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Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, James P. Kearns, Rick Brandenburg, Dan C. Bowman, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It also includes information on grasscycling and integrated pest management.

Coccidiosis, the Most Common Cause of Diarrhea in Young Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

This factsheet offers some information on the signs, symptoms, and treatment of coccidiosis, the most common cause of diarrhea in young goats.

Nutritional Feeding Management of Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

Goats raised for meat need high quality feed in most situations and require an optimum balance of many different nutrients to achieve maximum profit potential. This publication covers nutritional requirements for meat goats, including water, protein and vitamins.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

Poisonous Plants to Livestock

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A guide to many of the plants, shrubs, and flowers that are poisonous to animals.

2017 Top Performing Tall Fescue, Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Henry Wetzel, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Septic Systems and Their Maintenance

By: Mike Hoover, Tom Konsler, Jonathan Godfrey SoilFacts

This factsheet tells homeowners how to recognize and prevent problems with home septic systems. How septic systems work, where septic systems can be used, and maintenance on septic systems are covered.

Controlling Sore Mouth in Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

This publication offers information on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of sore mouth, a contagious, viral disease that produces thick, scabby sores on the lips and gums and may also be observed on the udders of meat goats.

Septic System Owner's Guide

By: Mike Hoover, Jonathan Godfrey SoilFacts

If you use a septic system or if you are buying a home with a septic system, this owner's guide can help you be sure that your septic system is used and maintained properly. This guide also provides a place to record and keep important information, such as a copy of your permit, a sketch of your system, and maintenance records.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Carl Crozier, Greg Hoyt, Michael Wagger SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Why Do Septic Systems Fail?

By: David Lindbo, Jonathan Godfrey, Diana Rashash SoilFacts

This publication describes common causes for septic tank failures and suggests steps you can take to prevent failure of your system.

Forage Conservation Techniques: Silage and Haylage Production

By: J.J. Romero, Miguel Castillo, J.C. Burns

This publication provides information on two forage conservation techniques to help producers select a technique that maximizes nutrient conservation efficiency and minimizes production costs.

Soil Acidity and Liming for Agricultural Soils

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

Nearly all North Carolina soils are naturally acidic and need lime, which neutralizes the acidity, for optimum growth of crops, forages, turf, trees, and many ornamentals. Nature and cause of acidity, benefits of proper lime usage, soil testing and target pH, liming materials and lime application and incorporation are presented in this publication.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Henry Wetzel, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Daniel Bowman, Richard Cooper, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Forage Needs and Grazing Management for Meat Goats in the Humid Southeast

By: JM Luginbuhl, Matt Poore, Paul Mueller, Jim Green Animal Science Facts

This factsheet offers information on forage needs for meat goats, as well as typical grazing behavior.

Vaccinating Goats Against Enterotoxemia and Tetanus: Is it Necessary?

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson Animal Science Facts

It is generally advised that all goats be vaccinated against overeating disease (enterotoxemia) and tetanus. This factsheet offers some information on how and when to give the vaccines for maximum protection.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Arthur Bruneau, William Lewis, L. T. Lucas, M. A. Powell, Rick Brandenburg, Ronald E. Sneed, Joseph M. DiPaola, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. The desired effects of trees sometimes make it difficult to grow turf. When trees and shrubs are used to provide screening and privacy, the reduced wind movement and sunlight often increase the chance for disease. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

2016 Top Performing Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

The Soybean Plant

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Jim Dunphy

This publication, chapter 1 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describes the soybean plant and its various growth stages.

Chapter 3: Crop Production Management - Corn

By: Ron Heiniger, Dominic Reisig, George Place, Major Goodman

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic corn production: hybrid selection, planting date, crop rotation, soil fertility and plant reproduction and propagation.

2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Guide

By: Blake Brown, Jonathan Phillips, Grant Ellington, Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Matt Inman, Kenneth Barnes, Rick Seagroves, Scott Whitley, W. David Smith, Hannah Burrack, Catherine LePrevost, Lindsey Thiessen, Aurora Toennisson

This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing flue-cured tobacco in North Carolina.

Careful Soil Sampling—The Key to Reliable Soil Test Information

By: Carl Crozier, Deanna Osmond, David Hardy SoilFacts

This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis. Where and when to take samples, proper sampling techniques, and submitting the samples for analysis are all covered.

Bermudagrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Leon Warren, Rick Brandenburg

This calendar offers suggestions regarding management practices for all-season care of a bermudagrass athletic field.

Doveweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of doveweed.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco plants that are B deficient are stunted very early on in production when compared to healthy plants. Initial symptoms involve a noticeable distortion at the growing point. The youngest leaves will develop kinks and other unusual growth patterns. Additionally, the upper leaves will be very thick and brittle to the touch. It has a very distinct “ridged” feeling compared to healthy plants. Symptoms can progress very quickly once initial symptoms are observed. The distorted terminal bud will quickly become necrotic and may abscise from the plant. The older foliage will often become darker green in coloration and will also become distorted. The leaves will begin to curl downward and will take on a crinkled appearance.

Chapter 4: Crop Production Management - Organic Wheat and Small Grains

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger, Dominic Reisig

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production: crop rotation, tillage, variety selection, planting date, seeding rates and drill operation, soil fertility and harvest.

Dogfennel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

2014 Recommended Tall Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended tall fescue cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

Goosegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of goosegrass.

2018 Cotton Cost of Production

By: Gary Bullen

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the costs of cotton production in 2018.

Spotted Spurge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spotted spurge.

Diseases of Warm-Season Grasses

By: Arthur Bruneau, Leon Lucas

This guide is designed to help you identify the most troublesome diseases associated with warm-season turfgrasses. These include such grasses as bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass. A description of the major disease symptoms, a listing of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass energy by disease, and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Soils and Water Quality

By: David Crouse, Jonathan Godfrey, Rich McLaughlin, Deanna Osmond SoilFacts

North Carolina has an abundant supply of clean water, a resource vital to our high quality of life. Rivers, lakes, groundwater aquifers, and coastal estuaries are crucial to public health, economic development, and recreational opportunities. However, our water sources are constantly threatened with degradation by such activities as imprudent development, improperly managed agricultural and industrial activities, and unsound waste disposal practices. The soil exerts an important influence on water quality. How we manage the soil and what we put on it determine, in part, the level of treatment required to make our water supplies safe and enjoyable. This fact sheet explains how soils influence water quality and why efficient soil management helps protect water quality.

Breeds and Production Traits of Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Animal Science Facts

This publication covers the characteristics and production traits (adaptability, reproductive rate, growth rate, carcass characteristics) of the common meat goat breeds Boer, Spanish, Myotonic, Nubian, and Pygmy.

Green Kyllinga

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green kyllinga and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Heat Detection and Breeding in Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Animal Science Facts

This publication covers the signs of heat in does and some basic information on breeding meat goats.

Best Management Practices for Agricultural Nutrients

By: Deanna Osmond, Daniel Line SoilFacts

This factsheet for farmers describes ways to control the harmful effects of excess nutrients while maintaining healthy, productive farm crops. Steps covered include testing your soil and following the soil testing recommendations, setting realistic yield goals, choosing the most suitable nitrogen sources, applying nitrogen correctly, using manure as a nutrient source, controlling erosion, managing water flow and fencing animals away from water flow.

Small Grain Production Guide

By: Randy Weisz, Gaylon Ambrose, Stephen Bambara, Christina Cowger, Carl Crozier, Wesley Everman, Ron Heiniger, D. Ames Herbert, David Jordan, Paul Murphy, Dominic Reisig

This production guide for wheat and other small grains grown in North Carolina includes sections on pre-plant considerations, fertility management, pest management and special considerations.

Decreasing Barber Pole Larvae Population on Grass Pastures: Is Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizer a Viable Alternative?

By: JM Luginbuhl

Barber pole larvae show increased resistance to commercial anthelmintics drenched to small ruminant livestock, and producers are looking for other alternatives. What about bypassing the livestock entirely and applying a larvicidal product directly on the pasture itself?

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Tall Fescue

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Restoration and Management of Coastal Dune Vegetation

By: Stephen Broome SoilFacts

This publication discusses the features of coastal dunes and construction of new dunes using vegetation. The procedures recommended can help restore, enhance, and protect dune vegetation.

Tall Fescue, Hard (Fine) Fescue, and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, William Lewis, Charles Peacock, L. T. Lucas, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue, hard (fine) fescue, and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Cotton Defoliation

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses defoliation practices in cotton production.

Listeriosis in Your Herd

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on listeriosis in goats, including causes, symptoms, prevention and risk to humans.

2018 Peanut Information

By: David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Blake Brown, Gary Bullen, Gary Roberson, Barbara Shew

This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing peanuts in North Carolina.

Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, William Lewis, Charles Peacock, L. T. Lucas, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Modified McMaster's Fecal Egg Counting Technique

By: Heather Glennon

A guide to counting fecal eggs in meat goats, modified from the McMaster Procedure.

Consider Breeding Your Does to Target Ethnic Holidays Where Goat Meat Is Part of the Traditional Holiday Feast

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

Many ethnic holidays include goat meat as part of traditional celebrations. This factsheet serves as an ethnic holiday calendar and guide for meat goat producers.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Soybean Production and Marketing in North Carolina

By: Nick Piggott, Gary Bullen, Jim Dunphy, Wesley Everman, Derek Washburn

This publication, chapter 2 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses the soybean market in the United States and managing price risk for North Carolina soybean farmers.

