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This publication lists and defines more than 150 forest resource terms to help you in conversing with others about forestry matters and in making informed decisions about your forestland.
This publication discusses reforestation practices and the information needed to analyze a reforestation investment.
Forest carbon is considered as a forest product that can be a viable alternative source of income for forest landowners. This note describes the forest carbon market today and explains the possible opportunity it represents for certain forests. This note is a basic overview for landowners.
Bats serve as pollinators of many food plants and are the only predator of night-flying insects. This publication explains the steps you can take to encourage bats on private lands, including building and installing bat boxes.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of the white-tailed deer. It also provides tips to improve the deer's habitat.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits, and home range of the bobwhite quail in North Carolina. The publication also includes tips on improving the habitat of the bobwhite quail.
This Eastern Forestry Note discusses specific contract provisions that should be addressed in a timber sale contract. Sellers are advised to seek professional assistance to determine the value of what they are selling and to handle the sale when unfamiliar with the details and process.
This publication functions as a dictionary for commonly used wildlife terms such as cover, daylighting, forage, mast and understory.
Longleaf pine trees deposit an annual blanket of needles, often called pine straw, on the forest floor. Many forest owners do not realize that it is possible to sell this straw. But in fact, wise management of this resource can substantially increase an owner’s income from forestland.
Qualified North Carolina owners of soundly managed commercial forestland have been eligible for property tax reductions since 1974 through the state’s forestry present-use property tax program. To be eligible for Forestry Present Use Valuation, qualified forestland must be actively engaged in the commercial growing of trees under sound management (NC General Statues 105 277.2- 277.7). Commercial growing of trees will entail a harvest as a thinning, partial, or complete harvest of trees (as prescribed in the forest management plan filed with the county tax office). This publication provides a brief overview of the complicated law.
A quick guide providing commonly used herbicides used in forest site preparation and release treatments. Tables are broken into (1) conifer site preparation, (2) hardwood plantation site preparation, (3) hardwood natural regeneration site preparation, (4) conifer early release, (5) early hardwood release, (6) cut surface herbicides used for intermediate or crop tree release. Each table provides the herbicide active ingredient, trade names of labels approved for forestry applications, best time of year to use the herbicide, target species, and species that are resistant to the herbicide. The trade names are linked to the most recent specimen label so users may look up the details of that brand for safety, mixing, and delivery methods. The links use the CDMS database for specimen labels: http://www.cdms.net/Label-Database.
This publication describes invasive plants in North Carolina and provides landowners with information on prevention, management and eradication.
This publication covers chemical weed control and weed response to a variety of crops.
This publication describes tree protection strategies that builders and developers can use before, during and after construction to conserve healthy trees. Communication action to encourage tree protection and reduce the risk of injuring or losing valuable trees is highlighted.
This publication discusses how zoning and land use regulations impact the practice of forestry in North Carolina. The publication also explains planning jurisdictions, components of a zoning ordinance, and where to go for more information.
Owls play an important role in the balance of forest and open land environments. This publication discusses management of habitat to promote owl populations.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of wild turkeys in North Carolina. It also offers tips for improving the turkey's habitat.
This publication is an example of a timber sale contract for "pay as cut" sales where seller receives compensation once timber is harvested and leaves the property. The example details provisions that have "stood the test of time" and have gone through professional and legal review. The contract is provided for educational use and sellers are advised to seek professional forester assistance as well as tax and legal assistance as needed.
Tips for preventing timber trespass and theft are reviewed in this publication. Special documentation of pertinent laws, avoidance strategies and steps to take once your timber or property has been stolen or trespassed upon.
Landowners share a deep connection to their land and the legacy they’ll leave behind. With so many conservation options to consider, landowners need to have a working knowledge of the choices to protect their land in the near and long term. Landowners should identify their goals before embarking upon a conservation strategy. Once a conservation strategy is selected, then the implications of state and federal taxes can be explored. This publication reviews the most common land conservation and protection options.
This note explains the benefits of establishing a timber basis for tax and casualty loss benefit. Step by step examples are offered for owners to understand the process of calculating a basis and adding and depleting it when managing or harvesting timber, respectively. Finally, a copy of the federal Internal Revenue Service Form T (Timber) is provided to show how to document the establishment of a basis with tax authorities or for your personal records.
This publication describes thinning, the process of cutting or removal of certain trees from a stand to regulate the number, quality and distribution of the remaining crop trees. The reasons to thin, how and when to thin are covered.
