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1. Soils & Plant Nutrients

By: Luke Gatiboni

This Soils and Plant Nutrients Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook examines the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as the important role organic matter plays. The chapter discusses how to submit a soil sample for testing and how to read the report to apply necessary fertilizers.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

Plant Propagation by Layering

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

Vegetable Gardening: A Beginner's Guide

By: Shawn Banks, Lucy Bradley

This publication provides information about planning and maintaining a home vegetable garden. Topics include site selection, soil preparation, and pest and disease management.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Luke Gatiboni, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

By: Steven Frank, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This integrated pest management (IPM) chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook familiarizes readers with a systematic approach to managing insect and animal garden pests in an environmentally responsible manner.

North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook

This 21 chapter handbook covers research-based gardening information that helps readers be successful gardeners and good stewards of the environment. Chapter titles include: Soils and Plant Nutrients, Composting, Botany, Insects, Diseases, Weeds, Diagnostics, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Lawns, Herbaceous Ornamentals, Woody Ornamentals, Native Plants, Propagation, Small Fruits, Tree Fruits and Nuts, Vegetable Gardening, Organic Gardening, Plants Grown in Containers (Houseplants and Outdoor Containers), Landscape Design, Wildlife, Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening. Included also are a glossary and appendix topics: Garden Journaling, Pesticides and Pesticide Safety, History of Landscape Design, Permaculture Design, and Greenhouses.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Instructions for the Home Gardener

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

12. Native Plants

By: Charlotte Glen

This native plants chapter of the Extension Gardener Handbook defines the term native, why gardeners would want to use native plants, basic principles of gardening with natives and also reviews common misconceptions around native plants.

18. Plants Grown in Containers

By: Diane Mays, Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Julie Sherk, Mark Kistler, Joe Neal

This Plants Grown in Containers chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches gardeners about selecting appropriate plants and containers, and their maintenance. Both indoor houseplants and outdoor container gardening are covered.

9. Lawns

By: Grady Miller

This lawns chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews installation and care of turfgrass as well as management strategies for turfgrass problems. This chapter also reviews options for turfgrass alternatives.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

11. Woody Ornamentals

By: Lucy Bradley, Barbara Fair

This woody ornamentals chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews the types of vines, shrubs, and trees as well as proper landscape design, plant selection, planting, staking, and pruning practices. It also reviews common insect and disease problems of woody ornamentals.

Banded Woollybear / Isabella Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the banded woollybear, Pyrrharctia isabella, the caterpillar of the Isabella moth.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

15. Tree Fruit and Nuts

By: Michael Parker

This Tree Fruit and Nuts chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how to select, plant, and maintain home orchard trees. This chapter also discusses common problems and integrated pest management solutions.

Eastern North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Danny Lauderdale, Charlotte Glen

In eastern North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

How to Organize a Community Garden

By: Lucy Bradley

This publication covers the keys to a successful community garden of individual plots including forming a strong planning team, choosing a safe site accessible to the target audience with sunlight and water, organizing a simple transparent system for management and designing and installing the garden. Appendices offer a sample layout, sample by-laws, sample budgets and a list of resources.

Black and Yellow Garden Spider

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the black and yellow garden spider, Argiope aurantia, a common spider around residential homes.

What is a Bee Hotel?

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This is the first chapter in the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel. It covers the benefits of bees, pollination in cities and towns, and how bee hotels can support native bees.

White-Tailed Deer

By: Liessa Bowen, Christopher Moorman, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

This publication describes the habitat, food, cover, water habits and home range of the white-tailed deer. It also provides tips to improve the deer's habitat.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

4. Insects

By: Hannah Burrack, Matt Bertone

This insects chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will teach readers to identify insects, understand the value of insects in the garden, and recognize damage caused by insects. Guidance on minimizing insect damage is available in the integrated pest management chapter.

Take-All Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Cameron Stephens TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of take-all root rot in turf.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Acorn Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, and provides residential management recommendations.

5. Diseases and Disorders

By: Mike Munster

This diseases and disorders chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses how to keep plants healthy through cultural practices. The types of plant pathogens including: fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and parasitic plants are discussed. Strategies are reviewed for managing diseases using an integrated pest management approach.

White Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

2020 Top Performing Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars Across the Transition Zone and North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This factsheet offers information on the top performing tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass turf cultivars in North Carolina.