Chapter 5: Crop Production Management - Organic Soybeans

By: Jim Dunphy, George Place, Dominic Reisig, Chris Reberg-Horton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide covers key management practices for organic soybean production: variety selection, planting times, plant population and crop rotation.

2018 Cotton Information

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Alan York, David Hardy, Dominic Reisig, Gary Bullen, Lindsey Thiessen, Rachel Atwell

2018 Cotton Information is meant to help growers plan for the coming year and make management decisions based on the unique opportunities and challenges the year might bring.

Lice: What They Are and How to Control Them

By: Wes Watson, JM Luginbuhl Animal Science Facts

Information on the different types of lice, diagnosis and treatment is presented in this factsheet. Lice are a common group of ectoparasitic insects of goats; infested animals are uncomfortable and often cause structural damage to farm facilities by rubbing and scratching on fences and posts.

Using Baffles to Improve Sediment Basins

By: Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

Runoff on construction sites often contains large amount of soil and trapping it before it leaves the site is critical in preventing damage to streams, rivers and lakes. This factsheet describes sediment traps and basins at construction sites and agricultural operations, which provide temporary pools for runoff that allow sediment to settle before the water is discharged into water.

Weed Management in Corn

By: Alan York, A. Stanley Culpepper

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers weed management in corn production.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Planting Guide for Forage Crops in North Carolina

By: J. T. Green, Paul Mueller, D. S. Chamblee

This planting guide, provides the best available information about planting rates, depths, and stand evaluation for forage crops commonly grown in North Carolina

North Carolina Soybean Production Guide

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Carl Crozier, Gary Bullen, Jim Dunphy, Wesley Everman, David Hardy, Deanna Osmond, Nick Piggott, Sandeep Rana, Dominic Reisig, Gary Roberson, Brandon Schrage, Lindsey Thiessen, Derek Washburn

This publication provides information to growers about soybean production in North Carolina. It discusses economic trends and forecasts, cultural practices, variety selection, planting decisions, nutrient management, diseases and pests, and other production practices.

Waste Analysis

By: David Crouse, Kristin Hicks SoilFacts

This factsheet clarifies the importance of waste analysis and describes the procedures for taking reliable samples and submitting them to the Agronomic Division of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services (NCDA&CS).

Soil Sampling for Precision Farming Systems

By: Carl Crozier, Ron Heiniger SoilFacts

This factsheet for farmers describes concepts, terminology, and guidelines concerning precision soil sampling. Proper testing allows farmers to apply the correct amount of lime and fertilizer to fields.

Hydrilla: A Rapidly Spreading Aquatic Weed in North Carolina

By: Stratford H. Kay

This publication provides information on the origin, distribution, impact, biology, reproduction and management options of hydrilla.

Cudweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Laminitis or Founder

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on laminitis, an inflammation of the hoof, in meat goats, including causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Minimizing Risks of Soil Contaminants in Urban Gardens

By: Carl Crozier, Matthew Polizzotto, Lucy Bradley SoilFacts

This publication alerts prospective gardeners to some of the most common contaminants in urban soils, such as lead and other toxic metals, solvents, pesticides and total petroleum hydrocarbons. This will help minimize potential risks to gardeners and to those who consume garden produce. The document includes information regarding site characterization, common contaminants, soil testing, interpretation of results and strategies for reducing exposure risks.

Tobacco - Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

By far, nitrogen (N) is the most widely applied nutrient for plant growth. It should come as no surprise, that symptoms of nitrogen deficiency readily develop with tobacco plants.

Virginia Buttonweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of virginia buttonweed.

Guide to Using Turf Colorants

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication offers strategies for maintaining green turf during the winter using turf colorants. It discusses considerations for using colorants, different product types for specific uses, application rates and methods, and cost to help you plan winter turf maintenance.

Preparing Meat Goats for the Breeding Season

By: JM Luginbuhl Animal Science Facts

This publication offers information on how to prep does and bucks for the meat goat breeding season to improve the outcome and profitability of the operation.

Monitoring the Body Condition of Meat Goats: A Key to Successful Management

By: JM Luginbuhl, Matt Poore Animal Science Facts

This publication offers information on monitoring the body condition of meat goats in order to increase reproductive success.

Chemical Treatment to Control Turbidity on Construction Sites

By: Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

Construction sites of more than one acre are required to install systems to retain sediment produced onsite. This factsheet describes several chemical treatment options, including polyacrylamides (PAM), gypsum and alum, for reducing turbidity in impounded water.

Agricultural Riparian Buffers

By: Deanna Osmond, Mike Burchell SoilFacts

This publication describes some basic concepts of hydrology and explains how water moves through or over a buffer. Using these concepts, it explains effective natural riparian buffers can be created using the grasses, trees, shrubs, and other vegetation growing along streams.

Green Foxtail

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green foxtail.

Basic Meat Goat Facts

By: JM Luginbuhl Animal Science Facts

This factsheet gives at-a-glance information on a variety of meat goat facts, including reproductive aspects, health habits and signs of illness.

Yellow Nutsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Housing and Facilities for Meat Goats

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

This publication discusses housing and working facilities that will meet shelter needs for meat goats.

Using Polyacrylamide (PAM) to Reduce Erosion on Construction Sites

By: Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This factsheet covers the use of polyacrylamides as a means of erosion control on construction sites. PAM characteristics and considerations are discussed as well as basic directions for use.

2014 Recommended Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended Kentucky bluegrass cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

Prostrate Knotweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prostrate knotweed.

Water Quality and Home Lawn Care

By: Arthur Bruneau, S. C. Hodges, L. T. Lucas Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

This publication will help you care for your lawn in ways that prevent and reduce contamination of our water resources by sediment, fertilizers, and pesticides.

Bahiagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

Carpetweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetweed.

Fertilization and Nutrient Management

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 6 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers fertilization and nutrient management in soybean production.

2015 Turfgrass Pest Management Manual

By: Grady Miller, Emily Erickson, Dan Bowman, Rick Brandenburg, Travis Gannon, Jim Kerns, Charles Peacock, Robert Richardson, Thomas Rufty, Leon Warren, Fred Yelverton

This guide is designed to help turf managers identify the major turfgrass pests found in North Carolina and better understand their life cycles, symptoms, and biology.

The Use of Management Practices to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Corn

By: Megan Meyers, Ron Heiniger, Leah Boerema, Ignazio Carbone

This publication examines the timing and application rate of two biocontrol products based on nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to reduce mycotoxin contamination in corn.

Bermudagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Creeping Bentgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of creeping bentgrass.

Landscape Irrigation Auditing Made Simple

By: Garry Grabow, Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication discusses how to ensure efficient supplemental water management to maintain turfgrass growth by evaluating irrigation system performance. Completing an audit of an irrigation system provides the information needed to set irrigation controllers to deliver the proper amount of water.

Corn Production Guide

By: Ron Heiniger, Jan Spears, Dan Bowman, M.L. Carson, Carl Crozier, Jim Dunphy, Steve Koenning, Michele Marra, G.C. Naderman, John Van Duyn, Alan York, A.S. Culpepper, G. A. Payne

This comprehensive guide covers crop management, fertilizers, irrigation and drought management, tillage, insect and disease management, and marketing concerns for corn production.

Soil Management Can Maximize Water Availability

By: Alan Meijer, Joshua L. Heitman, Jeffrey G. White SoilFacts

This publication discusses water capacity, soil's effect on water availability, and proper soil management to maximize water availability. Soil texture and structure, soil density, soil crusting, tillage and controlled traffic are covered.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass grass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Nimblewill

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nimblewill.

Nitrogen Management and Water Quality

By: Deanna Osmond SoilFacts

This factsheet describes the effect of fertilizer nitrogen on water quality and the environment. It provides guidelines for managing soil fertility on farms to preserve water quality.

Common Ragweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common ragweed.

Chapter 7: Weed Management

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Randy Weisz, Alan York, George Place, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses cultural, mechanical and chemical tactics used for weed control in organic farming.

Globe Sedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of globe sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Yellow Foxtail

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow foxtail.

Weed Management

By: Wesley Everman, Sandeep Rana, Brandon Schrage, Katherine Drake Stowe, Alan York

This publication, chapter 7 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, addresses weed management in soybean production.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year.

North Carolina Grains for Brewing and Distilling: FAQ

By: Molly Hamilton, Chris Reberg-Horton

This factsheet offers FAQs for distillers/brewers/maltsters wishing to use North Carolina-grown grain in their product, as well as FAQs for farmers looking to enter the distilling/brewing/malting market.

Diseases of Cool-Season Grasses

By: Arthur Bruneau, Leon Lucas

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

Dallisgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Orchardgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of orchardgrass.

Florida Betony

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of florida betony.

Common Lespedeza

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common lespedeza.

Broadleaf Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broadleaf plantain.

Wild Violet

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

Phosphorus Deficiency of Carinata

By: Angela Post, Paul Cockson, Carl Crozier, Ramon Leon, Brian Whipker, Michael Mulvaney From the Field - Agronomy Notes

In this Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) update, we highlight the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. These images are part of a project by the Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata (SPARC) to develop a diagnostic series for the identification of nutrient disorders of Carinata. Carinata is an exciting new crop used for a wide variety of primary and secondary agricultural products including cover crops, feed stock, high protein meal, and rocket jet fuel. It is similar in management to Canola given both Canola and Carinata are winter annual Brassica oilseed crops.

