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14. Small Fruits

By: Gina Fernandez, Bill Cline, Sara Spayd, Hannah Burrack

This small fruits chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews selection, planting, and maintenance of strawberries, caneberries, blueberries, grapes, and kiwis.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Growing Blueberries in the Home Garden

By: Charles Mainland, Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Strawberry Viruses

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for North Carolina

By: Barclay Poling, Charles Mainland, William Bland, Bill Cline, Kenneth Sorensen

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline, Charles Mainland Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Southern Stem Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, M. Nita, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson, Rebecca Melanson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.