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in the Home Vegetable Garden

By: Inga Meadows, Charles Averre, Harry Duncan, Kenneth Baker

This publication describes ways to minimize nematode problems by employing several control measures such as a rotational scheme, resistant varieties and selected cultural practices.

Managing Backyards and Other Urban Habitats for Birds

By: Christopher Moorman, Mark Johns, Liessa Bowen, John Gerwin Urban Wildlife

This publication describes how homeowners can create backyards and other urban habitats that attract a variety of songbirds.

Glossary

The glossary for the Extension Master Gardener Handbook defines terms that are found in the text of the chapters.

19. Landscape Design

By: Anne Spafford, Michelle Wallace, Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create an environmentally friendly landscape design.

2023 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Landscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants

By: Christopher Moorman, Mark Johns, Liessa Thomas Bowen, Richard Braham, John Connors, Jesse Perry, Johnny Randall, Rebecca Vidra Urban Wildlife

North Carolina's native plants provide well-adapted food and cover for the state's wildlife. This publication describes how to develop a landscape of native plants that attracts a diverse mix of wildlife to your property.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Crapemyrtle Bark Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

Crapemyrtle bark scales are wide spread disfiguring pests of crape myrtles in landscapes.

Yellow and Black Flat Millipede

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow and black flat millipede, Apheloria tigana.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and provides residential management recommendations.

A Gardener's Guide to Soil Testing

By: Lucy Bradley, Deanna Osmond

This publication tells gardeners why they should test their soil, how to obtain a soil test and interpret the results and how to use the soil test to improve their soils.

Spiders in and Around Homes

By: Michael Waldvogel, Charles Apperson Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note discusses identifying spiders and how to control them indoors.

16. Vegetable Gardening

By: Chris Gunter

This vegetable gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explores the different types and techniques as well as how to select and implement a vegetable garden that fits the needs of the gardener. It explores seed selection, proper sowing, transplanting, and maintenance techniques as well as harvesting guidelines. The chapter concludes with a section on herb gardens.

3. Botany

This Botany Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses plant taxonomy or how to name plant, plant anatomy of cells, leaves, stems, buds, roots, flowers, seeds and fruit, and the physiology of plants including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and plant growth chemicals.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Green June Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the green June beetle, Cotinus nitida, and provides residential management recommendations.

Boxelder Bugs in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxelder bug, Boisea (Leptocoris) trivittata, and provides residential management recommendations.

10. Herbaceous Ornamentals

By: Toby Bost

This herbaceous ornamentals chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews the selection, bed design, planting, and maintenance of annuals, biennials, perennials, flowering bulbs, and wildflowers. It also discusses common insect and disease problems of herbaceous ornamentals.

14. Small Fruits

By: Gina Fernandez, Bill Cline, Sara Spayd, Hannah Burrack

This small fruits chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook reviews selection, planting, and maintenance of strawberries, caneberries, blueberries, grapes, and kiwis.

Tips for Effective Ant Baiting

By: Patricia Alder, Michael Waldvogel Household Pests

This Entomology Insect Note offers tips for baiting ants in an around homes.

Western North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll, Donna Teasley, Kerrie Roach

In western North Carolina, almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be successfully grown provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season, and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Includes a planting chart and calendar.

Butternut Woollyworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the butternut woollyworm, Eriocampa juglandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

2. Composting

By: Rhonda Sherman

This Composting Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain the benefits of and strategies for composting and vermicomposting.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

North Carolina Production Guide for Smaller Orchard Plantings

By: Nicholas Basinger, Janet Owle, Abbey Piner, Michael Parker

North Carolina’s climate and soils are well suited to grow many types tree fruits. This publication will focus on the three main tree fruits produced for market in North Carolina: peaches, apples, and pecans. In addition to these main crops, information on pears, persimmons, plums, nectarines, Asian pears, and figs is presented as they grow well in North Carolina’s temperate climate. These tree fruits require similar management regimes described in this publication.

Collard Greens

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

The Bees of North Carolina: An Identification Guide

By: Hannah Levenson, Elsa Youngsteadt

Identifying bees on the wing is known to be tricky. The Bees of North Carolina: An Identification Guide is a beginner’s resource designed to help quickly and generally identify native bees in North Carolina. Developed by experts at NC State Extension, it provides an overview of some of the most common groups of bees in the state. The guide will help users learn to recognize bees according to key characteristics and, eventually, according to their overall appearance.