Chapter 2: Organic Crop Production Systems

By: Ron Heiniger, Chris Reberg-Horton, Molly Hamilton

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide defines the key components of organic production systems: crop sequence, crop management, soil management and pest management.

Peanut Production Practices

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, describes stand establishment and variety selection and characteristics for peanut production.

Large Crabgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large crabgrass.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Disease and Nematode Management

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 8 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses disease management in soybean production.

Chapter 10: Marketing Organic Grain Crops and Budgets

By: Molly Hamilton, Ron Heiniger

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide offers enterprise budgets for organic corn, wheat and soybeans.

Starter Phosphorus Fertilizer and Additives in North Carolina Soils: Use, Placement, and Plant Response

By: Sheri Cahill, Deanna Osmond, Ronald Gehl, David Hardy, Carl Crozier SoilFacts

Phosphorus (P) is the second most important nutrient in crop production but is often found in relatively low amounts in native soils. Decades of fertilizer application have led to P enrichment of most North Carolina agricultural soils. Excess soil P that leaves agricultural fields via runoff and drainage can cause algal blooms in water resources that lead to impaired drinking water quality and can limit recreational activities. Maintaining adequate soil P levels for crop growth can reduce P runoff, save money, and protect the environment

Tall Fescue & Kentucky Bluegrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Richard Cooper, Fred Yelverton, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Daniel Bowman, Charles Peacock, Cale A. Bigelow

This calendar of suggested management practices is designed to assist you in the seasonal care of your athletic field. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of field, previous management practices, and other factors affect turf performance. For these reasons, the following management practices and dates should be adjusted to suit your particular athletic field conditions.

US Flue-Cured Tobacco Situation and Outlook

By: Blake Brown

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes the current US tobacco market.

Dichondra

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Prickly Lettuce

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prickly lettuce.

Yellow Woodsorrel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow woodsorrel.

Chapter 1: Introduction

By: Chris Reberg-Horton, Molly Hamilton

The North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide provides farmers, Extension personnel and other agricultural educators with information about organic production, certification and marketing of grain crops. The introduction provides background context and additional resources on the topic.

Reducing Drift and Odor with Wastewater Application

By: David Crouse, Sanjay Shah SoilFacts

This publication addresses application techniques that affect drift and odor problems associated with wastewater application, so that managers and designers of land application systems can make wise decisions on how to apply wastewater with minimal impact on neighbors and the environment.

Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions

By: Michael Vepraskas

This bulletin describes requirements for aquic conditions; shows how to identify and describe redoximorphic features needed to define aquic conditions; and discusses how redoximorphic features can be interpreted.

Organic No-Till Corn Production: Cover Crop and Starter Fertilizer Considerations

By: Rachel Atwell, Chris Reberg-Horton, Hanna Poffenbarger, Steven Mirsky, Gladis Zinati, Jeff Moyer

This publication provides research-based guidance on using cover crops in organic corn production to suppress weeds and provide fertility benefits.

Cat's Ear Dandelion

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cats ear dandelion.

Insect Management

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 9 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, covers common insects and their control in soybean production.

Soybean Facts

By: Katherine Drake Stowe

This publication, chapter 11 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, presents some facts and figures about soybeans and their production.

Resources

This chapter of the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide offers a list of resources available to organic grain farmers.

Swine Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J. C. Barker, J. W. Parker, C. Stanislaw SoilFacts

This factsheet explains the three factors of proper swine manure management: the nutrient content of the manure, the percentages of those nutrients that are available to the plant and the nutrient requirements of the plant.

Caring for Your Lawn and the Environment

By: Deanna Osmond, Arthur Bruneau

This factsheet provides information on how to keep a lawn healthy and attractive and how to protect the environment by reducing runoff and trapping pollutants. Fertilizer facts and rates, a mowing guide and watering recommendations are included.

Conservation Tillage Use in Peanut Production

By: Alan Meijer, David Jordan SoilFacts

Peanut growers in North Carolina can successfully use conservation tillage if they carefully plan the transition from a conventional system. Growers should consider the production details, such as field selection and crop rotation and advisory index in this guide to make a successful transition.

Long-Term Tillage Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield in the Piedmont

By: Alan Meijer, R. D. Walters, Jeffrey G. White, Joshua Heitman, A. M. Howard SoilFacts

This publication discusses tillage treatments for large-seeded crops like corn and soybeans in the Piedmont region and recommends minimizing tillage based on research at the Upper Piedmont Research Station.

Sulfur Fertilization of North Carolina Crops

By: Carl Crozier, Greg Hoyt, David Hardy SoilFacts

Adequate sulfur is necessary for crops, but there’s no one-size-fits-all recommendation for application in North Carolina. Best management practices take sulfur removal and incidental sulfur inputs for the entire crop rotation, soil type and profile depth layers and soil and plant analysis results.

Tobacco - Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Potassium (K) is one of the three core macronutrients, and consequently, deficiency symptoms manifest relatively quickly in tobacco. Potassium is a mobile element, which means it will translocate from mature tissues to the younger tissues where it is needed. This movement of K from older to younger foliage is what causes deficiency symptoms to develop first on the lower foliage.

Nutrition of Newborn Kids: Colostrum and Bottle-Feeding

By: JM Luginbuhl

Colostrum is the first thick yellowish milk produced by the doe after giving birth. Colostrum contains maternal antibodies that help the goat kid develop its immune system to fight diseases. Colostrum should be ingested or bottle-fed very early in life as soon as kids have a suckling reflex.

Carolina Geranium

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina geranium.

Common Vetch

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Selecting a Strip-Till Rig

By: Alan Meijer SoilFacts

Selecting the right tool for a job is essential. When that tool is as important and expensive as a farm implement, the same holds true—you want to buy farm equipment that does what you want; is strong, durable, and reliable; and is generally the best value for your money.

Alternative Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizer Products for Row Crop Production

By: Deanna Osmond, Carl Crozier, Ron Heiniger SoilFacts

Nitrogen fertilizer products are being developed and marketed as having the potential to increase yields and nutrient use efficiency, and decrease volatilization (gas). How do these products actually perform on different soils and row crops, under various climatic conditions? This publication summarizes findings from recent studies that investigated alternative nitrogen fertilizer products for row crops in four North Carolina regions.

Co-Grazing Meat Goats and Beef Cattle Has Many Advantages

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

This factsheet presents several advantages to co-grazing meat goats and beef cattle.

Tobacco - Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Calcium (Ca) is essential for proper plant development and leaf expansion. A calcium deficiency will first manifest in the youngest foliage because Ca is an immobile element within the plant. As calcium deficiency progresses, the developmental damages will also advance. The integral role of Ca in leaf development makes its early diagnosis vital to tobacco production.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

Broomsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Johnsongrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of johnsongrass.

Reduce Soybean Harvest Losses

By: Jim Dunphy, E. O. Beasley

This factsheet covers how to calculate soybean losses and how to check operational guidelines to ensure a greater yield.

Persian Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Planting Decisions

By: Jim Dunphy, Gary Roberson

This publication, chapter 5 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses soybean planting decisions, including planting dates, depth, and seeding equipment calibration.

Harvesting, Drying, and Storage

By: Gary Roberson, Jim Dunphy, E. O. Beasley

This publication, chapter 10 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, describe harvesting, drying, and storing soybeans.

Production and Utilization of Stockpiled Tall Fescue: Understanding the Basic Concepts

By: Miguel Castillo, Joseph Burns, Stephanie Sosinski

This publication discusses the basic concepts of stockpiling as a forage management practice, including the purpose of stockpiling, which grasses can be stockpiled, nutritive valued of stockpiled tall fescue, and fertilization management.

Chapter 6: Soil Management

By: Carl Crozier

This chapter from the North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide discusses the organic standards for soil management.

Determining Peanut Pod Maturity and Estimating the Optimum Digging Date

By: David Jordan

This profile board will help farmers and consultants determine when peanuts should be dug.

Investigate Before You Invest

By: Mike Hoover SoilFacts

This factsheet explains the steps to take when buying land where a septic system is needed to ensure that a safe septic system can be installed that meets state and county regulations.

Nutrient Removal by Crops in North Carolina

By: Deanna Osmond, Jihoon Kang SoilFacts

This publication discusses nutrient removal by crops, which is useful in comparing the nutrient demands of different crops in conjunction with soil testing. The publication also includes a table of the estimated nutrient removal rates of various crops.

Forages for North Carolina: General Guidelines and Concepts

By: Miguel Castillo, Paul Mueller, Jim Green

This publication is an overview of forage species and their use in livestock production systems in North Carolina.

Guidelines for the Commercial Application of Poultry Litter

By: David Crouse SoilFacts

A summary of North Carolina rules and regulations governing the purchasing, handling, application and reporting of poultry litter by commercial haulers. This publication also includes a sample agreement between growers and haulers regarding who has responsibility for the various stages of litter handling.

Foot Rot

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on foot rot, a contagious disease of the hooves of goats and sheep.

Soil pH Management for Fraser Fir Christmas Tree Production

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.

Potential for High Nitrate Levels in Drought-Stressed Corn Silage

By: Ron Heiniger, Jim Dunphy

This publication discusses elevated nitrate levels in drought-stressed corn silage, which can result in harm to humans and livestock.

Disease Management in Corn

By: Steve Koenning, Gary Payne, Mary Carson

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses diseases in corn production.

