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Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

1. Soils and Plant Nutrients

This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

15. Tree Fruit and Nuts

By: Michael Parker

This Tree Fruit and Nuts chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how to select, plant, and maintain home orchard trees. This chapter also discusses common problems and integrated pest management solutions.

Vegetable Gardening: A Beginner's Guide

By: Shawn Banks, Lucy Bradley

This publication provides information about planning and maintaining a home vegetable garden. Topics include site selection, soil preparation, and pest and disease management.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Plant Propagation by Layering

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

5. Diseases and Disorders

By: Mike Munster

This diseases and disorders chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses how to keep plants healthy through cultural practices. The types of plant pathogens including: fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and parasitic plants are discussed. Strategies are reviewed for managing diseases using an integrated pest management approach.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

9. Lawns

By: Grady Miller

This lawns chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews installation and care of turfgrass as well as management strategies for turfgrass problems. This chapter also reviews options for turfgrass alternatives.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

12. Native Plants

By: Charlotte Glen

This native plants chapter of the Extension Gardener Handbook defines the term native, why gardeners would want to use native plants, basic principles of gardening with natives and also reviews common misconceptions around native plants.

Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Muscadine Grape: Family Activity Guide

By: Liz Driscoll, Connie Fisk, Sara Spayd

Celebrating, learning and loving everything about muscadine grapes. This guide provides activities for families to discover and learn about muscadine grapes native to North Carolina.

Raising Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) for a Commercial Enterprise

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication discusses how to set up a worm-growing business. It includes information on potential markets, earthworm biology, and setting up an earthworm-growing operation.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Eastern North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Danny Lauderdale, Charlotte Glen

In eastern North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook

This 21 chapter handbook covers research-based gardening information that helps readers be successful gardeners and good stewards of the environment. Chapter titles include: Soils and Plant Nutrients, Composting, Botany, Insects, Diseases, Weeds, Diagnostics, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Lawns, Herbaceous Ornamentals, Woody Ornamentals, Native Plants, Propagation, Small Fruits, Tree Fruits and Nuts, Vegetable Gardening, Organic Gardening, Plants Grown in Containers (Houseplants and Outdoor Containers), Landscape Design, Wildlife, Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening. Included also are a glossary and appendix topics: Garden Journaling, Pesticides and Pesticide Safety, History of Landscape Design, Permaculture Design, and Greenhouses.

18. Plants Grown in Containers

By: Diane Mays, Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Julie Sherk, Mark Kistler, Joe Neal

This Plants Grown in Containers chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches gardeners about selecting appropriate plants and containers, and their maintenance. Both indoor houseplants and outdoor container gardening are covered.

19. Landscape Design

By: Anne Spafford, Michelle Wallace, Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create an environmentally friendly landscape design.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Trellis Systems

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various trellis systems for blackberry and raspberry production.

How to Organize a Community Garden

By: Lucy Bradley

This publication covers the keys to a successful community garden of individual plots including forming a strong planning team, choosing a safe site accessible to the target audience with sunlight and water, organizing a simple transparent system for management and designing and installing the garden. Appendices offer a sample layout, sample by-laws, sample budgets and a list of resources.

Collard Greens

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

11. Woody Ornamentals

By: Lucy Bradley, Barbara Fair

This woody ornamentals chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews the types of vines, shrubs, and trees as well as proper landscape design, plant selection, planting, staking, and pruning practices. It also reviews common insect and disease problems of woody ornamentals.

Glossary

The glossary for the Extension Master Gardener Handbook defines terms that are found in the text of the chapters.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Before You Recycle, Choose to Reuse

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This publication for individuals and groups describes how to reduce waste by reusing materials, including clothing and household items.

A Gardener's Guide to Soil Testing

By: Lucy Bradley, Deanna Osmond

This publication tells gardeners why they should test their soil, how to obtain a soil test and interpret the results and how to use the soil test to improve their soils.

Western North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Donna Teasley, Kerrie Roach

In western North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

16. Vegetable Gardening

By: Chris Gunter

This vegetable gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explores the different types and techniques as well as how to select and implement a vegetable garden that fits the needs of the gardener. It explores seed selection, proper sowing, transplanting, and maintenance techniques as well as harvesting guidelines. The chapter concludes with a section on herb gardens.

Harvesting and Preserving Herbs for the Home Gardener

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Herbs should be harvested when the oils responsible for flavor and aroma are at their peak. Proper timing depends on the plant part you are harvesting and the intended use. Herbs grown for their foliage should be harvested before they flower. While chives are quite attractive in bloom, flowering can cause the foliage to develop an off-flavor. Harvest herbs grown for seeds as the seed pods change in color from green to brown to gray but before they shatter (open). Collect herb flowers, such as borage and chamomile, just before full flower. Harvest herb roots, such as bloodroot, chicory, ginseng, and goldenseal, in the fall after the foliage fades.

Growing Blueberries in the Home Garden

By: Charles Mainland, Bill Cline Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.

Blackberries for the Home Garden

By: Gina Fernandez

This publication is a home gardener's guide to planting, maintaining and harvesting blackberries.

Backyard Composting of Yard, Garden, and Food Discards

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication describes how to build and maintain a composting pile to use the compost in your yard or garden.

Muscadine Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Connie Fisk, Mark Hoffmann Horticulture Information Leaflets

Muscadine grapes are well adapted to the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, where temperatures seldom fall below 10°F. Considerable injury generally occurs where winter temperatures drop below 0°F. Muscadines have a high degree of tolerance to pests and diseases that makes the production of bunch grapes nearly impossible in eastern North Carolina. There is no other fruit with such strong personal associations for so many native North Carolinians.

14. Small Fruits

By: Gina Fernandez, Bill Cline, Sara Spayd, Hannah Burrack

This small fruits chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews selection, planting, and maintenance of strawberries, caneberries, blueberries, grapes, and kiwis.

10. Herbaceous Ornamentals

By: Toby Bost

This herbaceous ornamentals chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews the selection, bed design, planting, and maintenance of annuals, biennials, perennials, flowering bulbs, and wildflowers. It also discusses common insect and disease problems of herbaceous ornamentals.

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Luffa are tropical, vining plants that produce large fruits similar to cucumbers. When young and small the fruit can be cooked and prepared like a summer squash. When the fruit mature, they have a rough, fibrous interior which is referred to as the sponge and is used to make a wide variety of products. Currently, luffa sponge products are most popular as personal care products and are readily available in the cosmetic and bath sections of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. This factsheet covers how to plant, harvest, and process luffa gourds in a temperate environment.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

Guía de Horticultura para Principiantes

By: Lucy Bradley, Shawn Banks

Esta publicación proporciona información sobre la planificación y el mantenimiento de un huerto casero. Los temas incluyen la selección del sitio, la preparación del suelo y el manejo de plagas y enfermedades.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

3. Botany

This Botany Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses plant taxonomy or how to name plant, plant anatomy of cells, leaves, stems, buds, roots, flowers, seeds and fruit, and the physiology of plants including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and plant growth chemicals.

