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This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.
North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.
Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.
This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.
With the addition of new regulatory requirements and continually emerging pathogens, developing and designing a HACCP plan has become more and more complex. This publication compiles published research data to provide a step-by-step approach to designing and developing HACCP plans.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater￼ discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.
This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.
This publication is a useful resource that shell egg producers can use to identify egg defects and possible factors contributing to egg quality issues. It also provides corrective measures for each defect so that producers can incorporate these solutions into their production systems.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh sweet corn.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.
This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.
In preparation for an emergency, keep the following food items that do not need refrigeration on hand or in an evacuation kit.
This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.
This Q&A factsheets answers several questions about the preconditioning process in food and feed extrusion.
The impact of honey bees on not only North Carolina, but the entire world is immense.
This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.
This factsheet introduces extrusion as a food and feed production process. Topics include the basic history, equipment, and application of extrusion in the production of human and animal foods.
This publication discusses how floods can affect food gardens. In it, you'll find recommendations for preparing your garden before a flood, precautions to take after the storm, and how to safely clean up and replant after floodwaters recede.
This publication provides introductory information about growing and wild-harvesting medicinal herbs in North Carolina. The practices suggested here apply to all raw herbal plant material used to make herbal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods, and drugs.
This publication provides practical tips on how to promote health eating by incorporating fresh, local foods into nutrition education and cooking classes. Topics include getting started, knowing what's in season, and where to buy local foods.
This publication discusses the practice of leasing estuarine waters on the North Carolina coast for shellfish mariculture. It covers how shellfish are grown in North Carolina, how shellfish leases work, what constitutes a shellfish growing area and shellfish harvest closure, and the process for reopening after a closure.
Gardens bring communities together. Not only are community gardens a good way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables in our diets, they also allow us to be active outdoors and build a strong community.
This factsheet covers the guidelines and mitigation for aflatoxins in animal food in North Carolina.
This booklet provides an overview of production costs and marketing strategies that growers should consider when producing strawberries with the plasticulture system. A marketing survey conducted at pick-your-own farms and fruit stands in North Carolina provides the basis for recommended marketing practices.
At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.
This publication covers a variety of foods that can be prepared even if there is no gas or electricity for cooking.
This publication provides information and success stories related to food banks, food pantries, food donation programs, and other resources for addressing food insecurity.
This publication, part of the Farm to Food Bank Resource Guide, discusses food donations given directly to food banks and food pantries in North Carolina.
This publication provides information to help produce growers understand the variety of insurance coverage or policies available to best cover their farms.
This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.
This factsheet offers information on how to deal with food that may have come into contact with floodwaters.
This guide lists the problems that can arise in making sweet gherkin pickles and describes how to prevent them by taking precautions during each step in the process, from preparing the cucumbers to making the brine and packing the pickles.
The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.
This guide outlines steps that a facility producing livestock food could follow when developing its required food safety plan. The guide is accompanied by an example food safety plan that demonstrates the application of steps outlined in this guide and illustrates an acceptable food safety plan structure that contains required and best management practices information.
Though they can be a source of worry, the fact of the matter is that many animal food facilities often think about preparing for inspections as the inspectors walk through their doors. One of the reasons for this is because the "what if" questions can be large in number, and so facilities get frustrated with trying to come up with a plan. With this in mind, we asked some regulators what advice they have for facilities in order to be proactive and help make the process go more smoothly. This document presents a number of practices that are not required, but might be useful as facilities prepare for, are subjected to, and evaluate the results of inspections.
This 8-page publication will help producers make decisions about growing or buying forage, and about harvesting, storage, and feeding options. Forages are an essential part of a ruminant animal's diet and are an important factor in a profitable farm business.
This publication describes fertilizer management strategies for optimum potato yields and to prevent problems (such as reduced stands, diseases, or poor tuber quality) that can be caused by improper fertilization.
This document offers a set of steps for food producers to take when issuing a food safety recall.
This publication covers best freezing practices for a variety of fruits.
The NC State Feed Milling and Animal Food Safety programs have developed a decision tree tool to help guide facilities through the exemption determination process and the requirements for obtaining a qualified facility exemption through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.
This profile board will help farmers and consultants determine when peanuts should be dug.
This manual covers Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), a food safety plan for schools to reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness by handling food safely from the time it is received until the time it is served.
This publication discusses the necessity of acid in many foods and how to meet government standards for these food products.
New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”
After a power failure, you might not have heat, refrigeration, or water. This publication explains how to safely prepare food when you have no power.
How existing facility Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on personal hygiene and sanitation can be adapted to mitigate the spread of COVID-19
This guide summarizes marketing options for grain and soybean growers and explains how to use basis, the difference between cash and futures prices, to evaluate marketing options.
This advisory index is designed to help growers anticipate peanut response to reduced tillage as they transition from conventional tillage systems.