Algae and Moss Control in Turf

By: Arthur Bruneau, Bill Lewis

Infestations of algae and moss in the turf are associated with unfavorable conditions for growing healthy, dense turf. This publication offers control options.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Extending the Grazing Season: Growing Annual or Perennial Grasses or Legumes in Mixture with Hybrid Bermudagrass

By: D. S. Chamblee, Paul Mueller

The studies described in this publication show the potential productive capacity of combinations of hybrid bermudagrass with different annual or perennial grasses or legumes.

Barnyardgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of barnyardgrass.

2018 Sod Producers’ Report for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication reports the results of an annual survey of sod growers in North Carolina to determine and track relative inventory levels and project price changes for the year.

Water Quality for Golf Course Superintendents and Professional Turf Managers

By: Arthur Bruneau, B. C. Williams, L. T. Lucas, Charles Peacock, D. C. Bowman Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

Follow the suggestions and BMPs described in this publication to reduce sediment and keep nutrients and pesticides applied to turf from contaminating North Carolina's water resources.

Modifying Soil for Plant Growth around Your Home

By: Greg Hoyt, Deanna Osmond, Joshua L. Heitman, Al Cooke SoilFacts

This publication addresses the two major soil problems found on residential properties and how to rectify them: lack of the three necessary nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium) and soil pH.

Certification Training for Operators of Animal Waste Systems - Type A

By: Karl Shaffer, Beth Buffington, David Crouse, Eileen Coite, Tiffanee Conrad, Stefani Garbacik, Amanda Hatcher, Eve Honeycutt, Diana Rashash, Margaret Ross, Becky Spearman, Randy Wood, Kim Woods

This training program is designed to provide operators of animal waste management systems with the basic understanding needed to operate and maintain these systems in an efficient and environmentally sound manner. This manual is not intended to provide all of the technical details for the complete design of a waste management system or an approved animal waste management plan.

Bermudagrass Management in North Carolina

By: Paul Mueller, Jim Green, Rick Brandenburg, D. S. Chamblee, J. C. Burns, J. E. Bailey

This publication covers the different types of bermudagrass, uses of bermudagrasses, planting methods and the grasses' pests and diseases.

Foot Scald

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on foot scald in meat goats, including signs and symptoms and treatment options.

What is the Cost of Selecting the Wrong Cotton Variety?

By: Guy Collins, Keith Edmisten

This publication discusses the factors involved in selecting cotton varieties and the potential economic impacts of making improper selections.

Water Quality of Rooftop Runoff: Implications for Residential Water Harvesting Systems

By: Kathy DeBusk, Bill Hunt, Deanna Osmond, Greg Cope Urban Waterways

This publication discusses the presence of various pollutants in rooftop runoff and establishes some general guidelines regarding the use of collected rainwater in North Carolina.

Tobacco - Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Sulfur (S) deficiency can easily be mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency in tobacco. The ability to distinguish between the two is very important to determining a corrective measure.

Situation and Outlook

By: Blake Brown, Gary Bullen, David Jordan

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, describes the current landscape of peanut production in North Carolina.

Curing and Mechanization

By: Grant Ellington

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information on the most efficient use of fuel and electricity while maintaining the highest cured leaf quality.

Thin (bull) paspalum

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of thin paspalum.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Parsley-piert

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of parsley-piert.

Buckhorn Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buckhorn plantain.

Pink Purslane

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pink purslane.

Red Sorrel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red sorrel.

Variety Selection

By: Katherine Drake Stowe, Jim Dunphy

This publication, chapter 4 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses how to choose a variety of soybean to plant.

Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J. C. Barker, T. A. Carter SoilFacts

This factsheet describes the nutrient composition of poultry manure and land application techniques based on matching the nutritional requirements of the crop with the nutrients available in manure. This publication also includes a worksheet to determine the nutrient needs of your crop.

Water Quality and Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

Although groundwater and surface waters are rarely polluted by turfgrass pesticides, turf managers should consider the potential for environmental contamination when choosing a pesticide.

Deep Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management

By: Deanna Osmond, David Hardy, David Crouse SoilFacts

Soil samples that determine lime and fertilizer needs of crops routinely come from the top 4 to 8 inches of soil. However, deep soil samples will be needed for the Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT), and this publication describes how to take these 28- to 32-inch deep samples.

Corn Cropping Systems

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses the components that make up a cropping system and how those components are often combined to reach production goals for a farm or farm field.

Fertilizer and Lime Management in Corn

By: Carl Crozier

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses fertilizer and lime management in corn production.

Irrigation and Drought Management

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers irrigation and drought management for corn.

Weed Identification in Pastures, Hayfields, and Sprayfields

By: Becky Spearman, Michelle Shooter, Tiffanee Conrad, Dan Wells, Randy Wood

This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures, hayfields, and sprayfields. It presents descriptions and pictures of some of the most common weeds, and it provides references for other weeds that are not in this publication. Weeds are categorized here as broadleaf, grass, or other, and as warm season or cool season. This publication does not recommend specific chemical control methods because differences in situations, rapidly changing labels, and new products make generalized recommendations impractical.

Tobacco - Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Zinc (Zn) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. Most of the time, the soil will have enough micros to supplement any gaps in the chosen fertilizer plan. To present a more robust set of data, we induced zinc deficiency under controlled greenhouse studies for accurate diagnosis if the problem should arise. In NC State University trials, ornamental tobacco developed a silver cast to the leaves as the initial symptom of zinc deficiency.

Tobacco - Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Boron (B) is an essential element that frequently exhibits deficiency symptoms if it is in limited supply. Growers often apply additional B to avoid deficiencies, but if too much B is applied, there is the risk of B toxicity symptoms developing. Boron toxicities initially appear on the lower, older leaves. Early symptoms of boron toxicity will appear as wrinkling of the lower leaves and interveinal chlorosis along the leaf margin. The wrinkling is most likely caused by the lack of cell expansion when toxic levels of B are present. This wrinkling will develop across the leaf’s surface resulting in leaf deformation. Over time the interveinal chlorosis will move inward and develop over most of the leaf. Cells will rapidly die when excess B is supplied, resulting in necrotic spotting. With advanced symptomology, chlorosis and necrosis will progress up the plant to other leaves.

Tobacco - Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in tobacco begins as a noticeable stunting when compared to a plant with a sufficient supply of P. Additionally, a P deficient tobacco plant may develop a darker green coloration of the upper foliage. Lower leaves will become chlorotic with a mottling of olive green leaf spots. The initial symptoms appearing on the lower foliage may be attributed to the fact that P is mobile within plant tissues and is translocated from these older leaves to the young developing tissues under periods of low P.

Managing Diseases

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, covers disease management in tobacco production.

Zoysiagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Rough Bluegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rough bluegrass.

Fine Fescue

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Ground Ivy

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground ivy.

Common Chickweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Knawel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of knawel.

Spiny Sowthistle

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spiny sowthistle.

NC Industrial Hemp Posters

By: Angela Post

Posters available to print regarding industrial hemp in North Carolina.

Evaluating Damage from Deer Feeding On North Carolina Cotton

By: Guy Collins, Keith Edmisten

This publication discusses the yield losses, delayed maturity, and management associated with damaged caused by deer feeding on cotton crops.

Starter Fertilizers for Corn Production

By: Joe Zublena, John R. Anderson SoilFacts

Corn starter fertilizers have been used successfully to increase early plant growth, nutrient uptake, and yields in research trials and on the farm. They also promote earlier maturity, improve southern corn billbug control, and help suppress weeds through earlier shading. Use of starter fertilizers is increasing in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. This factsheet presents the principles of successful starter fertilizer use, research results relevant to North Carolina, and management suggestions for corn producers.

Conservation Practice Implementation and Adoption to Protect Water Quality

By: Deanna Osmond, Donald Meals, Andrew Sharpley, Mark McFarland, Daniel Line Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about the selection, timing, location, and relationships among conservation practices relative to how well they protect water quality.

Fiber Check Dams and Polyacrylamide for Water Quality Improvement

By: Scott King, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This publication discusses the construction of fiber check dams on construction sites to control sediment and runoff from the site. To save money and reduce construction site impacts on nearby surface waters, how to install fiber check dams, spacing of the dams and maintenance of the dams are covered in this factsheet.

The Cotton Plant

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers information about the cotton plant, including development, fruiting, and blooming.

Tillage Considerations for Corn Production

By: George Naderman

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, covers tillage considerations in corn production.

Annual Sedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Mugwort

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mugwort.

Hop Clover

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.

Blackseed Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of blackseed plantain.

Cultural Practices

By: Jim Dunphy, Deanna Osmond

This publication, chapter 3 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses tillage, crop rotation, and cover crops in soybean production.

Conservation Compliance: The Clock Is Ticking

By: Maurice Cook, Dana Hoag SoilFacts

This factsheet traces the progress that has been made in achieving conservation compliance, describes conservation practices that can be used to reduce erosion and discusses the economic factors to be considered when implementing conservation practices.

Managing Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia

By: David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg

This publication will help you select and implement practices that minimize damage from TSWV, tomato spotted wilt virus.

Matching Forages to the Nutrient Needs of Meat Goats

By: Paul Mueller, Matt Poore, JM Luginbuhl, Jim Green

Grazing behavior and nutrient requirements in forages for meat goats is discussed in this factsheet.

Managing Lawns and Gardens to Protect Water Quality

By: David Crouse, Rich McLaughlin, Deanna Osmond SoilFacts

The purposes of this factsheet are to identify several major pollutants that often originate in lawns and gardens, to describe the problems they may cause, and to outline some things that can be done to minimize their adverse effects on water quality. This information should benefit home gardeners, landscape developers, contract lawn care specialists, athletic field managers and others who manage soil to grow plants for food, pleasure, or profit.