How Your Business Can Cut Costs by Reducing Waste

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This factsheet for business owners describes North Carolina waste reduction programs that can benefit a business. It includes some recommended practices for reducing waste and a list of organizations that can provide information and assistance in planning and conducting a waste reduction and recycling program.

Large-Scale Organic Materials Composting

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication provides an overview of how to design and manage a composting system to process municipal organic materials.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Peonies for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflets

Peonies are long-lived, perennial flowers that produce large flowers in the spring. Colors include black, coral, cream, crimson, pink, purple, rose, scarlet, white, and yellow. Two types of peonies are grown in North Carolina: garden peonies (Paeonia valbiflora or Paeonia officinalis) and tree peonies (Paeonia suffruticosa). This leaflet covers the planting, care and maintenance and potential problems associated with growing peonies in North Carolina.

Overcoming Seed Dormancy: Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflets

Seed dormancy is nature's way of setting a time clock that allows seeds to initiate germination when conditions are normally favorable for germination and survival of the seedlings. For example, dogwoods produce mature seeds in the fall, but conditions are not suitable for seedling survival at that time. Thus, dogwoods have developed a mechanism that keeps the seeds dormant until spring when conditions are favorable for germination, as well as, seedling growth and survival.

Pruning and Training

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses how and when to prune blackberry and raspberry canes.

Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This factsheet explains how you can set up and maintain a worm composting bin for your home or office. Worm composting reduces the amount of material that ends up in the landfill and provides compost that can enrich the soil.

6. Weeds

By: Kathleen Moore, Joe Neal, Lucy Bradley

This weeds chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses weed life cycles, how to properly identify weeds, and how to manage them using an integrated pest management approach.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Weed Management in Watermelon

By: Katie Jennings, Matthew Bertucci

This publication discusses weeds common to watermelon and how to control them. Weed management strategies include mechanical control, cultural control, and herbicide recommendations for grasses and broadleaf weeds such as Palmer amaranth and sedge weed species.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Raspberries in the Home Garden

By: Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Raspberries are a delicious and nutritious addition to the home garden. However, raspberries can be difficult to grow in some parts of North Carolina. In the summer, the hot, humid climate of the Piedmont and coastal plain puts the plants under stress and can hamper growth. While fluctuating winter temperatures can cause injury to the canes thorughout the state. Despite these challenges, raspberries do well in the mountains of western North Carolina where production can last from June through early October.

Caladiums for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Caladiums are grown for their long-lasting, colorful foliage. Color combinations include various shades of red, pink, white, green, and yellow-green, with prominently colored midribs and contrasting margins. There are two basic types of caladium cultivars: fancy- and strap-leaved.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Growing Asparagus in a Home Garden

By: Douglas Sanders, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Asparagus has been considered a garden delicacy since Roman times. Any home gardener can grow and enjoy this spring vegetable. Asparagus is a perennial. If you plant and manage properly it will produce for 15 years or more. Since this crop will occupy the land for many years you should select and prepare the asparagus bed carefully -- location, soil type, soil fertility, size and age of crowns and correct planting are important.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Controlling Mite Pests in Earthworm Beds

By: Rhonda Sherman, Stephen Bambara

This publication discusses keeping mite pests at bay in worm beds for vermicomposting.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

By: Jeanine Davis, Jean Harrison

This guide provides techniques for small-scale outdoor cultivation of shiitake mushrooms on logs. Tree selection and log preparation, spawn selection, inoculation, fruiting, pest and disease management and harvesting are covered.

20. Wildlife

By: Christopher Moorman, Christopher DePerno, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Wildlife Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches readers to recognize the value of wildlife in the landscape and how to create a suitable back yard wildlife habitat. It also examines wildlife challenges and strategies discouraging pest, game, non-game, and federally protected migratory bird species.

A Gardener's Guide to Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans

This publication provides basic information on the nutrient needs of trees and shrubs, types of fertilizers to apply and recommended methods and times of application.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

2. Composting

By: Rhonda Sherman

This Composting Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain the benefits of and strategies for composting and vermicomposting.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Summer and Fall Flowering Bulbs for the Landscape

By: August De Hertogh, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Summer and fall flowering bulbs provide another dimension to gardening. They add beauty and interest to the landscape and, since most of them are tender, they offer a unique challenge to the gardener. There are a large number of different types of bulbs, offering variations in forms, fragrances, colors, and lasting brilliance which many summer annuals cannot achieve.

The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

By: Barclay Poling, Sara Spayd

The grape and wine industry in North Carolina is now worth in excess of $30 million dollars. To assist North Carolina growers in the production a quality grapes for quality wines, a newly revised 196 page guide has been written for winegrape growers, called the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication provides grape growers with practical information about choosing an appropriate site for a vineyard, establishment, and operation of commercial vineyards in North Carolina.

Kale

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Landscape Management Calendar

By: Barbara Fair, Steven Frank, Matt Martin, Grady Miller, Joe Neal

This poster-sized landscape management calendar is a guide to keeping your landscape healthy with sound management practices. It discusses proper establishment and maintenance practices as well as monitoring and targeted treatment of pests.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

Asparagus

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda G. Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Choosing and Using Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Many herbal flowers have the same flavor as their leaves, though others, such as chamomile and lavender blossoms, have a subtler flavor.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Summer Cover Crops

By: Nancy Creamer, Keith Baldwin Horticulture Information Leaflets

There is growing interest in the use of short-season summer annual legumes or grasses as cover crops and green manures in vegetable production systems. Cover crops can provide a significant source of nitrogen (N) for subsequent crops; reduce erosion, runoff, and potential pollution of surface waters; capture soil N that might otherwise be lost to leaching; add organic matter to the soil; improve soil physical properties; impact insect and disease life cycles; and suppress nematode populations and weed growth. There can be potential drawbacks, such as cooler soils in the spring, and the additional cost of seeding the cover crop. These factors must be considered depending on the particular cash crops and cover crops being grown.

Ronstar (oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Ronstar (oxadiazon).

Marengo (indaziflam) or Specticle

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Dahlias for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflets

Dahlias, are a popular addition to the landscape because they have a wide height range (1 to 6 feet) and a variety of flower shapes and sizes (2 to 12 inches). Color range includes orange, pink, purple, red, scarlet, yellow, and white. Some flowers are striped or tipped with a different color. Dahlias begin blooming in early summer and continue to frost. Flower production may slow with high summer temperatures and moisture stress.

Appendix E. Season Extenders and Greenhouses

By: Chris Gunter

This Season Extension and Greenhouse appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook. It reviews ways gardeners can can extend their growing season by protecting plants through cold frames, hot beds, row covers, high tunnels, cloches, and greenhouses.

How to Create a Container Garden for Edibles in the North Carolina Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

In this publication you will find ideas to get you started growing your own edibles. Included are simple designs and potential settings for a single container, a small group of containers and a larger grouping of containers. The benefits and challenges of various planting options will also be explored.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth, and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting, and postharvest management.

Segment (sethoxydim)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Many organic vegetable farmers are interested in producing sweet corn. Organic sweet corn can be grown in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast, but special considerations for variety selection, insect and disease control, economics, and markets must be made for it to be a profitable crop.

