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This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.
An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.
This factsheet for farmers describes concepts, terminology, and guidelines concerning soil sampling. Proper testing allows farmers to apply the correct amount of lime and fertilizer to fields.
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis. Where and when to take samples, proper sampling techniques, and submitting the samples for analysis are all covered.
This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.
This factsheet for farmers describes ways to control the harmful effects of excess nutrients while maintaining healthy, productive farm crops. Steps covered include testing your soil and following the soil testing recommendations, setting realistic yield goals, choosing the most suitable nitrogen sources, applying nitrogen correctly, using manure as a nutrient source, controlling erosion, managing water flow and fencing animals away from water flow.
Nearly all North Carolina soils are naturally acidic and need lime, which neutralizes the acidity, for optimum growth of crops, forages, turf, trees, and many ornamentals. Nature and cause of acidity, benefits of proper lime usage, soil testing and target pH, liming materials and lime application and incorporation are presented in this publication.
North Carolina has an abundant supply of clean water, a resource vital to our high quality of life. Rivers, lakes, groundwater aquifers, and coastal estuaries are crucial to public health, economic development, and recreational opportunities. However, our water sources are constantly threatened with degradation by such activities as imprudent development, improperly managed agricultural and industrial activities, and unsound waste disposal practices. The soil exerts an important influence on water quality. How we manage the soil and what we put on it determine, in part, the level of treatment required to make our water supplies safe and enjoyable. This fact sheet explains how soils influence water quality and why efficient soil management helps protect water quality.
2023 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.
This publication alerts prospective gardeners to some of the most common contaminants in urban soils, such as lead and other toxic metals, solvents, pesticides and total petroleum hydrocarbons. This will help minimize potential risks to gardeners and to those who consume garden produce. The document includes information regarding site characterization, common contaminants, soil testing, interpretation of results and strategies for reducing exposure risks.
This publication provides information to growers about soybean production in North Carolina. It discusses economic trends and forecasts, cultural practices, variety selection, planting decisions, nutrient management, diseases and pests, and other production practices.
This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing flue-cured tobacco in North Carolina.
This factsheet describes the effect of fertilizer nitrogen on water quality and the environment. It provides guidelines for managing soil fertility on farms to preserve water quality.
Selecting the right tool for a job is essential. When that tool is as important and expensive as a farm implement, the same holds true—you want to buy farm equipment that does what you want; is strong, durable, and reliable; and is generally the best value for your money.
Plants differ in their tolerance to soil pH. This publication provides information on determining the target pH for different crops and calculating the appropriate amount of materials to reduce soil pH when necessary.
This publication offers fertilizer suggestions for a variety of crops, including field, pasture and hay crops, tree fruit, small fruit, ornamental plants and vegetable crops.
This publication discusses tillage treatments for large-seeded crops like corn and soybeans in the Piedmont region and recommends minimizing tillage based on research at the Upper Piedmont Research Station.
This publication discusses how floods can affect food gardens. In it, you'll find recommendations for preparing your garden before a flood, precautions to take after the storm, and how to safely clean up and replant after floodwaters recede.
This publication, chapter 6 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers fertilization and nutrient management in soybean production.
This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.
Nitrogen fertilizer products are being developed and marketed as having the potential to increase yields and nutrient use efficiency, and decrease volatilization (gas). How do these products actually perform on different soils and row crops, under various climatic conditions? This publication summarizes findings from recent studies that investigated alternative nitrogen fertilizer products for row crops in four North Carolina regions.
Esta publicación explica cómo obtener muestras de suelo representativas y cómo enviarlas para que las analicen. Se incluye también dónde y cuándo tomar muestras, técnicas de muestreo adecuadas y el envío de las muestras para su análisis.
This publication discusses the effects of saltwater intrusion on soil fertility, how to identify issues with salt-affected soils, and various options to address these problems.
This publication provides updated recommendations for phosphorus fertilizer application in corn, soybean, and small grains crops. It includes background and historical information about phosphorus critical levels, phosphorus rate recommendations, phosphorus accumulation in soils, and changes in recommendations.
This publication provides information on the impacts wind-driven events have on the soil fertility. Salt water from storm surges, ocean spray, and tidal surges may increase sodium levels in coastal soils, which can be toxic to plants.
The purposes of this factsheet are to identify several major pollutants that often originate in lawns and gardens, to describe the problems they may cause, and to outline some things that can be done to minimize their adverse effects on water quality. This information should benefit home gardeners, landscape developers, contract lawn care specialists, athletic field managers and others who manage soil to grow plants for food, pleasure, or profit.
Phosphorus (P) is the second most important nutrient in crop production but is often found in relatively low amounts in native soils. Decades of fertilizer application have led to P enrichment of most North Carolina agricultural soils. Excess soil P that leaves agricultural fields via runoff and drainage can cause algal blooms in water resources that lead to impaired drinking water quality and can limit recreational activities. Maintaining adequate soil P levels for crop growth can reduce P runoff, save money, and protect the environment
This publication provides guidance to Extension agents on how to design and conduct trials and demonstrations on alternative products for plant and soil health and pest and disease control purposes. It provides standardized experimental design criteria and best practices for planning and executing trials for these products.
This publication discusses the Realistic Yield Expectations database as a resource for nitrogen fertilization rate decisionmaking. Topics include recent research and the resulting updates to the database for improved nitrogen fertilizer rates based on new yield data.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of sulfur deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This publication discusses how the Nitrogen Loss Estimation Worksheet Tool can be used to account for agricultural nitrogen levels as an alternative to water quality monitoring.
This publication addresses nutrient management concerns as they relate to land application of animal wastes, municipal biosolids, industrial residuals and agricultural by-products, with a focus on phosphorus application and its impact on the environment. Methods for reducing phosphorus loss from land application sites are presented as general guidance for managers of land application systems, who must be knowledgeable of regulatory issues and permit restrictions as they relate to phosphorus and nutrient management.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of molybdenum deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of aluminum toxicity in soybean production in North Carolina.
This question and answer worksheet will help homeowners focus on potential problems with drinking water or other water resources that may be caused by improper lawn or garden care. Use and storage of fertilizers and pesticides, watering plants, landscape design and soil erosion are discussed.
This publication discusses nutrient removal by crops, which is useful in comparing the nutrient demands of different crops in conjunction with soil testing. The publication also includes a table of the estimated nutrient removal rates of various crops.
This publication, chapter 7 of the 2023 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.
Adequate sulfur is necessary for crops, but there’s no one-size-fits-all recommendation for application in North Carolina. Best management practices take sulfur removal and incidental sulfur inputs for the entire crop rotation, soil type and profile depth layers and soil and plant analysis results.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of nitrogen deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of magnesium deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of phosphorus deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of zinc deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of potassium deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of copper deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This Soybean Nutrient Deficiency Information factsheet describes the symptoms and management of boron deficiency in soybean production in North Carolina.
This publication, chapter 5 of the 2023 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information of managing nutrients in tobacco production.