Tobacco - Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Tobacco that is deficient in magnesium (Mg) will initially develop symptoms on the lower or older foliage. These symptoms occur as an interveinal chlorosis that begins on the leaf margin, typically toward the leaf tip. Mg is mobile within plant tissues and will readily translocated from older leaves to the young developing tissues during limited Mg conditions.

Selecting a Variety

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Kenneth Barnes

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco varieties and variety testing.

Buffalograss

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buffalograss.

Centipedegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Japanese Stiltgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of japanese stiltgrass.

White Clover

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

Wild Garlic

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild garlic.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Facelis

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of facelis.

Horseweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of horseweed.

Water Quality and Commercial Lawn Care

By: Arthur Bruneau, James Monroe, Matt Martin, Emily Erickson, Charles Peacock, Daniel Bowman, Fred Yelverton Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

This publication describes the best management practices (BMP) to reduce sediment and keep nutrients and pesticides applied to turf from contaminating North Carolina's water resources.

Improving Septic Systems

By: Deanna Osmond, Mike Hoover, Wilma Hammett Home*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for homeowners focuses on potential problems with drinking water that may be caused by an improperly placed, constructed, or maintained septic system.

Production of Tomato Transplants in Float System Greenhouses

By: James Rideout SoilFacts

Successful production of tomato transplants in the float system requires strict attention to fertilization and height management. This publication covers proper nutritional practices, along with height control measures, that will promote production of high-quality transplants.

Insights for Developing Successful Agricultural Watershed Products

By: Donald Meals, Deanna Osmond, Dana Hoag, Mazdak Arabi, A.E. Luloff, Greg Jennings, Mark McFarland, Jean Spooner, Andrew Sharpley, Daniel Line Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about developing agricultural watershed projects to investigate conservation practices in relationship to water quality changes.

Forage Conservation Techniques: Hay Production

By: J. J. Romero, Miguel Castillo, J. C. Burns, Paul Mueller, Jim Green

This publication addresses aspects of hay production as a method of conserving forage crops.

Herd Animal Death Problems

By: JM Luginbuhl, Kevin Anderson, Heather Glennon Animal Science Facts

Animal necropsies attempt to determine the cause of death and whether it affects a concern for the herd or flock of origin. This guide offers tips and guidelines for having a necropsy done on a dead animal.

Pink Eye or Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on pink eye (infectious keratoconjunctivitis) in meat goats.

Soil and Plant Analysis for Apple Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for apple growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Annual Grasses Preserved as Silage: Fermentation Characteristics, Nutritive Value, and Quality

By: J.C. Burns, E.S. Leonard

This bulletin brings together 13 independent experiments that address aspects of fermentation, nutritive value, and quality of cool-season and warm-season annual forages preserved as silage.

Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses the role of seed quality in making planting decisions for cotton production.

Weed Management in Cotton

By: Alan York, Charles Cahoon

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers weed management practices for cotton production.

Water Quality and Professional Lawn Care

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas, S. C. Hodges

Lawns are ecosystems that impact surface and groundwater systems. The grasses found in lawns clean the environment by absorbing gaseous pollutants and intercepting pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and sediment. Irrigation water properly applied to lawns remains on site to recharge water supplies. In addition, grasses release oxygen and reduce glare, noise, and summer temperatures. Proper management practices need to be developed and followed to protect this environment. The purpose of this publication is to provide you with management strategies to preserve and protect water resources.

Planting, Harvesting, and Curing Peanuts

By: Gary Roberson

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the planting and harvesting methods of peanuts.

Managing Nutrients

By: Matthew Vann, Matthew Inman

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, offers information of managing nutrients in tobacco production.

Topping, Managing Suckers, and Using Ethephon

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Scott Whitley, Rick Seagroves

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on topping tobacco and using ethephon, the only chemical approved for yellowing tobacco in the field.

Carpetgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Common Dandelion

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Dollarweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollarweed.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

Roundlead Greenbriar

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of roundleaf greenbriar.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

The North Carolina Erosion and Sedimentation Pollution Control Program

By: Joseph Kleiss, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This factsheet explains the requirements, standards, penalties and principles of the North Carolina Erosion and Sedimentation Pollution Control Program.

Managing Pests

By: Michael Linker Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet is designed to help farmers evaluate their pest management practices and figure out how to implement an effective pest management program. Pest identification, life cycles, pesticide application, soil testing and implemented integrated pest management are discussed in the publication.

The Calibration of Turfgrass Boom Sprayers and Spreaders

By: Wayne Buhler, Emily Erickson, Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Gary Roberson, Joe Neal, Fred Yelverton

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.

Soil Fertility Management for Irish Potato Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Carl Crozier, Nancy Creamer, Marc Cubeta SoilFacts

This publication describes fertilizer management strategies for optimum potato yields and to prevent problems (such as reduced stands, diseases, or poor tuber quality) that can be caused by improper fertilization.

Selecting a Lawn Maintenance Service

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

This publication will help you choose the correct type of lawn maintenance service for your home or business.

Good Soil Management Helps Protect Groundwater

By: Maurice G. Cook SoilFacts

This publication discusses best practices management to prevent agricultural activities from contaminating groundwater. It covers the role of soil on the quality of groundwater, soil characteristics, characteristics of potential pollutants and management practices such as nitrogen and pesticide management.

Delineating Agriculture in the Tar-Pamlico River Basin

By: Deanna Osmond, Donald Cassel, Kathy Neas

Under the Tar-Pam Rules, the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) is tasked with submitting agricultural information on a yearly basis. Unfortunately, some of this information, such as fertilizer rates, is based on best professional judgment; there are no fertilizer-use statistics that are reliable. In addition, best management practices (BMPs) are only captured if they are cost shared. To obtain a better estimate of agricultural practices, this one-time statistically valid area sampling frame was applied to agricultural fields in the Tar-Pamlico River Basin in order to collect an agricultural baseline of cropping systems, soil types and currently used best management practices. In summary, when all the data are combined, it appears that producers in the Tar-Pamlico River Basin are minimizing environmental impact of nutrient and soil losses from agricultural fields. Best management practices are being used, including buffers, water control structures, cover crops, and conservation tillage. Nutrient inputs generally are below recommended levels. The only area where we believe producers could improve management is by following soil test reports and reducing phosphorus fertilization.

How Farmers and Ranchers Make Decisions on Conservation Practices

By: Dana Hoag, A.E. Luloff, Deanna Osmond Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about the social and economic factors within the watersheds that either facilitated or impeded implementation and proper maintenance of conservation practices.

Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

By: Michael Linker, David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Jack Bailey, D. Ames Herbert, Patrick M. Phipps, Charles W. Swann

This scouting manual will help growers identify peanut pests and determine whether the number of pests is likely to decrease yield and cause profit losses greater than the cost of treatment. Topics covered include scouting for pests; insects; weeds; leaf, root, limb and pod diseases; seed and seedling rots; nematodes; and wilt virus.

Use of On-Farm Records for Modifying a Certified Animal Waste Management Plan

By: David Crouse, John Havlin SoilFacts

Changes in the interpretation of North Carolina water quality rules and technical standards allow for the use of on-farm records in the development of waste management plans. This publication describes the use of such records, citing examples. The use of on-farm records can work to an animal producer’s benefit by providing more site-specific information about how an animal waste management system should be operated, particularly with respect to the number of acres of crops necessary to properly utilize the nutrients (mainly nitrogen) in the wastewater.

Chemical Turbidity Control in Pumped Construction Site Water

By: Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This publication describes methods to reduce turbidity and suspended solids in water being pumped into stilling basins or sediment bags, usually on construction sites where dewatering is needed.

Improving Lawn Care and Gardening

By: Deanna Osmond, David Crouse, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This question and answer worksheet will help homeowners focus on potential problems with drinking water or other water resources that may be caused by improper lawn or garden care. Use and storage of fertilizers and pesticides, watering plants, landscape design and soil erosion are discussed.

Fertilization

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about fertilization for cotton crops.

Water Quality and Sprayer and Spreader Calibration

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas, C. E. Hartwiger, G. R. Taylor

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers, which protects water quality, is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. Pesticides applied with equipment that has not been calibrated may be misapplied by more than 10 percent. That may lead to repeat applications, damaged plants, excess cost, and contamination of the environment.

2016 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Angela Post, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publications offers the latest wheat recommendations based on variety tests conducted in North Carolina in the last few years.

Tobacco - Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Copper (Cu) deficiency is extremely rare, consequently it is not normally seen in field conditions. To help with the diagnosis and treatment of Cu deficiency, we induced Cu stress under controlled greenhouse studies. In NC State University trials, symptoms first developed in the middle part of the plant. The middle region of the leaf developed brown veins, which quickly turned black. The tissue surrounding the veins became chlorotic. Symptoms progress up the plant to the younger leaves.

Peanut Seed

By: David Jordan, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, presents information on peanut seed.

Peanut Weed Management

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses effective weed management in peanut production.

Complying with North Carolina Farm Labor Regulations

By: Jonathan Phillips

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides a general overview of the laws that affect farm workers.

Tobacco Insect Management

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toenisson

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, covers insect management in tobacco production.

Protecting People and the Environment When Using Pesticides

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson, Catherine LePrevost

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, describes some measures that tobacco producers and professional applicators can take to minimize the threat to people and water quality and reduce pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Corn Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

Indian Mock Strawberry

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of indian mock strawberry.