7. Diagnostics

By: Mike Munster, David Goforth

This diagnostic chapter of the Extension Gardener handbook outlines a 10-step guide to diagnosing plant problems. It also helps gardeners recognize which plant symptoms are normal and which can be problematic, and how to determine if the problem is biotic or abiotic.

Prevention and Management of Frost Injury in Wine Grapes

By: Mark Hoffmann, David Lockwood, Barclay Poling

This factsheet provides recommended practices and management strategies for protecting wine grapes from spring frost damage.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Chapter 1. Introduction

By: Barclay Poling

New and current grape growers will find practical information on site appraisal, establishment, and operation of commercial winegrape vineyards in the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication focuses on production of vinifera and hybrid wine grapes.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the South

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno, Mark Hoffmann

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a glyphosate herbicide injury.

21. Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening

By: Lucy Bradley

This Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook helps volunteers understand how these types of gardens can be sucessful and the steps needed to be an effective mentor.

How to Sell Shell Eggs Into Grocery Stores Through Direct Store Delivery

By: Krista Morgan, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

This publication provides basic information for small or medium-scale North Carolina egg producers to start marketing their products to retail stores.

Low Investment Propagation / Winter Protection Structure

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Barbara Fair Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers the basics of constructing a propagation / winter protection structure in a quonset design.

Appendix A. Garden Journaling

By: Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook describes the value of garden journaling and different strategies a gardener may use to start one.

Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).

A Gardener's Guide to Protecting Water Quality

By: Lucy Bradley, Deanna Osmond

This publication discusses ways that gardeners can protect water quality and avoid runoff and soil erosion.

Composting in Childcare Center Gardens

By: Rhonda Sherman Local Foods: Childcare Center Production Gardens

This publication is a how-to guide for starting a garden-related standard compost bin in a childcare center Outdoor Learning Environment (OLE). Included is guidance on design, construction, and management of compost bins as well as curriculum connections. This is the seventh of eight publications about childcare center production gardens.

Community Backyard Composting Programs Can Reduce Waste and Save Money

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication describes how communities can develop and implement backyard composting programs that reduce the amount of waste in the landfill and return nutrients to the soil.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Conducting a Bioassay For Herbicide Residues

By: Joe Neal

General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil.

Dismiss (sulfentrazone)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).

Plant Selection for Extensive Green Roofs in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina

By: Wenyan Fu, Julieta Sherk, Joe Neal

This publication describes the evaluation of plant survival and vigor on 11 extensive green roofs in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina and provides plant selection guidelines for future green roof installations.

Organizing a Community Recycling Program

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This publication outlines key elements that local governments should consider when planning, implementing, publicizing and evaluating recycling programs.

Appendix G. Permaculture Design

By: Abbey Piner

This Permaculture Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain the benefits of and strategies for creating an ecologically sustainable home landscape.

Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

The Pour-Through Extraction Procedure: A Nutrient Management Tool for Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

By routinely measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of growing media and irrigation water for container-grown nursery crops, growers can monitor nutrient availability and scout for problems. Learn how to use the pour-through extraction procedures as part of your nursery's quality control program.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Princep, Simazine (simazine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).

III. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Training

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides an overview of Master Gardener training.

Vermicomposting in Childcare Center Gardens

By: Rhonda Sherman Local Foods: Childcare Center Production Gardens

This publication is a how-to guide for starting a garden-related vermicomposting bin in a childcare center Outdoor Learning Environment (OLE) or indoors. Included is guidance on design, construction, and management of vermicomposting bins as well as curriculum connections. This is the last of eight publications about childcare center production gardens.

Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

Community gardens have been part of the American landscape since the mid-1700s. Today, community gardens continue to make positive contributions in neighborhoods across North Carolina. Winner of an American Society for Horticultural Science, Extension Division, 2017 Educational Materials Award, Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook is a practical guide to community gardening. Based on experience and research, it is packed with best practices, tested strategies, and useful checklists. The guide covers every step in the community gardening process, from starting a new garden to sustainable long-term garden management and policy. Whether you are new to community gardening or a seasoned veteran, Collard Greens and Common Ground will help your community garden flourish.

Cultivars

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, covers the characteristics of recommended blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the Southeast.

Goal, GoalTender (oxyfluorfen)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Goal and GoalTender (oxyfluorfen).

Fig Culture in North Carolina

By: Melvin Kolbe, Kathleen Williams

The fig is native to the Mediterranean Basin. You may already be familiar with some members of the fig family, such as the ornamental rubber tree, the mulberry, and the Osage orange or hedge apple. Figs are grown over much of eastern North Carolina and westward into the Piedmont. If your soil is well-drained and reasonably fertile, you most likely will have success growing figs in North Carolina.

NC State Extension Master Gardener Program Guidelines

By: Lucy Bradley, Charlotte Glen

This publication provides guidelines for the NC State Extension Master Gardener program, including how to become a Master Gardener volunteer.

Carotenoid Pigments

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a carotenoid pigment inhibitor herbicide injury.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Managing the Impact of Floodwater Contaminants on Soil and Produce in Residential, Community, and School Vegetable Gardens

By: Carl Crozier, Benjamin Chapman, Catherine Kastleman, Elizabeth Shapiro-Garza, Bryan Luukinen, Samuel Cohen, Steve Yang, Luke Gatiboni, Lucy Bradley

This publication discusses how floods can affect food gardens. In it, you'll find recommendations for preparing your garden before a flood, precautions to take after the storm, and how to safely clean up and replant after floodwaters recede.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Bearded Iris for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflets

Bearded iris is a hardy, long-lived perennial that requires a minimum of maintenance. The flowers have six petals; three upright petals (called standards) and three hanging petals (called falls). A fuzzy line or beard runs down the middle of each fall. Flowers come in many colors including blue, pink, purple, reddish, white, yellow, and bi-colors. This leaflet offers some information on growing irises for the home garden.

Appendix 2. Fertility and Nutrients

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This appendix of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers more comprehensive information on soil nutrients and the signs and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies.

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Growing Edibles in the Landscape

By: Zhuowei Li, Lucy Bradley, Julieta Sherk, Anne Spafford

This publication provides three examples of edible landscape designs for incorporating edible components into a home landscape. Each design is based on the same 1/4-acre residential suburban plot.

Hints for Fall-Planted Spring and Early Summer Flowering Bulbs

By: Kim Powell, A.A. De Hertogh, P.V. Nelson Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers guidelines on planning a garden and buying bulbs, as well as planting planting techniques to ensure healthy flowers.

Home Forcing of Hyacinths

By: Gwendolyn Pemberton, A.A. De Hertogh Horticulture Information Leaflets

Causing spring-flowering bulbs like hyacinths to flower by other than naturally occurring conditions is called forcing. This practice is carried out world-wide by commercial flower growers. With planning and effort, any homeowner can have a steady supply of bulb flowers from late December through April. Forcing bulbs is a rewarding challenge to those interested in the growth and development of plants.

Growing Food

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 9 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, focuses on planting strategies and planting times for various crops in food gardens.

Introduction

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers an introduction to caneberry (blackberry and raspberry) production in the Southeast.

Fruit Development

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the time from flowering to fruit harvest for blackberry and raspberry production.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Sureguard (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Sedgehammer (halosulfuron)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).