This publication describes methods for maintaining and establishing herbaceous plants as valuable sources of food and cover for wildlife in North Carolina.
With the high value of timbered forest property today, landowners would be well-advised to take sufficient steps to protect their investment. Maintaining property lines and boundaries is one of the simplest, yet most often overlooked forms of protection from theft, trespass and encroachment. This publication details the importance of property lines and how to maintain or reestablish them.
This publication describes the habitat, home range, water habits, food and cover for the ruffed grouse in North Carolina. Tips are provided to improve the grouse's habitat.
This publication describes the habitat, cover, food, water habits and home range of various songbird species. Also included are tips to improve the birds' habitats, as well as a chart listing the habitat of several species.
This publication describes the habitat, food, water habits, home range and tree cover for the Eastern gray squirrel. Tips are provided for improving the squirrel's habitat as well as building a squirrel box.
This publication describes how you can transform your backyard into an area that welcomes nectar-seekers, such as hummingbirds and butterflies.
Many forest landowners can benefit from the use of a consulting forestry professional. Most often the use of a consultant can be justified solely on the increase in the value, potential and productivity of your forest. This publication identifies multiple benefits of using a consulting forester for management planning, oversight, sales, and pursuit of alternative strategies of forest resource and risk management.
This publication provides an introduction to the various financial incentives available to woodlot owners. Both federal and state governments offer financial incentive programs; several of these programs provide cost-sharing payments that reimburse landowners for timber management activities. Other programs provide tax incentives, tax credits and deductions for reforestation expenses.
This publication describes edges (or ecotones), areas where two habitat types meet, such as a forest and a meadow. Edges are inhabited by some of the animals and plants that are characteristic of each original habitat, plus species that are specially adapted to live in edges. Tips for edge management are included.
This publication discusses how to successfully build, install and maintain nest boxes for songbirds.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover and home range of the wood duck. It also offers tips on improving the wood duck's habitat, as well as instructions on building a wood duck nest.
This publication explains endangered and threatened species in North Carolina and the protective measures landowners should take to ensure compliance with federal and state laws.
This publication discusses the process for valuing immature timber stands that may have been lost due to natural disasters, theft, or condemnation. It explains the method for valuing young forest stands that may not be appraised under typical timber appraisal methods.
This publication provides information on constructing and placing artificial nesting boxes to attract birds and other wildlife to your property.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of the black bear in North Carolina. Tips for improving the black bear's habitat also are included.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of the mourning dove in North Carolina. The publication also includes tips on improving the dove's habitat.
Hand-applied herbicide technologies are varied and effective tools which allow the landowner to selectively control vegetation in a variety of circumstances. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of hand-applied herbicides, as well as application methods.
This publication describes the habitat, food and water habits, cover and home range of a range of amphibians in North Carolina. Tips on constructing and maintaining a fishless pool are included.
This publication reviews the benefits of beavers and methods to manage and enhance beaver ponds.
This publication covers effective forest planning, including setting goals. Three owner profiles are presented and discussed followed by a worksheet to set your own priorities and goals.
This publication seeks to 1) encourage landowners to evaluate the current condition and potential of their forest; 2) suggest proactive practices, which enhance forest health, diversity and productivity and; 3) investigate forest management and timber harvesting/regeneration options as they impact future forest condition, especially forest health, tree species composition and productivity for wildlife and timber.
This publication discusses how communities use tree ordinances as tools to protect trees, preserve green space and promote healthy, managed urban forests. To protect trees and prevent their loss in the urban environment, communities need to understand tree ordinances, their limitations and their proper implementation.
This publication describes creating and protecting snags (standing dead or dying trees) and downed logs (a log lying on or near the forest floor) as potential habitats for a wide range of wildlife species.
The smaller habitats that abound on private lands and in many backyards can be enhanced using a variety of improvement options. Wildlife improvements can be simple, inexpensive and fun for the whole family. This publication discusses selected low-cost habitat improvements that will enhance food and cover for wildlife on private lands.
This publication describes the North Carolina Forest Stewardship Program, a cooperative effort to help owners realize their objectives for managing their forests.
This publication describes the habitat, food, water habits, cover and home range of raccoons in North Carolina. Tips on improving the habitat of the raccoon also are included.
Developing forestland to continually produce timber and provide wildlife habitat requires an active management plan. Forest stewardship, the process of managing all of the forest’s natural resources together, enables us to conserve our forest resources, including timber, wildlife, soil and water. Forestry and wildlife management are not only compatible, they are interrelated. Managing for wildlife habitat can even improve forest productivity. This publication describes the basic concepts of management, showing how forestry operations affect wildlife habitat.
