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Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Growing Blueberries in the Home Garden

By: Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.

Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry

By: Lena Wilson, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry and provides best management practice recommendations.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

14. Small Fruits

By: Gina Fernandez, Bill Cline, Sara Spayd, Hannah Burrack

This small fruits chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews selection, planting, and maintenance of strawberries, caneberries, blueberries, grapes, and kiwis.

Mummy Berry Disease of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Lena Wilson Fruit Disease Information

This publication describes the signs, symptoms and disease cycle of Mummy berry, a fungal disease of blueberry species. Recommendations for best management practices are included.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Sara Villani, Steven Frank, Dominic Reisig, Katie Jennings, Bill Cline, Meredith Favre, Dave Ritchie

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Podredumbre de la fruta por antracnosis

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La antracnosis es una enfermedad importante de la fresa con todas las partes de la planta (fruto, coronas, hojas, pecíolos y estolones) siendo susceptibles al patógeno. Tres especies relacionadas del hongo Colletotrichum, incluyendo C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y C. fragariae pueden asociarse con la antracnosis. Sin embargo, C. acutatum es el principal patógeno asociado con la fase de podredumbre de la fruta por antracnosis (AFR) y el tema principal de esta hoja informativa.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Fusarium Wilt of Blackberry

By: Bill Cline, Sara Villani Plant Disease Factsheets

Fusarium wilt is an emerging disease of blackberry in commercial plantings in southeastern North Carolina. This factsheet covers symptoms, signs, and best management practices for Fusarium wilt of blackberry.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Antracnosis de la corona de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La antracnosis es una enfermedad importante de la fruta de fresa, coronas, hojas, pecíolos y estolones. Tres especies relacionadas del hongo Colletotrichum, incluyendo C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y C. fragariae pueden asociarse con plantas de fresa. Esta hoja informativa destaca la antracnosis de la corona (ACR) causada principalmente por C. gloeosporioides y ocasionalmente por C. fragariae (algunos los clasifican dentro del mismo grupo de especies; otros los consideran especies diferentes).

Pudrición de la corona por Phytophthora en fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La infección de fresa por Phytophthora cactorum ocurre en suelos mal drenados, sobre riego, o durante largos períodos de lluvia en climas cálidos. Los síntomas de la enfermedad aumentan durante los períodos de alta necesidad de agua, como después de que se establecen los trasplantes, durante el clima cálido y seco o a medida que aumenta la carga de fruta. El patógeno se ha vuelto muy importante en los últimos 10-15 años (1999-2014).

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Pudrición de la raíz negra de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La pudrición de la raíz negra (BRR) es un complejo de enfermedades en la fresa, lo que significa que uno o más organismos pueden estar involucrados en la infección, incluidos los hongos Pythium spp., Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. y varias especies de nematodos. Es una enfermedad común en Carolina del Norte y la razón principal por la que los productores fumigan en la región sureste. En los sistemas anuales, la enfermedad se acumula con el tiempo y generalmente alcanza un pico de daño el punto máximo de la cosecha. Sin embargo, el daño temprano causa retraso en el crecimiento de la planta que es evidente dentro de 1-2 meses después de la siembra. BRR puede causar reducciones de rendimiento de hasta 20 a 40%.

Tizón de la hoja por Phomopsis en fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

Las hojas jóvenes son muy susceptibles al tizón de la hoja de Phomopsis. La enfermedad también puede debilitar las hojas más viejas en las plantaciones perennes, lo que resulta en rendimientos reducidos al año siguiente. En el sureste durante la producción de viveros, puede ocurrir una defoliación severa y las plantas hijas pueden marchitarse y morir debido a la infección de estolones con síntomas que a menudo se confunden con antracnosis.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Mancha angular de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La mancha angular de la fresa, causada por la bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae, a menudo se confunde con otras enfermedades comunes como la Mancha foliar y el Tizón de la hoja. Una vez que se establece la infección, poco se puede hacer hasta que las condiciones de frío y alta humedad disminuyan. Afortunadamente, esta enfermedad generalmente no afecta severamente los rendimientos.

Strawberry Viruses

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for the Southeast

By: Mark Hoffmann, Patrick Conner, Phillip Brannen, Hannah Burrack, Wayne Mitchem, Bill Cline, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Southern Stem Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.

Pudrición de cuero de la fresa

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La podredumbre del cuero, causada por Phytophthora cactorum, puede causar pérdidas sustanciales de rendimiento de fruta en años húmedos, y es particularmente problemática para las operaciones de recolección, donde la fruta enferma no detectada mezclada con fruta sana puede resultar en mermeladas y jaleas de sabor amargo.

Growing Blueberries in Childcare Center Gardens

By: Bill Cline, Mary Archer, Lucy Bradley Local Foods: Childcare Center Production Gardens

In addition to their delicious fruit, blueberries also provide year-round interest in the garden. Bell-shaped white flowers are popular with native bees in the spring, the fruit is beautiful and nutritious in the summer, and the fall leaves are gorgeous. Best of all, blueberries are relatively easy to grow.

Moho gris de la corona de fresa

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline, Andres Sanabria Velazquez, Tika Adhikari

La pudrición de la corona de Botrytis ocurre esporádicamente en los sistemas de producción anual. La enfermedad ocurre a principios o finales del invierno o principios de la primavera en condiciones frescas y húmedas. La enfermedad se ve favorecida en el invierno si las floraciones mueren por heladas; si se produce un crecimiento excesivo de las plantas o si las plantas están en una alta densidad; o si el tejido muerto en invierno es colonizado por el patógeno.