Weed Control in Woody Plant Propagation and Containerized Liner Production

By: Joe Neal

This publication discusses best practices for managing and controlling weeds in container nurseries and greenhouses, focusing on woody plant propagation and containerized liner production.

Strawberry Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

Cover Crops for Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

Cover crops are pivotal parts of every organic farmer’s management scheme. They are crucial to the main goals of building soil health and preventing soil erosion. Cover crops are also important tools for increasing fertility and controlling weeds, pathogens, and insects in organic crops. In this publication, we will discuss planting, growing, and incorporating cover crops as amendments into the soil.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses soil testing, nursery stock, and spacing for blackberry and raspberry production.

Appendix D. Garden Tools

By: Chris Gunter

This Garden Tools appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook and gives readers information about common garden tools and their care.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Bunch Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Mark Hoffmann Horticulture Information Leaflets

Grapes are welcome summer treats that can be eaten fresh, processed into jellies, jams, juice or even fermented into wine. Grapes are adapted to many soil types, and can be quite long-lived. There are basically two kinds of grapes grown in North Carolina, bunch grapes and muscadine. Bunch grapes produce berries in large clusters, and grow best in the mountains and piedmont areas. In coastal plain areas, Pierce's disease kills or shortens the life expectancy of many popular bunch grapes. Muscadine grapes, exemplified by the Scuppernong variety and noted for having smaller clusters, are not affected by this disease.

Vermicomposting: A School Enrichment Curriculum

By: Rhonda Sherman, Rebecca Liverman, Ed Maxa

This publication offers 6 lessons for a school curriculum on the importance of vermicomposting, setting up a worm bin, anatomy of earthworms and how to reduce waste and recycle. Lesson objectives an activities are provided.

A Low-Cost Plastic Bottle and Jug Baler

By: Rhonda Sherman Water Quality & Waste Management

This publication shows how to build a simple, economical bale press and gives instructions on baling plastic bottles and jugs for recycling.

Barricade, Prodiamine, Resolute, Regalkade G (prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).

Site Selection

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the benefits and limitations of selecting various sites to plant blackberries and raspberries.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Using the NC State Extension Master Gardener Program Service Marks and Logo

By: Lucy Bradley

The appropriate uses of the North Carolina Extension Master Gardener name and emblem are covered in this factsheet.

Gemini (isoxaben + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gemini (isoxaben + prodiamine).

Ginseng Production Guide for North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication discusses the best techniques for growing quality ginseng. It includes descriptions and stages of growth, and information on general culture, site preparation and mulching.

Container Garden Planting Calendar for Edibles in the Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

This publication offers a guide to growing edible plants year-round in containers. Includes planting and harvest guides.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

IV. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Program Policies

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines covers policies of the Master Gardener program.

Weed Management in Perennial Production

By: Joe Neal

When it comes to weeds, “start clean – stay clean” should be the moto of every nursery manager. This is especially true for producers of herbaceous perennials. Although we can control most grassy weeds with postemergence herbicide; otherwise, we have few herbicides to use when weeds get out of hand. Furthermore, the herbicides labeled for use in herbaceous ornamentals are either safe on many ornamentals and do not control many weeds, or control lots of weeds but are safe on only a few ornamentals. Consequently, to manage weeds effectively a comprehensive nursery weed management program including exclusion, sanitation, preemergence herbicides, some postemergence herbicides and hand weeding will be needed.

Lontrel (clopyralid)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Lontrel (clopyralid).

Surflan (oryzalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Surflan (oryzalin).

Using a Hand-Cranked, Hand-Held Spreader to Apply Herbicides in Container Nurseries

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.

How to Determine the Potential to Increase Vegetable Yield Through Estimating and Reducing Field Losses

By: Lisa K. Johnson

This publication discusses methods for boosting vegetable productivity by reducing field loss, which can amount to a significant portion of the harvested yield.

Farm to University: Guide for Extension Agents

By: Robyn Stout, Rebecca Dunning Local Foods

This guide provides information to Extension educators on Farm to University programming so farmers can take advantage of student demand for fresher, local foods. This programming helps drive campus demand for local foods and create connections between farmers and campus food services.

Chapter 2. Cost and Investment Analysis of Chardonnay (Vitis Vinifera) Winegrapes in North Carolina

By: Charles Safley, Carlos Carpio, Barclay Poling

Growing Chardonnay grapes, the number one vinifera variety grown in North Carolina, can be a profitable venture in certain areas of the state.The profitability analysis in this chapter, based on 2005 costs, shows that it will take an estimated $12,876 per acre to bring a vineyard up to full production in the fourth year.The vineyard would begin to yield $1,097 per acre in the eighth year, and the producer may be able to break even by the eighth year.

Chapter 5. Vineyard Establishment

By: Tony Wolf

Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.

Food Garden Design

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 4 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses step-by-step methods for designing a new community food garden.

Soil, Plots, and Planters

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 8 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses soil management in community food gardens.

Plant Growth

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the growth cycle of blackberry and raspberry plants for proper training and pruning.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Selling Fluid Milk to Grocery Stores Through Direct Store Delivery

By: Krista Morgan, John Day, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

This publication will help you start selling fluid milk directly to grocery stores. Approaching retailers, labeling, invoicing, vendor requirements and delivery are covered.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Fortress (isoxaben + dithiopyr)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Fortress (isoxaben + dithiopyr).

Scythe (pelargonic acid) and Axxe (ammonium nonanoate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Scythe (pelargonic acid) or Axxe (ammonium nonanoate).

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Composting on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Jackie T. Greenfield CEFS

This publication describes the composting process, how to make compost that meets National Organic Program standards, and how to apply and utilize compost.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Composting at NC Residential and Summer Camps

By: Rhonda Sherman, Eric Caldwell

Residential camps generate food scraps from meal preparation, plate scrapings, and leftover or spoiled food. Many camps have horses, resulting in manure to manage. Composting and vermicomposting are viable options for managing food scraps, horse manure, and other types of organic waste materials.

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for the Southeast

By: Mark Hoffmann, Patrick Conner, Phillip Brannen, Hannah Burrack, Wayne Mitchem, Bill Cline, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Tower (dimethenamid-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Tower (dimethenamid-p).

Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon).

I. N.C. Cooperative Extension

By: Lucy Bradley, Charlotte Glen

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides and overview of Extension in North Carolina.

Appendix B. Examples of Master Gardener Volunteer Roles

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides an overview of Master Gardener roles.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Snapshot TG (isoxaben + trifluralin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Snapshot TG (isoxaben +trifluralin).

Are You Weeding Frequently Enough to Prevent Weeds From Spreading?

By: Joe Neal

How often are you weeding? Is it frequently enough to prevent the next generation of weeds? Many of the most common weeds of container nurseries flower and produce seeds within 30 days. Our research suggests that you should be removing emerged weeds every 2 to 3 weeks. This publication offers information on some common container weeds.

Empacadora Económica para Reciclar Botellas y Garrafas de Plástico

By: Rhonda Sherman

Esta publicación muestra cómo construir una prensa de fardos sencilla y económica y da instrucciones sobre cómo embalar botellas y garrafas de plástico jarras para reciclar.