Scorpions in North Carolina

By: Michael Waldvogel, Patricia Alder, John Vining Biting and Stinging Pests

This factsheet covers the type of scorpions found in North Carolina and measures to take to control them, both indoors and outdoors.

American Dagger Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American dagger moth, Acronicta americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Overcoming Seed Dormancy: Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflets

Seed dormancy is nature's way of setting a time clock that allows seeds to initiate germination when conditions are normally favorable for germination and survival of the seedlings. For example, dogwoods produce mature seeds in the fall, but conditions are not suitable for seedling survival at that time. Thus, dogwoods have developed a mechanism that keeps the seeds dormant until spring when conditions are favorable for germination, as well as, seedling growth and survival.

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Luffa are tropical, vining plants that produce large fruits similar to cucumbers. When young and small the fruit can be cooked and prepared like a summer squash. When the fruit mature, they have a rough, fibrous interior which is referred to as the sponge and is used to make a wide variety of products. Currently, luffa sponge products are most popular as personal care products and are readily available in the cosmetic and bath sections of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. This factsheet covers how to plant, harvest, and process luffa gourds in a temperate environment.

Muscadine Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Connie Fisk, Mark Hoffmann Horticulture Information Leaflets

Muscadine grapes are well adapted to the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, where temperatures seldom fall below 10°F. Considerable injury generally occurs where winter temperatures drop below 0°F. Muscadines have a high degree of tolerance to pests and diseases that makes the production of bunch grapes nearly impossible in eastern North Carolina. There is no other fruit with such strong personal associations for so many native North Carolinians.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Rainwater Harvesting: Guidance for Homeowners

By: Bill Hunt Urban Waterways

A rainwater harvesting system captures stormwater runoff, often from a rooftop, and stores the water in a cistern for later use. In this guide for homeowners, the authors describe the components of a rainwater harvesting system and how they work together. Guidelines for choosing, sizing and installing the components are included.

17. Organic Gardening

By: Aimee Colf, Lucy Bradley, Frank Louws, David Orr

This organic gardening chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook provides systematic approach to fertilization, soil, and pest management that views a garden as a working ecosystem.

Callery Pear: 'Bradford' and Other Varieties and Their Invasive Progeny

By: Courtney Johnson, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet identifies several varieties of the ornamental Callery Pear tree and their impacts on native ecosystems.

Milkweed Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mugwort or Chrysanthemum Weed (Artemisia vulgaris)

By: Joseph C. Neal

This factsheet covers the identification, distribution, and control of Mugwort (also known as chrysanthemum weed), an aggressive, perennial weed that spreads by persistent rhizomes.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

20. Wildlife

By: Christopher Moorman, Christopher DePerno, Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This Wildlife Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook teaches readers to recognize the value of wildlife in the landscape and how to create a suitable back yard wildlife habitat. It also examines wildlife challenges and strategies discouraging pest, game, non-game, and federally protected migratory bird species.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Blackberries for the Home Garden

By: Gina Fernandez

This publication is a home gardener's guide to planting, maintaining and harvesting blackberries.

6. Weeds

By: Kathleen Moore, Joe Neal, Lucy Bradley

This weeds chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses weed life cycles, how to properly identify weeds, and how to manage them using an integrated pest management approach.

Bee Hotel Design and Placement

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This chapter of, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, describes building materials and features of different bee hotels. It covers tunnel size, shelter, shade, orientation, navigation, and other features.

Harvesting and Preserving Herbs for the Home Gardener

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Herbs should be harvested when the oils responsible for flavor and aroma are at their peak. Proper timing depends on the plant part you are harvesting and the intended use. Herbs grown for their foliage should be harvested before they flower. While chives are quite attractive in bloom, flowering can cause the foliage to develop an off-flavor. Harvest herbs grown for seeds as the seed pods change in color from green to brown to gray but before they shatter (open). Collect herb flowers, such as borage and chamomile, just before full flower. Harvest herb roots, such as bloodroot, chicory, ginseng, and goldenseal, in the fall after the foliage fades.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Jumping Worms

By: Matt Bertone

This factsheet covers the description, biology, and management of the jumping earthworm, a common pest in North Carolina gardening.

Bermudagrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This calendar offers suggestions regarding management practices for all-season care of a bermudagrass athletic field.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Raspberries in the Home Garden

By: Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Raspberries are a delicious and nutritious addition to the home garden. However, raspberries can be difficult to grow in some parts of North Carolina. In the summer, the hot, humid climate of the Piedmont and coastal plain puts the plants under stress and can hamper growth. While fluctuating winter temperatures can cause injury to the canes thorughout the state. Despite these challenges, raspberries do well in the mountains of western North Carolina where production can last from June through early October.

2023 Pest Control for Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Lee Butler, Rich Cooper, Travis Gannon, Kurt Getsinger, Jim Kerns, Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This annual guide supplies information concerning pesticides that can be used for controlling pests in turfgrasses. Revised for 2023.

Backyard Composting of Yard, Garden, and Food Discards

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication describes how to build and maintain a composting pile to use the compost in your yard or garden.

Diseases of Cool-Season Turfgrasses

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Guía de Horticultura para Principiantes

By: Lucy Bradley, Shawn Banks

Esta publicación proporciona información sobre la planificación y el mantenimiento de un huerto casero. Los temas incluyen la selección del sitio, la preparación del suelo y el manejo de plagas y enfermedades.

Reptiles and Amphibians in Your Backyard

By: Christopher Moorman, Jill Anderson, Jeffrey Beane, Jeffrey Hall Urban Wildlife

As urban development continues to expand across the state, it is important that North Carolinians recognize the value of reptile and amphibian populations and learn how to conserve them.

Spicebush Swallowtail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Fishing Spiders and Wolf Spiders

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes Fishing spiders (genus Dolomedes), and wolf spiders (genus Lycosa).

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

Appendix B. Pesticides and Pesticide Safety

By: Wayne Buhler, Steven Frank

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will help readers to understand the impact of pesticides on our environment, know when to use a pesticide, how to read its label, and how to apply it safely and to understand the signal words and their associated levels of toxicity.

Choosing and Using Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Many herbal flowers have the same flavor as their leaves, though others, such as chamomile and lavender blossoms, have a subtler flavor.

Guide to Using Turf Colorants

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication offers strategies for maintaining green turf during the winter using turf colorants. It discusses considerations for using colorants, different product types for specific uses, application rates and methods, and cost to help you plan winter turf maintenance.

Building Songbird Boxes

By: Christopher Moorman, Liessa Bowen, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

This publication discusses how to successfully build, install and maintain nest boxes for songbirds.

Genista Broom Moth / Genista Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the genista broom moth that is also called the genista caterpillar and sophora worm—Uresiphita reversalis.

Tersa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tersa sphinx moth, Xylophanes tersa., and provides residential management recommendations.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Growing Asparagus in a Home Garden

By: Douglas Sanders, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Asparagus has been considered a garden delicacy since Roman times. Any home gardener can grow and enjoy this spring vegetable. Asparagus is a perennial. If you plant and manage properly it will produce for 15 years or more. Since this crop will occupy the land for many years you should select and prepare the asparagus bed carefully -- location, soil type, soil fertility, size and age of crowns and correct planting are important.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Manage Compost and Soil Contaminated with Broadleaf Herbicides in Residential, School, and Community Gardens

By: Bryan Luukinen, Samuel Cohen, Elizabeth Shapiro Garza, Catherine Kastleman, Rhonda Sherman, Lucy Bradley

This publication provides strategies for managing soil and compost contamination from persistent broadleaf herbicides by answering frequently asked questions related to plant symptoms, herbicides and their usage, and prevention.

Catalpa Worm or Catalpa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the catalpa worm or catawba worm or catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

Butterflies in Your Backyard

By: Christopher Moorman, Jeffrey Pippen, John Connors, Nick Haddad, Mark Johns, Jesse Perry, Liessa Thomas Bowen Urban Wildlife

You can attract the many butterflies found throughout North Carolina to your backyard by following the simple practices described in this publication.

Root Mealybugs

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of root mealybugs in the genus Rhizoecus including the ground mealybug, Rhizoecus falcifer, Rhizoecus americanus, and the newly introduced hibiscus mealybug, Rhizoecus hibisci.