Replacing Asphalt: Recommendations for Straw Tackifiers

By: Maria Polizzi, Rich McLaughlin

There are a number of viable alternatives to asphalt for tackifying straw to hold it in place as an erosion control measure on construction sites. This publication reviews these alternatives and makes recommendations based on effectiveness, cost, and application.

Weed Management in Small Ponds

By: Stratford H. Kay

This publication describes how to prevent the excessive growth of aquatic weeds in small ponds by selecting the proper site, using an effective design and preventing nutrient runoff.

Cold Injury and Boron Deficiency in Tobacco Seedlings

By: James Rideout, Laura F. Overstreet SoilFacts

This publication describes how the symptoms of cold injury and boron deficiency in tobacco seedlings in the float greenhouse are often confused.

Mulch Options for Erosion Control on Construction Sites

By: Deanna Babcock, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This publication discusses important characteristics, application rates, costs, and appropriate use of loose mulch, erosion control blankets, and hydraulically applied mulches as erosion control measures on construction sites.

Identifying Critical Source Areas

By: Donald Meals, Andrew Sharpley, Deanna Osmond Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural projects were funded by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of agricultural conservation practices on spatial patterns and trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about identifying a watershed’s critical source areas in order to prioritize conservation practice implementation for better protection of water quality and lower costs.

Ruminant Preference for Bermudagrass Hay With and Without Exposure to Swine Lagoon Effluent

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

Bermudagrass hays cut from a swine lagoon spray field prior to and following effluent application and hays cut from a non-waste bermudagrass field were evaluated for preference based on short-term dry matter intake by cattle, sheep, and goats.

Improving Storage and Handling of Pesticides

By: Rich McLaughlin Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for farmers explains best management practices for pesticide storage and containment. Topics covered include proper storage techniques, pesticide mobility, pesticide mixing sites, following pesticide label instructions, disposal of pesticide containers and how to handle an accidental pesticide spill.

Planting Decisions

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers factors to consider when planting cotton.

Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses considerations for using growth regulators in cotton production.

Disease Management in Cotton

By: Lindsey Thiessen

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers disease management practices for cotton production.

Cotton Terminology

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 16 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, is a glossary of terms used throughout the 2018 Cotton Information book.

The North Carolina Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT): A Guide for Technical Specialists

By: Deanna Osmond, David Crouse, David Hardy, Josh Spencer SoilFacts

Phosphorus management is an important aspect of the USDA-NCRS nutrient management standard. Anyone applying animal waste or fertilizer in a nutrient-impaired subwatershed must determine potential phosphorus loss from each field. This publication describes in great detail the P-Index or Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool that is used in North Carolina for this purpose.

Tobacco - Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Manganese (Mn) deficiency begins as an interveinal chlorosis on the upper leaves. As the symptoms progress, the interveinal chlorosis takes on a white netting type appearance. With advanced symptoms, small white spots develop and over time the spots enlarge into larger white spots.

Compatibility of Agrochemicals Applied to Peanut

By: David Jordan, Barbara Shew, Rick Brandenburg

This publication, chapter 9 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, discusses the interactions of agrochemicals used in peanut production.

Producing Healthy Transplants in a Float System

By: Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, discusses tobacco management practices that improve stands and promote uniform growth.

Extension Personnel Working with Tobacco

This publication, part of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, lists North Carolina extension personnel that work in tobacco production.

Investigating Cover Crop Mulches in North Carolina Cotton Production

By: Rachel Atwell Vann, Chris Reberg-Horton, Keith Edmisten, Alan York

This publication discusses the methods and results of a study researching the benefits of cover crop mulches in cotton production. Cover crops provide nutrients to subsequent crops while conserving soil moisture and suppressing weeds, pests, and diseases without adversely affecting yield.

Corn Management Problems: Q&A

By: Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses common questions and answers about corn production.

Cylindric Sedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cylindric sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Velvetgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of velvetgrass.

Sandbur

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sandbur.

Smallflower Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smallflower buttercup.

Hairy Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy buttercup.

Oldfield Toadflax

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of oldfield toadflax.

Hairy Vetch

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy vetch.

Organic Lawn Care: A Guide to Organic Lawn Maintenance and Pest Management

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, L. T. Lucas, Rick Brandenburg

This guide to lawn maintenance for North Carolina contains information on establishing a new lawn, maintaining it, and controlling lawn pests using organic methods. It also provides information on renovating an existing lawn.

Organic Certification for Field Crops: A Guide

By: Molly Hamilton, Tony Kleese, J. Riddle, Amy Griner, Myron Fountain, Chris Reberg-Horton

This guide provides an overview of the organic certification process and describes the records that farmers must maintain to meet the requirements for organic certification. It includes sample forms that illustrate a recordkeeping system for an organic farm.

Surface Outlets for Sediment Basins

By: Rich McLaughlin, Albert Jarrett SoilFacts

Sediment basins are temporary stormwater pools that catch runoff so it can deposit some of its sediment. The typical outlet is either a rock dam or a perforated riser barrel, both of which allow water to leave the basin from all depths. One way to improve the sediment capture rate is to use an outlet that dewaters the basin from the top of the water column where the water is cleanest. This publication describes the Faircloth skimmer, flashboard risers and other outlet configurations that accomplish this goal.

Planting Rate Recommendations for Organic Soybean Producers

By: Jim Dunphy, George Place, Chris Reberg-Horton

For organic soybean producers increased seeding rates improve early soybean canopy density, which shades out weeds in the early stages of weed competition. Organic soybean producers can increase seeding rates with much less of a negative impact on economic return than for conventional production with herbicides.

Riparian Buffers and Controlled Drainage to Reduce Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution

By: Deanna Osmond, J. Wendell Gilliam, Robert Evans

This technical bulletin discusses riparian buffers and controlled drainage as best practices to reduce nonpoint (diffuse runoff) water pollution in North Carolina's basins. The article covers in-depth explanations of riparian buffers and controlled drainage; designs, how they work to protect stream health and reduce nitrogen and pesticides. Recommendations for best practices are provided for the coastal plain, lower coastal plain and Tidewater, middle and upper coastal plain, Piedmont and mountain regions. A glossary of terms is included.

Delineating Agriculture in the Lake Jordan River Basin

By: Deanna Osmond, Kathy Neas

Under the proposed Lake Jordan Rules, the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) is tasked with submitting agricultural information on a yearly basis. Unfortunately, some of this information, such as fertilizer rates, is based on best professional judgment; there are no fertilizer-use statistics that are reliable. In addition, best management practices (BMPs) are only captured if they are cost shared. To obtain a better estimate of agricultural practices, this one-time statistically valid area sampling frame was applied to agricultural fields in the Lake Jordan River Basin in order to collect an agricultural baseline of cropping systems, soil types and currently used best management practices, livestock types and numbers, and producer information. In summary, when all the data are combined, it appears that producers in the Lake Jordan River Basin are minimizing environmental impact of nutrient and soil losses from agricultural fields due to the types of cropping systems used and under fertilization of most crops. Nutrient inputs generally are below recommended levels. Best management practices, primarily buffers are being used, as well as cover crops and conservation tillage; however, more could be installed. Cattle numbers could be reduced.

NCSU Sports Turf App 

By: Charles Peacock, Jenifer Jordan

The NCSU Sports Turf App provides instant access to field maintenance information.

Grazing Behavior of Steers Offered Different Warm-season Grass Canopies: Nutritive Value and Particle-size Characteristics of the Diets

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

The dry matter yield and nutritive value of flaccidgrass, with potential as a ruminant feed as well as for biomass stock and adapted to the Mid-Atlantic Region, was evaluated for its response to a range of nitrogen rates when cut at three maturities.

Supplementation of Native, Perennial Warm-Season Grass Hays and Annual Corn Silages and Preference Among Silages of Annual Grasses: Dry Matter Intake and Digestibility

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

The dry matter yield and nutritive value of perennial warm-season grasses and corn silages were evaluated for preference and nutritive value when cut a different maturities and supplemented with crude protein and energy.

Managing Equipment Traffic to Limit Soil Compaction

By: Carl Crozier, Alan Meijer, Joshua L. Heitman SoilFacts

Most soil compaction from equipment traffic occurs where tires contact soil during the first pass over soil. Farmers can reduce compaction by limiting traffic to interrows that have already been trafficked. The authors report their research on traffic patterns and recommend ways that farmers can manage field traffic to limit soil compaction.

Toxoplasmosis

By: JM Luginbuhl Meat Goat Notes

A Q&A on toxoplasmosis, a parasite that can cause disease in the placenta and developing fetus of pregnant goats and sheep.

Soil and Plant Analysis for Christmas Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for Christmas tree growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

County Extension Personnel Working with Cotton

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, part of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, lists North Carolina county Extension personnel working with cotton.

Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage

By: Alan York, Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins, Rachel Atwell, Alan York, Bill Foote

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers the role of conservation tillage as it relates to cotton production.

2014 Small Grain Field Day Report

SmartGrains

The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2014. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.

Avoiding Wheat and Barley Scab

By: Christina Cowger, Randy Weisz

This publication covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of fusarium head blight (scab) in small grains.

2010 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008-09 and 2009-10.

The North Carolina Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT)

By: Deanna Osmond, David Crouse, David Hardy, Josh Spencer, John Classen SoilFacts

Phosphorus management is an important aspect of the USDA-NCRS nutrient management standard. Anyone applying animal waste or fertilizer in a nutrient-impaired subwatershed must determine potential phosphorus loss from each field. This publication describes the P-Index or Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool that is used in North Carolina for this purpose.