Management of Palmer Amaranth in Sweetpotato

By: Stephen C. Smith, Katie Jennings

Palmer amaranth is the most common and most troublesome weed in North Carolina sweetpotato. This publication discusses Palmer amaranth identification, reproduction and growth habit, impacts on sweetpotato yield and quality, and weed management options.

Weed Management on Organic Farms

By: Nancy Creamer, Denise Finney CEFS

Organic farmers cite weed management as their number one research priority. This publication in the Organic Production publication series describes weed control strategies for organic farms based on weed characteristics and an integrated cropping system approach. A special section on cultivation practices that limit emerged and future weeds is based on research by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems.

Chapter 9. Vine Nutrition

By: Tony Wolf

Grapevines require 16 essential nutrients for normal growth and development (Table 9.1). Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained as the roots take in water and as the leaves absorb gases. The remaining nutrients are obtained primarily from the soil. Macronutrients are those used in relatively large quantities by vines; natural macronutrients are often supplemented with applied fertilizers.The micronutrients, although no less essential, are needed in very small quantities. When one or more of these elements is deficient, vines may exhibit foliar deficiency symptoms, reduced growth or crop yield, and greater susceptiblity to winter injury or death. The availability of essential nutrients is therefore critical for optimum vine performance and profitable grape production.

Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin)

Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin).

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor).

Soil Fertility on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

Throughout this manual we have discussed how organic farmers strive to build healthy soil in order to create the best possible environment for plant growth. A healthy soil is primarily defined by its fertility, which in turn depends largely on the interactions of its physical, chemical, and biological properties.

Appendix A. Master Gardener Volunteer Position Classifications and Descriptions

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides descriptions of the various Master Gardener position classifications.

Organization

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 6 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses the organization of the community garden, including roles and responsibilities.

Beyond the Garden Gate

By: Don Boekleheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 12 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers advice for community gardeners to expand their involvement in the larger community.

Harvesting and Postharvest Management

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers tips on harvesting and handling blackberries and raspberries postharvest.

Controlling Bamboo in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

There are many species of bamboo sold in the nursery trade, some more invasive than others. The plants spread by thick, tough, underground stems (rhizomes). These rhizomes are resilient to adverse environmental conditions and most herbicides. To control such aggressive weeds you must eradicate or contain the entire infestation. Bamboo control programs will require an intensive control strategy over several years.

Appendix H. Community Gardening Resources

By: Mary Jac Brennan, Susan Jakes

This appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook and gives users to the tools to implement a youth, community, or therapeutic garden.

Weeds of Container Nurseries in the United States

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr

Color guide to identification of weeds common in container nursery crop production. Also includes a table of preemergence herbicide efficacy on these species.

Calibrating Hand-Held Granular Spreaders for Nursery Weed Control

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

Even the best herbicides will not provide effective weed control if they're not applied accurately and uniformly. This publication describes the steps required to calibrate hand-held spreaders commonly used in container nurseries.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided for strawberry crops.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Recordkeeping Form for the USDA Restricted-Use Pesticides Regulation and the Worker Protection Standard

By: Wayne Buhler, Issac Lewis

Use this form to maintain records of pesticide applications in compliance with the USDA Restricted-Use Pesticides Regulations and the Worker Protection Standard. Records of all pesticide applications must be maintained for at least 2 years. This form is available online in three versions: Adobe PDF, RTF (for word processing programs), and Microsoft Excel.

Offsetting Drought for Small-Scale Vegetable Production in North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis, Robert Evans, Garry Grabow, Bill Jester, Billy Little, Allan Thornton, Jonathan Schultheis

A good source of water is a necessity for producing quality vegetables. During periods of drought, crop diversification and mulches can be used to cope with drought situations, but nothing will substitute for the timely application of water. This publication covers some guidelines for irrigation systems to help offset periods of drought in the Southeast United States.

Frost/Freeze Protection for Horticultural Crops

By: Katharine Perry, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Effective frost protection methods exist, however, each year, a portion of the state's fruit and vegetable crop is lost to low-temperature damage. This leaflet explains the principles of frosts and freezes and provides information on protection methods.

Chapter 4. Vineyard Site Selection

By: Barclay Poling, Ryan Boyles, Carlos Carpio

Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.

Chapter 10. Grapevine Water Relations and Vineyard Irrigation

By: Tony Wolf

Like other perennial plants, mature grapevines have extensive root systems and therefore, unlike shallow-rooted annual plants, they are fairly tolerant of mild droughts. Nevertheless, a certain amount of moisture is necessary to support growth and development. Lacking sufficient moisture, vines will suffer water stress, which can reduce productivity as well as fruit quality. Supplemental moisture can be provided by permanent (solid-set) or temporary irrigation systems. Drip irrigation has become the standard water delivery system for North Carolina vineyards in recent years. Drip irrigation can represent a substantial investment (see chapter 2 for details), but the benefits can far outweigh the costs in many vineyards. In 2005, it was estimated that drip irrigation would cost $22,743 to purchase and install the equipment required for a 10-acre drip system, or $2,274 per acre. Drip irrigation can be as effective on steep slopes as on rolling and flat surfaces.

Special Claims and the Approval Process for Niche Meat Production

By: Sarah Blacklin, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

With increasing demand for product transparency, a growing number of producers, processing plant operators, and packinghouse operators are interested in adding claims to the labels of their meat and poultry products to further characterize or add value to those products. Label claims become increasingly important for producers and plant operators selling to secondary markets, such as retail grocers, rather than direct to consumer. This guide provides information to producers about special claims and the requirements and documentation needed to support those claims.

Food Safety and Garden Health

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 10 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses food safety when growing crops in a community garden, including pesticides, sanitation, and irrigation.

Fertility Management

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses fertilization and soil fertility for blackberry and raspberry plants.

Home Composting with Earthworms

By: Rhonda Sherman

Earthworms can turn food scraps into a soil amendment called vermicompost — worm castings — which increases plant growth and reduces attacks by plant diseases and pests. Vermicomposting is easy, involves little work, and can be done indoors or outdoors. All you need is a container, bedding, worms, and worm food.

Weed Control

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble, Andrew Senesac

Weeds reduce the aesthetic qualities of landscape plantings and compete with nursery crops for nutrients, water, and light. Root systems compete for nitrogen and water. Even seemingly non-competitive weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) have been shown to reduce growth of container-grown plants. Tall weeds and vines shade crops, reducing photosynthesis and growth. Vining weeds such as morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) are particularly damaging because they disfigure stems and new growth. In landscape plantings, weeds must be controlled or removed to maintain quality aesthetics. Weeds may also need to be removed for health and safety reasons

Basagran T/O (bentazon)

By: Joe Neal

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Basagran T/O (bentazon).

Finale XL or Cheetah Pro (glufosinate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Finale XL or Cheetah Pro (glufosinate).

Fumigant Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Compost Production and Use in Sustainable Farming Systems

By: Nathan McClintock CEFS Field Notes for Farmers

This field note for farmers published by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) describes the composting process, how to make compost, and how to use it. Included are instructions for determining an application rate and the results of research by CEFS on integrating cover crops and compost.

