Rot in North Carolina

By: Karen Blaedow, Hannah Burrack, Mark Hoffmann, Sara Villani

This publication gives an overview of sour-rot management in European-style grapevines in North Carolina. We explain what the causes of sour rot, show pictures, discuss susceptible cultivars and give management recommendations.

Optimizing Floral Hemp Biomass through Proper Transplant Timing and Density

By: David Suchoff, Eric Linder, Shannon Henriquez Inoa

This publication discusses the results of field trials conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the effects of transplant date and plant spacing on plant height and width for floral hemp. These results can help farmers make planting decisions to maximize biomass yields per acre.

Soil-Less Substrates for Greenhouse Strawberry Production in the Southeastern US

By: Austin Wrenn, Brian Jackson, Mark Hoffmann

Soil-less growing practices have opened up new possibilities for many specialty crops, including strawberries. US strawberry growers are facing a number of challenges that threaten the future of the industry. These include increasing labor and production costs, increased competition from imports, short production seasons, new emerging pests and diseases, extreme weather patterns and new government regulations. Soil-less production of greenhouse-grown strawberries has the potential to address some of those issues. While soil-less greenhouse strawberry production has been common for many years in a number of European and Asian countries, it has yet to become commonplace in the US. Reasons are high upfront cost as well as a general lack of technical knowledge, resulting in grower reluctance to make a transition into greenhouse strawberry production. One horticultural key for a successful soil-less strawberry production system is the choice of optimal substrate options. Therefore, the presented study evaluated the impact of six substrate blends on the growth and yield of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Albion) in a commercial greenhouse in Eastern North Carolina. Following substrate blends were used: (1) 100% Coco Fiber; (2) 50% Canadian Peat / 50% Perlite; (3) 50% Canadian Peat / 50% Coco coir; (4) 50% Canadian Peat / 50% Wood Fiber; (5) 50% Canadian Peat / 50% Bark; (6) European Peat. Tray plants (250 cc) were grown in a modified tabletop system inside a poly-covered greenhouse with basic climate control infrastructure. The study was conducted in a randomized complete block design during the growing season 2020-2021 and repeated in 2021-2022. Our results show that strawberries grown in 50% Canadian Peat / 50 % Wood Fiber yielded similar high to 100% Coco Fiber and 100% European Peat, both grower standards. Based on the research, strawberry greenhouse production could use more cost effective, local available woodfiber and Canadian peat substrates instead of coconut coir or European peat that are sourced and shipped overseas. This option can be a more cost effective option for growers in the Southeast, considering making a shift to greenhouse strawberry production.

Corn Earworm in Strawberries

This publication covers the corn earworm in strawberries and its impact in North Carolina.

Glomerella Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

By: Sara Villani Apple Pathology Factsheets

This apple pathology factsheet describes Glomerella leaf spot and fruit rot in apple, including identification and disease management.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Iron (Fe) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of iron deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Cyclamen Mites in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Under Trellis Cover Crops for North Carolina Vineyards

By: William Gill Giese, Mark Hoffmann

This publication discusses research on under trellis cover crops at a North Carolina commercial vineyard and the impact of the practice on grapevine vigor, yield, vine balance, and fruit chemistry. It also covers under trellis cover crop management, common pitfalls, and mistakes to avoid.

Water Damage

By: Mark Hoffmann, Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of water damage in strawberry production.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Carmine Mites in Stawberries

This publication covers carmine mites in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Fresh Market Tomato Production Piedmont and Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The tomato is a warm season crop. With special production practices you can produce your first tomatoes in 60 days. This crop can be grown for production from June through November by choosing the right varieties and production practices. Generally, tomatoes require a large investment in time and labor, but increase in intensity of management is repaid by increased yields and profits.

Pest Management Guidelines for Small Acreage North Carolina Rice Growers

By: Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Der Holcomb

Rice is a minor crop in the state of North Carolina with less than an estimated 2000 acres in the entire state. Unfortunately this means there are very few resources for growers. There are currently no insecticides or herbicides registered for use on rice in the state of North Carolina. Due to legal and liability issues we are not allowed to recommend any brand or chemistries of insecticide or herbicide to be used. Since rice is usually a second or third priority crop behind flowers and vegetables we are tailoring these recommendations in a way where you can grow your crop and receive the maximum yield benefits possible given the circumstances. What follows are a series of cultural and non-chemical controls for weed and pest management.

Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops

By: Jim Owen Jr., Anthony LeBude, Amy Fulcher, Jane Stanley, Loren Oki

Monitoring leachate can be a helpful tool to successfully schedule irrigation and avoid the inefficiencies associated with over-irrigation. This publication, a collaboration between several states, describes irrigation scheduling and the factors that affect it, explains the concept of leaching and methods for measuring leaching fraction and how to use that information to schedule irrigation, and illustrates how to manage high salinity in irrigation source water through leaching.

Sulfur (S) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of sulfur deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Zinc (Zn) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of zinc deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Boron (B) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.

Potassium (K) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of potassium deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

European Pepper Moth in Nurseries and Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank

European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis) is a pest of ornamental and vegetable crops with nearly worldwide distribution. In the US, it is most common in the Southeast but can live in greenhouses in northern regions. European pepper moth caterpillars feed on hundreds of plant species in many families. The caterpillars near the soil surface where they feed on lower leaves, stems, and roots. Management of this pest is difficult because it is hard to detect and it is protected from insecticides within silk webbing.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Boron (B) Toxicity of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of boron toxicity. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Drought Injury

By: Mark Hoffmann, Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of drought injury in strawberries.

Fig Culture in North Carolina

By: Melvin Kolbe, Kathleen Williams

The fig is native to the Mediterranean Basin. You may already be familiar with some members of the fig family, such as the ornamental rubber tree, the mulberry, and the Osage orange or hedge apple. Figs are grown over much of eastern North Carolina and westward into the Piedmont. If your soil is well-drained and reasonably fertile, you most likely will have success growing figs in North Carolina.

Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of magnesium deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Nitrogen (N) Deficiency of Carinata

By: Paul Cöckson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon Gonzalez, Michael Mulvaney, Angela Post, Brian Whipker From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) research update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop in the Southeast used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feedstock, high protein meal, and jet fuel. It is similar in management to canola given both canola and carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops. However, carinata oil is not edible.

Social Relationships Between Wineries and Local Communities: Perspectives of North Carolinians from the Piedmont

By: Jing Li, Shuangyu Xu, Mirza Farzana Halim, Carla Barbieri

This publication discusses the perspectives of locals in the North Carolina Triad with regard to social relationships between wineries and the communities.

Cannabis Aphid in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the biology, damage, and management of the cannabis aphid in industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Twospotted Spider Mite in Industrial Hemp

By: Melissa Pulkoski, Hannah Burrack

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of the twospotted spider mite in industrial hemp production in North Carolina.

Mapa de la Ley de Protección al Trabajador para Pesticidias Agrícolas

By: Wayne Buhler, Carmina Hanson, Tom Bowman, Gwen Minton

Este mapa presenta la ruta más rápida para satisfacer la Ley de Protección al Trabajador sin complicaciones. Esta es una herramienta de descripción general simplificada para orientar rápidamente a los ger-entes de fincas, manipuladores, trabajadores y agricultores familiares en la dirección correcta.

Strawberry Crown Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry crown borer.

2019 North Carolina Hemp Strain Testing Results - Henderson County

By: Angela Post, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Katherine Learn, Ryan Heiniger

This publication provides the results of a 2019 Henderson County Hemp Strain Test that was conducted at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River, NC.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

2019 North Carolina Hemp Strain Testing Results - Rowan County

By: Angela Post, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Katherine Learn, Ryan Heiniger

This publication provides the results of a 2019 Rowan County Hemp Strain Test that was conducted at the Piedmont Research Station in Salisbury, NC.

2019 North Carolina Hemp Strain Testing Results - Rowan County

By: Angela Post, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Katherine Learn, Ryan Heiniger

This publication provides the results of a 2019 hemp strain test conducted in Rowan County at the Piedmont Research Station in Salisbury, NC.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Fumigant Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided for strawberry crops.

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