This publication explores proven ways to plan, construct and interpret various types of recreational forest trails.
This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of the cottontail rabbit. Also included are tips on improving the rabbit's habitat.
New and existing professionals working in the realm of climate education, research, and outreach need to be clear in their terminology and usage. This glossary compiles the most commonly used terms and definitions for academics, researchers, and educators to communicate effectively in this emerging arena. To enhance understanding, key terms include a separate interpretative explanation of the concept “Why this matters.”
This Forest*A*Syst publication was written as a personal, confidential learning tool to help achieve your goals for forest ownership. First, answer the self-assessment questions to determine where you interests lie, and then continue reading to learn practical ways of pursuing these interests. The text focuses on water quality and aesthetic improvements that originate from reasoned forest management To gather more information, review the sources of information in the Getting Help section and tap these sources to learn even more. Also, don't forget to follow the directions for developing a management plan tailored to your dreams for your forest.
Protecting farm and forest land can be complicated. In this publication we interview a family that has successfully established LLC or limited liability company to protect their family legacy and smoothly transition ownership and proceeds between generations.
Your land is valuable to you and your family. Protection and successful transition begins with a flexible land conservation plan. A conservation plan describes your intentions and methods to achieve a desired outcome. To achieve your specific conservation vision, there are proven checkpoints to complete your journey. These checkpoints will result in a plan you can use to enroll your land in the conservation program(s) that meets your needs. Every plan may be unique but all will have the checkpoints of the journey in common. This handbook provides the recommended checkpoints to help begin your planning journey and simple tools to help you complete a working land conservation plan.
You can proactively manage your forest for health and vigor and help it to adapt to climate change using many best management practices recommended in this publication. Covered topics include planting genetically diverse varieties, thinning and altering rotation length, prescribed burning and controlling invasive species.
High fossil fuel costs and concerns about climate change have thrust low-cost, home-grown renewable fuels, like wood, into the energy spotlight. The enactment of North Carolina’s Renewable Energy Portfolio has increased the interest and opportunities to burn wood fuel to make electricity, heat, and steam. This factsheet reviews the air quality impacts of supplementing fossil fuels with woody biomass and current regulation on emissions from wood-fired plants.
Pruning woodland trees can improve timber value, appearance, access and remove dead and diseased branchwood. Although branch shedding or self-pruning occurs naturally, landowners often have objectives that can be enhanced or expedited by artificial pruning. Pruning is the removal of live or dead branches from standing trees. Natural-target pruning is a proven technique for removing branches that avoids discolored or decaying wood associated with other pruning methods. This publication describes when and how to natural-target prune young pines and hardwoods for timber production.
This brochure describes the economic, environmental and health benefits that urban trees provide to a community. It provides a list of organizations to contact for more information about urban forestry.
This publication describes the types of forests and conditions that can be improved by biomass harvesting, and where such harvest may be less than ideal, to help you determine the right management choice for your land and situation.
Woody biomass harvesting for renewable energy generation and bio-based products is likely to increase in North Carolina - sparked by higher energy prices and government policies to promote renewable energy. The expansion of a wood-based energy industry has prompted concerns about intensified forest biomass removal and its potential impact on water, wildlife, biodiversity and site nutrients. This publication reviews common, cost effective strategies that minimize, prevent, or mitigate harvest impacts.
Prism sweep and line intercept methods were compared for accuracy and efficiency to measure woody biomass residues on a recently harvested site in Eastern North Carolina. A 100% tally control on 0.1 acre plots was used to compare volume estimates of tested methods. Estimates of residual volume were accurate and not significantly different. Prism sweeps required an average of three minutes per plot, whereas line intersect samples averaged seventeen minutes per plot. Prism sweeps were accurate and five times more efficient than line intersect samples.
Southern forests experience several threats to health and productivity, and these threats are expected to increasingly stress forests through the 21st century. We surveyed professional foresters in the southern United States to identify how frequently they observe seventeen threats to forest health, including climate change and its potential impacts.
This publication details simple, practical actions you can take to minimize costs and impacts while growing healthy pines. Specific focus is placed on maintaining forest health and productivity suited for a range of future conditions.
Timber or landscape trees destroyed by the hurricane, fire, earthquake, ice, hail, tornado, and other storms are “casualty losses” that may allow the property owners to take a deduction on their federal income tax returns. The key for most cases is to figure out the “adjusted basis” of the timber.