Workplace Community Supported Agriculture: Connecting Local Farmers to Local Workplaces

By: Denise Finney, Nancy Creamer

This guide provides an overview of the community supported agriculture (CSA) program at Research Triangle Institute International (RTI). Filled with ideas, examples, and lessons learned from this workplace CSA pilot project, the guide provides information for farmers, businesses, Extension agents, and others who are considering starting a workplace CSA program.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Weed Management in Onions

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Most commercial onions produced in North Carolina are seeded in the fall and harvested in mid- to late-June. Weed competition can reduce onion yields up to 96 percent, and weeds must be controlled throughout the growing season. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options growers can use to keep onions weed-free in both wide and narrow rows.

Field Production of Nursery Stock: Field Preparation, Planting and Planting Density

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Field preparation using low-till practices, cover crops and soil amendments improves quality of both soils and ornamentals plants during production. Correct planting techniques and useful planting density scenarios are suggested. Guidelines for pruning during production are given so growers can create a niche by improving plant quality during field production of nursery stock.

Fresh Market Tomato Production Piedmont and Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The tomato is a warm season crop. With special production practices you can produce your first tomatoes in 60 days. This crop can be grown for production from June through November by choosing the right varieties and production practices. Generally, tomatoes require a large investment in time and labor, but increase in intensity of management is repaid by increased yields and profits.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Selection and Use of Stress-Tolerant Bedding Plants for the Landscape

By: Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflets

Each of us are subjected to stresses and pressures every day in our home, work, and living environment; plants are no different. Unfortunately, there is no "stressless" environment, and there is no totally stress-resistant bedding plant. Each site has its stress level and each plant has its tolerance level. There are steps that can be taken to reduce or avoid stress in the landscape. However, no program can prevent all problems, and the key to successful landscape color using bedding plants is to match the particular site with specific plant species.

Geranium Culture for Home Gardeners

By: Alice Russell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Geraniums are among the most popular flowering plants. Outdoors, they are used as annual bedding plants, in hanging baskets, in pots and in window boxes. Indoors, they are cultured as houseplants in sunny locations. Common geraniums are actually members of the genus Pelargonium, while members of the genus Geranium include native wildflowers and herbaceous perennials.

Chapter 11. Spring Frost Control

By: Barclay Poling

To grow more consistent crops and improve your cash flow in years with damaging frost events, this chapter will show you how you can: 1) identify an active protection system to protect your vineyard during budbreak and early shoot development, 2) use the basic principles of frost and frost/freeze protection to deal with complex cold protection scenarios, so that you use your active protection system(s) efficiently, and 3) operate the equipment correctly.

Chapter 14. Glossary

By: Barclay Poling

This publication contains a glossary of the terms used in The North Carolina Winegrape Grower's Guide.

Chapter 12. Crop Prediction

By: Tony Wolf

Crop prediction or estimation is the process of projecting as accurately as possible the quantity of crop that will be harvested. Why estimate the crop? The most obvious reason is to know how much crop will be present for sale or utilization. Beyond that fundamental reason, it is also important to know whether vines are undercropped or overcropped. In the absence of methodical crop estimations, the experienced grower can rely on past vineyard performance.This approach is subject to error, however, especially in grape regions subject to spring frosts or winter injury, which can greatly affect a vineyard’s productivity from year to year.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Eat Smart Move More North Carolina: Growing Communities Through Gardens

By: Keith Baldwin, Diane Beth, Lucy Bradley, Nilam Dave, Susan Jakes, Melissa Nelson

Gardens bring communities together. Not only are community gardens a good way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables in our diets, they also allow us to be active outdoors and build a strong community.

Appendix E. State and Local Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Associations

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides information about Master Gardener Volunteer associations.

Natural Oils and Acids

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of natural oil and acid herbicide injuries.

Appendix 1. Nematode Diagnostic Services

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This appendix to the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide presents contact information for nematode diagnostic services in the southeast.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Suggested Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for North Carolina Medicinal Herbs

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication provides introductory information about growing and wild-harvesting medicinal herbs in North Carolina. The practices suggested here apply to all raw herbal plant material used to make herbal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods, and drugs.

Disease Control

By: Joe Neal, Jean Williams-Woodward

This table includes a list of fungicides labeled for use on ornamental plants and trees to control specific diseases as noted. The table is organized alphabetically according to plant disease common name or a pathogen. Fungicides labeled to control the disease and their labeled rate are provided in the table as a general guide only. Not all information provided on the fungicide label is duplicated within this table. It is the user’s responsibility to consult the current label for rates and restrictions and follow all directions provided on the label. This table is also not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of every fungicide name brand available to green industry professionals. It is impossible to include all brands, particularly generic brands.

Reward (diquat dibromide)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Reward (diquat dibromide).

Catfacing

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of catfacing, an abiotic disorder in strawberries that causes misshaped fruit.

Weed Management in Conifer Seedbeds and Transplant Beds

By: Joe Neal

Weeds compete with conifer seedlings for light, water, nutrients and space. Of these, light competition is probably the most detrimental to conifer seedlings. Shading will reduce growth, and generally weaken seedlings making them more susceptible to insects, mites and diseases. Weed competition has also been known to reduce winter hardiness. Consequently, an intensive weed control program is required to produce quality seedlings and transplants.

Ornamental Sweetpotatoes for the Home Landscape

By: Dennis Carey, Brian Whipker, Lucy Bradley, Wayne Buhler

Ornamental sweetpotatoes are extremely heat-tolerant, tropical, perennial vines grown as annuals in North Carolina. They look great covering annual beds, hanging over walls or trailing from containers. This publication covers cultivars, how to select the plants, care through the growing season and pests and diseases.

Mini-Gardening

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflets

Lack of yard space is no excuse for not growing a vegetable garden. Regardless of whether you live in an apartment, condominium or mobile home, some space us available for growing a few of your favorite vegetables. However, the area you choose to grow your garden must receive five hours or more of sunlight daily. As a general rule, leafy vegetables such as cabbage and mustard greens can tolerate more shade than root vegetables like radishes and beets. Vegetables that bear fruit such as peppers, tomatoes, and cucumbers will need the most sun.

Bean Sprouts and Other Vegetable Seed Sprouts

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sprouts from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) have been used for food since ancient times. These sprouts have a nutrient value similar to asparagus and mushrooms, which contain high quantities of Vitamin A. Sprouts can be canned or frozen in addition to eating them fresh. Mung bean seeds can be purchased from mail-order commercial seed companies and health food chain stores. (Caution: Regardless of the source, do not use seeds that have been treated with a fungicide. Treated seeds are not edible and can be recognized by the coating of pink or green dust on the seed coat.)