Crop Management

By: Ron Heiniger, Jan Spears, D.T. Bowman, Jim Dunphy

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses hybrid characteristics and selection, planting dates, seedbed preparation, and harvest and storage concerns.

Pesticide Selection for Water Quality Protection

By: Arthur Bruneau, R. J. Cooper, L. T. Lucas

While research has shown that pollution of surface and groundwater supplies from turfgrass pesticide application is uncommon, the turf manager should still strive to avoid potential environmental contamination when choosing a pesticide.

Production and Utilization of Pastures and Forages in North Carolina

By: D. S. Chamblee, J. T. Green

This publication addresses a wide spectrum of forage production and utilization principles and practices. Contributions to this effort were made by 37 authors from four organizations: Agricultural Research Service, USDA; North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services; North Carolina State University (researchers and extension specialists from eight departments); and Soil Conservation Service, USDA.

Peanut Insect and Mite Management

By: Rick Brandenburg

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, reviews insect control issues in peanut production.

Managing Weeds

By: Matthew Vann, Loren Fisher, Matthew Inman, Rick Seagroves, Scott Whitley

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information handbook, provides information on a weed management program for tobacco production.

Crowfootgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Field Pansy

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of field pansy.

Land Application of Municipal Sludge: Advantages and Concerns

By: Albert Rubin, L. M. Safley, Joe Zublena SoilFacts

This factsheet explains how proper land application of municipal biosolids can protect public health and maintain or improve environmental quality and it encourages the beneficial use of wastes.

Tobacco (Flue-Cured and Burley)

By: Sterling Southern Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of flue-cured and burley tobacco in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Water Quality and Turfgrass Area Development

By: Arthur Bruneau, Charles Peacock, Greg Jennings, L.T. Lucas, B.C. Williams Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

This publication introduces the permit and regulatory processes and provides a very general guide to the basics of good construction practices during turfgrass development areas.

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Baseball Field Layout and Construction

By: Grady Miller

Knowing a few basics and having some appropriate tools is all that is necessary before you can build your own baseball field. These illustrated instructions can be used to set up a baseball field on a relatively level, open area of ground.

Grazing Practices: A Review of the Literature

By: Deanna Osmond, David Michael Butler, Noah Ranells, Matt Poore, Ada Wossink, Jim Green

This technical bulletin reviews earlier research that evaluates the influence of grazing livestock, primarily beef cattle, on water quality. This publication will help producers make informed choices and consider strategies to protect water quality and maintain productive pasture-based livestock operations.

How Rising Fertilizer Prices Affect Optimum Nitrogen Rates

By: John Havlin, Geoff Benson SoilFacts

This publication helps farmers decide whether to reduce fertilization rates in order to achieve maximum profits due to increases in nitrogen fertilizer prices.

Accounting Method for Tracking Relative Changes in Agricultural Phosphorus Loading to the Tar-Pamlico River

By: Amy Johnson, Deanna Osmond

The Tar-Pamlico Agricultural Rule requires the development of a methodology that accounts for phosphorus losses and gains from agricultural activities in the basin. The Rule recognizes potential challenges associated with this objective, and calls for the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) to form a phosphorus technical advisory committee (PTAC) to evaluate this issue and provide recommendations to the BOC. This report compiles the findings of the PTAC and conveys its recommendations to the BOC.

Management of Single Family and Small Community Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems

By: Mike Hoover, W. J. Wicker, T. J. Hoban, Ted Feitshans, A. R. Rubin SoilFacts

The legal means for establishing sophisticated wastewater management programs have existed for some time in North Carolina; however, few communities or counties have used these programs to manage septic systems. Recent changes in state septic system rules will provide an incentive for communities to become involved in this process. This publication explains why these management programs are necessary and briefly introduces 12 options for implementing them.

Phosphorus Management for Land Application of Biosolids and Animal Waste

By: Karl Shaffer, Deanna Osmond, Sanjay Shah SoilFacts

This publication addresses nutrient management concerns as they relate to land application of animal wastes, municipal biosolids, industrial residuals and agricultural by-products, with a focus on phosphorus application and its impact on the environment. Methods for reducing phosphorus loss from land application sites are presented as general guidance for managers of land application systems, who must be knowledgeable of regulatory issues and permit restrictions as they relate to phosphorus and nutrient management.

Effective Education to Promote Conservation Practice Adoption

By: Greg Jennings, Dana Hoag, Mark McFarland, Deanna Osmond Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about the outreach techniques that were most effective for communicating information to different audiences, achieving adoption of practices and improving management and/or maintenance of practices in different geographic settings.

Simulation Modeling for the Watershed-scale Assessment of Conservation Practices

By: Mazdak Arabi, Donald Meals, Dana Hoag Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about selecting and applying simulation models as evaluation and planning tools for watershed conservation projects and the relationship between monitoring data and modeling in conservation practice evaluation.

Forage Quality: Concepts and Practices

By: J.J. Romero, Miguel Castillo, J.C. Burns, Shannon Davidson, Philipe Moriel

In this publication, we describe the factors that affect forage quality and discuss prediction indices that can be used to assign a science-based measure of quality to forages.

Potential in the Upper South for Interseeding a Legume into Upland Switchgrass: Yield and Nutritive Value

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a long-term perennial, warm-season grass, declines in nutritive value with advancing maturity and increased yield potential. This experiment evaluated the potential of interseeding either perennial legumes or an annual legume into an established stand of upland switchgrass to improve nutritive value while attaining desirable dry matter yields.

Silages of Native Switchgrass and Gamagrass: Fermentation Characteristics, Nutritive Value, and Quality

By: J.C. Burns, E.S. Leonard

This bulletin publishes the results of eight experiments that addressed aspects of nutritive value and quality of perennial warm-season forages preserved as hay, baleage, and silage.

Developing a Management Strategy: Short-Season Timeliness

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, covers management practices for cotton production considering short-season timeliness.

Sprayer Calibration

By: Alan York

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information on sprayer calibration for applying chemicals in cotton production.

2015 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Ron Heiniger, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2013-14 and 2014-15.

Soil Virus Disease

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This factsheet offers information on how to treat soil virus diseases, such as spindle streak and soil borne mosaic virus, in wheat.

2009 Wheat Variety Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2008 and 2009.

Planting Before Soybean Harvest: Piedmont Early Planting 2009 Test Report

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This factsheet describes a new wheat no-till early planting system has been shown to work for beating soybean harvest in the North Carolina Piedmont.

2008 Wheat Variety Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Judd Maxwell SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2006-07 and 2007-08.

Increasing Diversity in Grasslands: Grazing Management Effects

By: Miguel Castillo Forage Notes

Grazing management can have profound impact on how forage mixtures develop and persists over time. It is the art and science of grazing management that determines whether a potentially good forage, or mixture of forages, will actually be a good one.

Forage Conservation: Troubleshooting Hay and Silage Production

By: Miguel Castillo, J. J. Romero Forage Notes

Forages can be conserved in the form of hay, baleage, and silage. It is important to keep in mind that, at best, conserved forages can rarely match the nutritive value of fresh forage. Some losses of highly digestible nutrients start immediately after cutting and are unavoidable. The goal in forage conservation is to focus on minimizing losses.

Forage Quality Indices for Selecting Hay

By: Miguel Castillo, Juan José Romero

This publication provides an overview of the differences in forage quality by reviewing a summary of forage hay samples submitted to the N.C. State Fair Forage Contest over a 20 year period. It also discusses tools for ranking the quality of forages.

Tobacco - Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Iron (Fe) deficiency does not readily occur under field conditions. To better catalog this deficiency, we induced Fe stress under a controlled greenhouse study. In NC State University trials, interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) developed on the youngest leaves. Over time the chlorotic areas became more pronounced.

Peanut Disease Management

By: Barbara Shew

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, provides details on how to use integrated methods to manage major peanut diseases.

Guidelines for the North Carolina Peanut Production Contest

By: David Jordan, Bob Sutter

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, contains information on the North Carolina Peanut Growers Association's annual peanut production contest.

Peanut Growth and Development and Peanut Industry Terminology

By: David Jordan

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, offers information on peanut growth and development, including grading.

Extension Personnel Working with Peanuts

This publication, part of the 2018 Peanut Information handbook, provides information on North Carolina extension personnel that work with peanuts.

Hairy Bittercress

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy bittercress.

Weed Control in Irrigation Water Supplies

By: Stratford H. Kay

This publication describes safe and effective techniques for managing aquatic weeds in irrigation ponds.

Dairy Manure as a Fertilizer Source

By: Joe Zublena, J.C. Barker, D. Wesen SoilFacts

This factsheet explains how to use dairy manure as a fertilizer source. Included are descriptions of nutrient content, application rates and application methods to ensure optimum benefit from the manure. A worksheet is provided for calculating application rates.

Corn (Sweet and Field)

By: John Van Duyn Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests of field and sweet corn in North Carolina is covered in detail.

Organic Edamame Production

By: Molly Hamilton CEFS Field Notes for Farmers

This field note for farmers describes organic production of edamame, large-seeded vegetable soybeans. Topics covered include variety selection, planting, pest management, harvesting, and marketing. Included are variety trial results conducted at the Center for Environmental Systems (CEFS) in 2003. Results include germination rates, yield information, and harvest dates for 12 edamame cultivars.