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

Chapter 7. Canopy Management

By: Tony Wolf

High-quality wines — those that command premium prices — can be produced only from high-quality grapes. Grape quality can be defined in various ways, but ripeness and freedom from rots are two of the chief qualities. Producing ripe fruit with minimum rot and maximum varietal character is not easy in North Carolina. As described elsewhere in this publication, the combination of climate, soils, and vine vigor often leads to excessive vegetative growth. For reasons that will be discussed, luxurious vegetative growth can reduce vine fruitfulness, decrease varietal character, degrade other components of fruit quality, and hamper efforts at disease control. Canopy management practices can help alleviate these problems.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers

By: Keith Baldwin CEFS

In our drive to meet the food and fiber needs of ever-increasing populations, we are taxing the resilience of the planet’s natural resources. This fevered quest to pursue ever-increasing crop yields has had devastating impacts: widespread soil erosion, atmospheric pollution, over- grazed forage areas, over-cultivated fields, salinated water supplies, cleared land that is unsuitable for crops, and desertification —the loss of agricultural land to desert. The serious degradation of our soil resources has motivated some researchers and farmers to investigate management systems that are less input-intensive and generally more sustainable.

II. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Program

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines is an overview of the Master Gardener program in North Carolina.

VI. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Fundraising

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides information about generating revenue for Master Gardener programs.

Appendix C: NC State Extension Master Gardener Program Student / Intern Code of Conduct Form

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines contains information for Master Gardener volunteer students and interns.

Appendix D: NC State Extension Master Gardener Program Volunteer Recertification Code of Conduct Form

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides information for Master Gardener volunteer recertification.

Getting Started

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 2 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, guides readers through several initial steps in starting a community garden.

Site Selection

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 3 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers community garden organizers insight on choosing potential sites for a community food garden.

Management

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 7 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers users management tips for a community garden, including a seasonal maintenance calendar.

Funding and Resources

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 11 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers information on fundraising, dues, and grants.

Tunnel Production

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses growing blackberries and raspberries in high tunnels, semi-permanent structures made of steel pipe arches and covered with polyethylene plastic.

Integrated Pest Management and Pollination

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, points users to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) resources for blackberry and raspberry production.

Handling to Avoid Contaminents

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 14 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers resources for Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) in blackberry and raspberry production.

Florida Betony (Stachys floridana) Identification and Management

By: Lewis S. Howe, Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification and control of Florida betony, an aggressive, rhizomatous perennial in the mint family categorized as a category B noxious weed in North Carolina.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy in Nurseries and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble, Andrew Senesac

Preemergence herbicide efficacy summary chart, Ranking the efficacy of preemergence herbicides on most weeds of nursery and landscape plantings.

Preemergence Herbicides Registered for Use on Woody Ornamentals

By: Joe Neal

This table presents information on preemergence herbicides registered for use on woody ornamentals.

After the Flood - Weed Management Concerns for Nurseries and Landscapes

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon

Immediately after a flood, most farmers, nursery crops producers and grounds maintenance staff have much more urgent matters to worry about than weeds. But, eventually the questions arise: Has my preemergence herbicide washed away? How do I know? Should I re-treat? What’s going to happen now? Unfortunately there is no way to provide definitive answers to these questions. But this publication offers some tips and suggestions that will help you plan a response.

Principles of Integrated Pest Management

By: Joe Neal, Wayne Buhler

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Joe Neal

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses the safe use, handling, and disposal of pesticides.

Pesticide Application – Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

By: Joe Neal, Amy Barker, Gary Roberson

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

Vertebrate Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Matthew Springer

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses control measures for deer, rabbits, voles, and beavers in the landscape.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Water Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of water damage in strawberry production.

Preparing Nursery Plants for Winter

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Helen Kraus

This publication for nursery managers and homeowners describes how to protect nursery plants and keep them healthy through the winter.

Grapes and Berries for the Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Gina Fernandez, R. A. Allen

This guide provides home gardeners with instructions for growing strawberries, blueberries, brambles (blackberries and raspberries), and grapes.

Producing and Marketing Strawberries for Direct Market Operations

By: Charles Safley, Barclay Poling, Michael Wohlgenant, Olga Sydorovych, Olga Sydorovych, Ross Williams, Ross Williams

This booklet provides an overview of production costs and marketing strategies that growers should consider when producing strawberries with the plasticulture system. A marketing survey conducted at pick-your-own farms and fruit stands in North Carolina provides the basis for recommended marketing practices.

A Step-by-Step Approach to Pruning Carlos Muscadine Grapevines

By: Barclay Poling

This review presents the key steps involved in pruning a mature Carlos vine for maximum production of top-quality fruit.

Using the PourThru Procedure for Checking EC and pH for Nursery Crops

By: Ted Bilderback Horticulture Information Leaflets

Every nursery needs to have someone who routinely checks Electrical Conductivity (EC) also called soluble salts, and pH of container crops, potting inventories and irrigation water. Checking EC and pH should be considered part of the quality control and scouting program in the nursery. Results from testing 3 to 5 containers in a irrigation zone each week can be used to schedule irrigation the following week. Comparing leachate solution collected from containers to water collected from irrigation nozzles provides a good insight into nutrient levels in the containers. Checking EC and pH of nursery crops grown in containers doesn't have to be time consuming, complicated or difficult. The intention of this article is to review the procedure and update growers on the Virginia Tech Extraction Method (VTEM), also called the PourThru extraction procedure.

Home Forcing of Potted Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflets

The Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) is a true bulb that originated in the tropical areas of South America. Thus, it is a tender bulb. It performs best when grown under warm (70 to 75°F) temperatures for 9 to 10 months to promote flowering and vegetative growth, followed by 2 to 3 months of either cool (55°F) dry storage or cool (55°F) growing conditions. The use of one of the latter conditions is required to promote reflowering of the bulb.

Home Forcing of Potted Paperwhite (Narcissus)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflets

"Paperwhite" Narcissus is one of the easiest flower bulbs for homeowners to force. Commercially, several types are available. Some cultivars (varieties) have pure white flowers while others have white perianths with light yellow cups. Paperwhites originate in the Mediterranean and are tender bulbs. Thus, they can be grown outside only in Climatic zones 8 to 11. Unless one lives in one of these zones, forced bulbs should be discarded.

Chapter 13. Appendix Contact Information

By: Barclay Poling

This publication contains contact information for the authors of The North Carolina Winegrape Grower's Guide.

Using Planted Habitat on Farms To Increase Insect Biological Control

By: David Orr, Michael Linker, Lisa Forehand CEFS Field Notes for Farmers

This special topic has three components: Part 1. Using Beneficial Insect Habitat on the Farm: An Introduction; Part 2. Evaluating the Quality of Commercial Beneficial Insect Habitat; Part 3. Beneficial Insects Attracted to Planted Habitat: Do They Contribute to Pest Insect Control?

Insect Management on Organic Farms

By: H.M. Linker, D.B. Orr, M.E. Barbercheck CEFS

Insect management presents a challenge to organic farmers. Insects are highly mobile and well adapted to farm production systems and pest control tactics. On organic farms, where the focus is on managing insects rather than eliminating them, success depends on learning about three kinds of information: Biological, Ecological and Behavioral information.

V. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Program Procedures

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides information on the Master Gardener procedures.

Introduction

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 1 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers an introduction to and overview of community gardening.

Appendix F. Social Media Policy

By: Lisa Sanderson, Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides information about social media, particularly Facebook.

Temperature and Dose Influence Phoma Macrostoma Efficacy on Seedling Broadleaf Weeds

By: Joe Neal, Barbara Shew, Rocco Schiavone

Phoma macrostoma, a potential biocontrol agent for turfgrass weeds, was isolated from Cirsium arvense plants in Canada and is being tested in other regions of North America for control of broadleaf weeds in turf. This research was conducted to investigate the effects of varying temperature conditions on Phoma macrostoma control of seedling broadleaf weeds. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers to compare the efficacy of three doses of Phoma macrostoma on two species, Senecio vulgaris and Lamium amplexicaule grown in 4 temperature regimes – 15/20, 20/25, 25/30 and 30/35°C (dark / light period) temperatures. These data suggest that high temperatures common in the southeastern United States should not be an impediment to activity of Phoma macrostoma efficacy, and may actually improve the control of some broadleaf weed species.

Treating Individual Containers with Herbicides

By: Joe Neal

Research has shown that up to 75% of the preemergence herbicides broadcast-applied to container nursery crops falls to the ground between the pots. As the size of the crop increases, the space between pots increases - -resulting in greater and greater percentages of the applied herbicide falling between pots. This factsheet covers how to apply preemergence herbicides to individual pots uniformly and accurately.

Mulches for Weed Control in Container Nursery Crops

By: Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

Various mulches, including fabric or organic disks, plastic pot-toppers, and organic mulches, have been investigated for weed control in containers. Advantages, disadvantages, and cost estimates, of using mulches in container nursery crops are presented.

Biathlon (oxyfluorfen + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Biathlon (oxyfluorfen + prodiamine).

Weed Control in Pansy Beds

By: Joe Neal

This article contains an overview of weed management practices and recommendations for pansy and viola plantings

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

The One, Two, Three's of Greenhouse BMP's

By: Doug Bailey

Each year, growers throughout the Southeast must face more and more environmental issues. Federal, states, and even local regulations are addressing concerns such as surface and groundwater contamination, water usage, pesticide usage, solid waste disposal, and energy consumption. Many of these regulations have affected and will continue to affect both business and cultural practices within the greenhouse industry.

Natural Learning Initiative Gardening Activity Guide

By: Nilda Cosco, Robin Moore, Muntazar Monsur, Bria Sledge, Mary Archer, Brandon Dupree, Matthew Babb, Eve Anderson, John Ring, Lucy Bradley

The Gardening Activity Guide is designed to expose young children to seasonal fruit and vegetable gardening in childcare centers. Based on the Preventing Obesity by Design (POD) model, the guide provides a resource for teachers to encourage children’s physical activity and outdoor learning through gardening and related activities.

Fuerte (flumioxazin + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fuerte (fumioxazin + prodiamine).

Drought Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of drought injury in strawberries.

The Calibration of Turfgrass Boom Sprayers and Spreaders

By: Wayne Buhler, Emily Erickson, Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Gary Roberson, Joe Neal, Fred Yelverton

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.

Weed Management in Lettuce

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Weed competition in lettuce reduces both yield and head quality. This cool-season crop faces competition from winter annuals as well as early summer weeds. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to control weeds in lettuce, including advice for lettuce grown with plastic mulch.

Pruning Field Grown Shade and Flowering Trees

By: Ted Bilderback, Kim Powell, R.E. Bir Horticulture Information Leaflets

Every nurseryman should know how to prune trees and the reason for the various pruning practices. Many landscape problems can be avoided if correct pruning is performed, while the tree is growing in the nursery. Incorrect pruning practices or lack of pruning diminish the quality of the plant material.

Good Agricultural Practices Fresh Produce Safety Plan for Field Practices

By: Diane Ducharme

This document was developed in workshops with North Carolina growers to provide a framework for them to develop their own food safety plans. Each grower's conditions are different. Some may find that th eplan does not adequately address their specific conditions. In those cases, the plan will need to be supplemented.

Home Forcing of Daffodils (Narcissus)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflets

Causing spring-flowering bulbs such as daffodils (Narcissus) to flower by other than naturally occurring conditions is called "forcing." This practice is carried out by commercial growers the world over. With a little care and effort, homeowners can have a steady supply of daffodils (Narcissus) from late December through April. Forcing bulbs should be a challenge to those who are interested in plants.

Controlling Sedges in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.

Site Preparation

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 5 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Garden Handbook, offers a step-by-step guide for preparing a new garden site.

Troubleshooting

By: Don Boekleheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 13 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers strategies for dealing with common gardening problems in a community garden setting.

Herbicide Dose Calculations for Landscape "Islands"

By: Joe Neal

This chart presents the grams of herbicide needed for circular landscape beds of various diameters.

Postemergence Herbicides Registered for Use on Woody Ornamentals

By: Joe Neal

This table presents information on postemergence herbicides registered for use on woody ornamentals.

Preemergence Herbicides for Herbaceous Ornamentals

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

This table presents information on preemergence herbicides for herbaceous ornamentals.

Frequent Hand Weeding Saves Money

By: Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

In container nurseries -- frequent hand weeding reduces cumulative weeding costs by an average of ~ 36% compared to weeding only before herbicide reapplications. Based on research conducted at North Carolina State University.

Biomass Production of Biofumigant Cover Crops - 'Caliente' Mustard and Oilseed Radish

By: Ryan A. Pekarek, Greg Hoyt, David Monks, Katie Jennings

A new group of cover crops for winter and summer use include mustards, oilseed radishes and turnips. When young, these plants resemble turnip greens, are very succulent and have a low C:N ratio, resulting in rapid decomposition when incorporated into the soil. However, if allowed to mature, bolt and flower, they produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time and become woody, resulting in slower decomposition than when killed at an immature stage.

Chapter 8. Pest Management

By: Turner Sutton, Jean Harrison, Wayne Mitchem

Grapes are subject to attack by many different pests, including nematodes, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, insects, and wildlife, such as deer and birds.Weeds, which compete with the vines for soil moisture and nutrients, may also be included in this list. Recognizing and understanding the nature of these pests is essential to minimizing crop losses.This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.

VII. Sources of Additional Information

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides additional information sources about the Master Gardener program.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy

By: Joe Neal

A table of efficacy rankings for preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and/or ornamental landscape plantings.

Sanitation – Start Clean and Stay Clean

By: Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

Sanitation is an under-utilized component of container nursery weed management. Nursery sanitation is a commitment to weed prevention and management throughout the nursery and throughout the production cycle. This publication describes strategies to prevent weeds from spreading into and within container nurseries.

Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops

By: Jim Owen Jr., Anthony LeBude, Amy Fulcher, Jane Stanley, Loren Oki

Monitoring leachate can be a helpful tool to successfully schedule irrigation and avoid the inefficiencies associated with over-irrigation. This publication, a collaboration between several states, describes irrigation scheduling and the factors that affect it, explains the concept of leaching and methods for measuring leaching fraction and how to use that information to schedule irrigation, and illustrates how to manage high salinity in irrigation source water through leaching.

Excerpt of Winged Wonders

By: Liz Driscoll 4-H Curriculum: Grades K-5

In this curriculum, youth will observe the wonders of the natural world unfolding in front of them by raising painted lady butterflies from larva through adulthood. Youth will experience the mystery of the butterfly life cycle while engaging in hands-on activities that explore concepts of insect structures and functions, compare insect behaviors and life cycles, and demonstrate the role everyone can play in environmental stewardship.

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