Rotary Hoe: A Blind Cultivation Tool for In-Row Weed Control

By: George Place, Chris Reberg-Horton

Expanding organic grain markets have increased interest in mechanical weed control. Learn how the rotary hoe can be used to control weeds in large-seeded grain crops such as corn and soybeans.

Maximizing the Durability of Athletic Fields

By: Grady Miller

Durable athletic fields begin with sound construction and careful planning. Good management practices can increase a field's durability. The basic concepts presented in this guide can help field managers extend the usability of athletic fields.

Delineating Agriculture in the Neuse River Basin

By: Deanna Osmond, Kathy Neas

In 2000 an agricultural survey of the Neuse River Basin was undertaken to obtain data that would help inform the Division of Water Quality and the Neuse Basin Oversight Committee (BOC), which was charged with determining a baseline for nitrogen (N) losses from 1991-1995. In summary, when all the data are combined, it appears that producers in the Neuse River Basin are minimizing environmental impact of nutrient and soil losses from agricultural fields. Best management practices are being used, including buffers, water control structures, cover crops, and conservation tillage. Erosion is low and nutrient inputs generally are below recommended levels. The only area where we believe producers could improve management is by following soil test reports and reducing phosphorus fertilization.

Permit Guidelines for Application of Municipal Sludge on Agricultural Lands

By: Albert Rubin, Joe Zublena, J.C. Barker SoilFacts

This publication describes the permit guidelines for applying municipal sludge to agricultural lands to make use of its nutrients and prevent pollution. It also covers EPA recommendations for applying sludge.

Water Quality Monitoring for the Assessment of Watershed Projects

By: Donald Meals, Deanna Osmond Watershed Assessment Series

Thirteen agricultural watershed projects were funded jointly by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to evaluate the effects of cropland and pastureland conservation practices on spatial and temporal trends in water quality at the watershed scale. In some projects, participants also investigated how social and economic factors influence implementation and maintenance of practices. The 13 projects were conducted from 2004 to 2011 as part of the overall Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). By synthesizing the results of all these NIFA-CEAP projects, this publication explores lessons learned about the selection, timing, and location of conservation practices and relationships among them relative to any effects on water quality.

Certification Training for Operators of Animal Waste Systems - Type B

By: Karl Shaffer, Beth Buffington, David Crouse, Eileen Coite, Tiffanee Conrad, Stefani Garbacik, Amanda Hatcher, Eve Honeycutt, Diana Rashash, Margaret Ross, Becky Spearman, Randy Wood, Kim Woods

This training program is designed to provide operators of animal waste management systems with the basic understanding needed to operate and maintain these systems in an efficient and environmentally sound manner. This manual is not intended to provide all of the technical details for the complete design of a waste management system or an approved animal waste management plan.

Evaluating Starter Fertilizer Sources in Organic No-Till Corn Production

By: Rachel Atwell, Chris Reberg-Horton, Steven Mirsky, Gladis Zinati

This factsheet presents findings from studies to evaluate different starter fertilizer sources and their impacts on yield and weed competition in organic no-till corn production, using a cover crop mulch for weed suppression.

Carostan Flaccidgrass: Yield and Nutritive Value Responses to Nitrogen Fertilization and Cutting Management

By: Joseph C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

The dry matter yield and nutritive value of the perennial warm-season grass, flaccidgrass (with potential as a ruminant feed as well as for biomass stock and adapted to the Mid-Atlantic region), was evaluated for its response to a range of nitrogen rates when cut at three maturities.

Evaluation of a Cow-Calf Grazing System in the Piedmont: Animal Performance and Pasture Productivity

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher

In the North-South transition zone both cool-season and warm-season, perennial grasses can be grown and have potential to be used sequentially in a cow-calf production system. This five-year experiment evaluates tall fescue and bermudagrass, grown in separate stands but grazed in sequence, as a pasture system for the Piedmont. The study evaluates two levels of nitrogen fertilization and variable stocking versus a range of fixed stocked treatments.

Delineating Agriculture in the High Rock Lake Watershed

By: Deanna Osmond

Under the proposed High Rock Lake Rules, the Basin Oversight Committee (BOC) is tasked with submitting agricultural information on a yearly basis. Unfortunately, some of this information, such as fertilizer rates, is based on best professional judgment; there are no fertilizer-use statistics that are reliable. In addition, best management practices (BMPs) are only captured if they are cost shared. To obtain a better estimate of agricultural practices, this onetime statistically valid area sampling frame was applied to agricultural fields in the High Rock Lake Watershed in order to collect an agricultural baseline of cropping systems, soil types and currently used best management practices, livestock types and numbers, and producer information.

Warm-Season Perennial Forages Conserved as Hay: Nutritive Value and Quality

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

This bulletin brings together 18 independent experiments that address aspects of nutritive value and quality of perennial warm-season forages preserved as hay.

Nitrogen Fertilization of Switchgrass and Gamagrass: Dry Matter Yield and Nutritive Value

By: J.C. Burns, E.S. Leonard

This bulletin publishes the results of two experiments—one with switchgrass and one with gamagrass—that address responses of dry matter yield and nutritive value to nitrogen fertilization when the grasses are cut as hay.

Variety Selection

By: Keith Edmisten, Guy Collins

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about selecting cotton varieties.

Managing Insects on Cotton

By: Dominic Reisig

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, discusses insect management practices for cotton production.

Cotton Classification

By: Keith Edmisten

This publication, chapter 15 of the 2018 Cotton Information handbook, provides information about the classing system used in the cotton industry.

2015 Small Grain Field Day Report

SmartGrains

The Small Grain Field Day Program supports growers in managing their crop. This publication shows the field trials that were in the program in 2015. Fungicide/herbicide tests, official variety tests, and disease management are covered in the report.

2014 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2012-13 and 2013-14.

2014 Soil Conditioners, Additives, and Plant Growth Regulator Tests

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This publication covers soil conditioners, amendments, additives, and plant growth regulators during six trials that were held in North Carolina in the 2013-14 wheat season.

Late Harvest Effects on Wheat Yield, Test Weight, and Grain Quality

By: Dianne Farrer, Randy Weisz, Jessica Engle SmartGrains

This wheat publication presents data on the impact of late harvest on yield, test weight, falling numbers, deoxynivalenol (DON) levels, grain protein content, and milling and baking characteristics.

Protect Your Wheat Yield

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger, Dominic Reisig

This guide covers the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of soil virus disease, cereal leaf beetle, powdery mildew, leaf rust, and stagonospora nodorum blotch in wheat.

Wheat Fungicide Chemistry and Timing 2013-14 Test Results

By: Randy Weisz SmartGrains

This publication presents results from fungicide chemistry and timing wheat tests in 2013-14.

Quick-Sol Impact on Wheat Yield 2013-14 Tests

By: Randy Weisz, Andrew Baucom, Jessica Morgan SmartGrains

This factsheet reports test results on two experiments that were conducted in the 2013-14 season to examine the use of Quick-Sol (QS) and its impact on winter wheat in North Carolina.

Monty's Liquid Carbon Impact on Wheat Yield: Summary of Tests Conducted Between 2010 and 2014

By: Ron Heiniger, Randy Weisz, Deanna Osmond SmartGrains

This factsheet reports the results from two different types of experiments that were conducted to determine the impact of Monty’s Liquid Carbon (MLC) on winter wheat yield in North Carolina.

2012 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2010-11 and 2011-12.

2011 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations

By: Randy Weisz, Christina Cowger SmartGrains

This publication summarizes recommendations based on wheat variety tests conducted in North Carolina in 2009-10 and 2010-11.

Identifying Rust Diseases of Wheat and Barley

By: Christina Cowger, Randy Weisz

This publication covers three distinct rust diseases of wheat and barley: leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust. The fungi that cause these diseases are notorious for their ability to increase rapidly and overcome the resistance of wheat or barley varieties.

Tobacco - Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Matthew Vann, Josh Henry, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker Tobacco Nutrient Information

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency has not been reported under field conditions. (Descriptions based on the book, Hunger Signs of Crops, 3rd Edition, edited by H.B. Sprague.) Under controlled greenhouse conditions, tobacco plants are slightly stunted when Mo is limited. The lower foliage of the plant develops a chlorosis, initially as a pale green, then the spots progress to a necrosis. The leaves may be crinkled and become bent or twisted.

Switchgrass: Establishment, Management, Yield, Nutritive Value, and Utilization

By: Joseph Burns, Douglas Chamblee, John de Ruiter, Dwight Fisher, E. Brent Godshalk, James Green, Robert Keys, Paul Mueller, Dale Wolf, David Timothy, Mark Zarnstorff

This publication summarizes results from 26 studies addressing the establishment, cell wall content, cultivar improvement, defoliation management, nutritive value, and utilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as pasture, or its conservation as hay or silage or harvested as biomass. Both lowland and upland commercial cultivars and lowland germplasms were evaluated and, in some experiments, compared for yield, nutritive value, and quality characteristics. Comparisons were also made with other warm-season grasses. Switchgrass is a forage species having very flexible potentials as a pasture, stored forage, or biomass crop. Cytotypes, also referred to as ecotypes, and cultivar selections within cytotypes are important considerations when growing switchgrass in the Mid-Atlantic because they depend on its intended use and the crop’s geographic location

Corn Marketing

By: Michele Marra, Ron Heiniger

This document, part of the Corn Production Guide, discusses how to marketing corn.

Sericea Lespedeza

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sericea lespedeza.

Scouting for Freeze Injury in Winter Wheat

By: Angela Post, Ryan Heiniger

This publication covers the signs and symptoms of freeze injury in winter wheat.