Peonies for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflets

Peonies are long-lived, perennial flowers that produce large flowers in the spring. Colors include black, coral, cream, crimson, pink, purple, rose, scarlet, white, and yellow. Two types of peonies are grown in North Carolina: garden peonies (Paeonia valbiflora or Paeonia officinalis) and tree peonies (Paeonia suffruticosa). This leaflet covers the planting, care and maintenance and potential problems associated with growing peonies in North Carolina.

Options for Backyard Stream Repair

By: Wendi Hartup, Mitch Woodward, Bill Lord, Mike Burchell, Barbara Doll

This publication discusses strategies and techniques for stabilizing stream banks where erosion is an issue.

Eastern Gray Squirrel

By: Christopher Moorman, Mark Megalos, Liessa Bowen Working With Wildlife

This publication describes the habitat, food, water habits, home range and tree cover for the Eastern gray squirrel. Tips are provided for improving the squirrel's habitat as well as building a squirrel box.

Southern Pine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Songbirds and Woodpeckers

By: Liessa Bowen, Christopher Moorman, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

This publication describes the habitat, cover, food, water habits and home range of various songbird species. Also included are tips to improve the birds' habitats, as well as a chart listing the habitat of several species.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

7. Diagnostics

By: Mike Munster, David Goforth

This diagnostic chapter of the Extension Gardener handbook outlines a 10-step guide to diagnosing plant problems. It also helps gardeners recognize which plant symptoms are normal and which can be problematic, and how to determine if the problem is biotic or abiotic.

Bombardier Beetles and False Bombardier Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of bombardier beetles and provides residential management recommendations.

Minimizing Risks of Soil Contaminants in Urban Gardens

By: Luke Gatiboni, Carl Crozier, Lucy Bradley SoilFacts

This publication alerts prospective gardeners to some of the most common contaminants in urban soils, such as lead and other toxic metals, solvents, pesticides and total petroleum hydrocarbons. This will help minimize potential risks to gardeners and to those who consume garden produce. The document includes information regarding site characterization, common contaminants, soil testing, interpretation of results and strategies for reducing exposure risks.

Hummingbirds and Butterflies

By: Christopher Moorman, Liessa Bowen, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

This publication describes how you can transform your backyard into an area that welcomes nectar-seekers, such as hummingbirds and butterflies.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot in the Landscape

By: Michelle Henson, Suzette Sharpe, Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

Many ornamental crop species (including trees, shrubs, and bedding plants) are susceptible to diseases caused by Phytophthora, a genus of plant-pathogenic oomycetes (also known as water molds) that can persist in soil for several years. This publication rates common bedding plants, shrubs, and trees on their resistance to Phytophthora.

Common Insect Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Summer Cover Crops

By: Nancy Creamer, Keith Baldwin Horticulture Information Leaflets

There is growing interest in the use of short-season summer annual legumes or grasses as cover crops and green manures in vegetable production systems. Cover crops can provide a significant source of nitrogen (N) for subsequent crops; reduce erosion, runoff, and potential pollution of surface waters; capture soil N that might otherwise be lost to leaching; add organic matter to the soil; improve soil physical properties; impact insect and disease life cycles; and suppress nematode populations and weed growth. There can be potential drawbacks, such as cooler soils in the spring, and the additional cost of seeding the cover crop. These factors must be considered depending on the particular cash crops and cover crops being grown.

Rosy Wolf Snail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea.

Carolina Mantid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Carolina mantid, Stagmomantis carolina , and provides residential management recommendations.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Matt Martin, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Mourning Cloak Butterfly / Spiny Elm Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spiny elm caterpillar or mourning cloak butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa.

Crowned Slug Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the crowned slug caterpillar, Isa textula.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Red Shouldered Bug or Golden Rain Tree Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the golden rain tree bug or red shouldered bug, Jadera haematoloma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Palm Leaf Skeletonizer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the palm leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabalella, and provides recommendations for management.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

Asparagus

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda G. Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Kale

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Homeowner’s Guide to Managing Diseases Using Fungicides, Bactericides, and Alternative Products

By: Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

This publication provides homeowners with recommended chemical control options to use in combination with an integrated management plan for managing common diseases in the landscape or garden.

Biological Control of Pests: Questions and Answers for the Home Gardener

By: David Orr, Stephen Bambara Biological Control

This publication provides straightforward answers to questions commonly posed by home gardeners about beneficial insects.

Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Bedding Plants

By: Michelle Henson, Adrienne Gorny, Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe

This publication discusses the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of root-knot nematodes in ornamental plants.

A Gardener's Guide to Protecting Water Quality

By: Lucy Bradley, Deanna Osmond

This publication discusses ways that gardeners can protect water quality and avoid runoff and soil erosion.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Citrus Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, an insect pest of citrus and gardenia in North Carolina.

How to Create a Container Garden for Edibles in the North Carolina Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

In this publication you will find ideas to get you started growing your own edibles. Included are simple designs and potential settings for a single container, a small group of containers and a larger grouping of containers. The benefits and challenges of various planting options will also be explored.

Appendix E. Season Extenders and Greenhouses

By: Chris Gunter

This Season Extension and Greenhouse appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook. It reviews ways gardeners can can extend their growing season by protecting plants through cold frames, hot beds, row covers, high tunnels, cloches, and greenhouses.

Appendix G. Permaculture Design

By: Abbey Piner

This Permaculture Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain the benefits of and strategies for creating an ecologically sustainable home landscape.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Puss Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the puss caterpillar, Megalopyge opercularis, and provides residential management recommendations.

21. Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening

By: Lucy Bradley

This Youth, Community, and Therapeutic Gardening Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook helps volunteers understand how these types of gardens can be sucessful and the steps needed to be an effective mentor.

Appendix A. Garden Journaling

By: Lucy Bradley, Kathleen Moore

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook describes the value of garden journaling and different strategies a gardener may use to start one.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Buck Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the buck moth, Hemileuca maia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dollar Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollar spot.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Florida Fern Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida fern caterpillar, Callopistria floridensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bermudagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Saddleback Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Saddleback caterpillar,Acharia stimulea, and provides residential management recommendations.

A Small Backyard Greenhouse for the Home Gardener

By: Mike Boyette, Ted Bilderback

This publication presents plans and instructions for an easily constructed greenhouse that costs approximately $100 and may be used for many purposes.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Common Insect Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Periodical Cicadas in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim, and five other species.

Citrus Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sunflower Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma ellectellum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This collection describes how to design and build a bee hotel to support native pollinator species.

Giant Conifer Aphids

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant conifer aphid, Cinara spp, and provides residential management recommendations.

Giant Strong-Nosed Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant strong-nosed stink bug, Alcaeorrhynchus grandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Zoysiagrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Algae in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of algae.

Common Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Velvet Mites, Brick Mites or Patio Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of trombidiid mites— velvet mites, red velvet mites, large red velvet mites, brick mites, and patio mites.

Appendix D. Garden Tools

By: Chris Gunter

This Garden Tools appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook and gives readers information about common garden tools and their care.

Managing the Impact of Floodwater Contaminants on Soil and Produce in Residential, Community, and School Vegetable Gardens

By: Carl Crozier, Benjamin Chapman, Catherine Kastleman, Elizabeth Shapiro-Garza, Bryan Luukinen, Samuel Cohen, Steve Yang, Luke Gatiboni, Lucy Bradley

This publication discusses how floods can affect food gardens. In it, you'll find recommendations for preparing your garden before a flood, precautions to take after the storm, and how to safely clean up and replant after floodwaters recede.

Green Peach Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Gypsy Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and provides residential management recommendations.

Herbaceous Plants for Wildlife

By: Liessa Bowen, Christopher Moorman, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

This publication describes methods for maintaining and establishing herbaceous plants as valuable sources of food and cover for wildlife in North Carolina.

Yellow Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow patch.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Oleander Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Imperial Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Imperial moth, Eacles imperialis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellownecked Caterpillar in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellownecked caterpillar, Datana ministra., and provides residential management recommendations.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cream Leaf Blight in Turf

By: Jim Kerns, Lee Butler TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cream leaf blight.

Fall Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fall cankerworms, Alsophila pometaria, an insect pest of many trees in North Carolina.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

Pythium Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium blight.

Anthracnose in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of anthracnose.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Bumblebee Moth and Hummingbird Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bumblebee moth and hummingbird moth, Hemaris diffinis and Hemaris thysbe.

Rustic Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellowstriped Armyworm in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli, and provides residential management recommendations.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Rust in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rust.

Carpetgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Appendix C. Diagnostic Tables

This appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook includes tables to help gardeners identify common problems and management strategies for fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Barnacle Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the barnacle scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

Community gardens have been part of the American landscape since the mid-1700s. Today, community gardens continue to make positive contributions in neighborhoods across North Carolina. Winner of an American Society for Horticultural Science, Extension Division, 2017 Educational Materials Award, Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook is a practical guide to community gardening. Based on experience and research, it is packed with best practices, tested strategies, and useful checklists. The guide covers every step in the community gardening process, from starting a new garden to sustainable long-term garden management and policy. Whether you are new to community gardening or a seasoned veteran, Collard Greens and Common Ground will help your community garden flourish.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellowjacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Tall Fescue

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Controlling Mite Pests in Earthworm Beds

By: Rhonda Sherman, Stephen Bambara

This publication discusses keeping mite pests at bay in worm beds for vermicomposting.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

Azalea Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hickory Horned Devil \ Regal Moth

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, the caterpillar of the regal moth. Because hickory horned devils are harmless to humans and are relatively rare, no control measures are needed.

White Pine Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the white pine aphid, Cinara strobi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pales Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pales weevil, Hylobius pales, and provides residential management recommendations.

Persimmon Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Persimmon psyllid or persimmon psylla, Baeoalitriozus diospyri or Trioza diospyri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

Tall Fescue, Hard (Fine) Fescue, and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Grady Miller, James Kerns, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue, hard (fine) fescue, and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Disease and Insect Management in the Home Orchard

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach Fruit Disease Information

Homeowners who grow fruit in backyards or small orchards find that disease and insect pests often ruin the crop and in some instances damage the tree itself. This publication covers common diseases and insect issues in backyard orchards in North Carolina.

Horsehair Worm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of horsehair worms, Phylum Nematomorpha, parasites of cockroaches, grasshoppers crickets, and other insects.

Question Mark Butterfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the question mark butterfly, Polygonia interrogationis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hibiscus Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hibiscus sawfly, Atomacera decepta, and provides residential management recommendations.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Dogfennel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

Pools for Amphibians

By: Mark Megalos, A. L. Braswell, Christopher Moorman, Liessa Bowen Working With Wildlife

This publication describes the habitat, food and water habits, cover and home range of a range of amphibians in North Carolina. Tips on constructing and maintaining a fishless pool are included.

Cat's Ear Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cats ear dandelion.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

Controlling Sedges in Landscape Plantings

By: Joseph C. Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Uvas de racimo en el huerto de la casa

By: Mark Hoffmann, Barclay Poling Folletos de información sobre horticultura

Las uvas son agradables golosinas de verano que se pueden consumir frescas o en forma de jalea, mermelada, jugo o vino.

Dogs and Turfgrass Interactions

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley

This publication answers common questions dog owners may have about lawn care. Topics include what kinds of grasses to use in high traffic areas; how to deal with damage to lawns caused by dogs; dogs' exposure to pesticides; and why dogs occasionally eat turfgrass.

Blue-winged Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of scoliid wasps, including Scolia dubia.

Citrus Red Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Flatheaded Appletree Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the flatheaded appletree borer, Chrysobothris femorata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Green June Beetles in Turfgrass

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet describes the biology and management of Green June beetles (GJB), Cotinis nitida. The larvae can cause direct damage to turfgrass by feeding on plant roots and organic matter in the soil.

Annual Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Container Garden Planting Calendar for Edibles in the Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

This publication offers a guide to growing edible plants year-round in containers. Includes planting and harvest guides.

Bahiagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Melon Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Robert Baldwin Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Wool Sower Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the wool sower gall wasp, Callirhytis seminator, and provides residential management recommendations.

Weed Management in Perennial Production

By: Joe Neal

When it comes to weeds, “start clean – stay clean” should be the moto of every nursery manager. This is especially true for producers of herbaceous perennials. Although we can control most grassy weeds with postemergence herbicide; otherwise, we have few herbicides to use when weeds get out of hand. Furthermore, the herbicides labeled for use in herbaceous ornamentals are either safe on many ornamentals and do not control many weeds, or control lots of weeds but are safe on only a few ornamentals. Consequently, to manage weeds effectively a comprehensive nursery weed management program including exclusion, sanitation, preemergence herbicides, some postemergence herbicides and hand weeding will be needed.

A Gardener's Guide to Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans

This publication provides basic information on the nutrient needs of trees and shrubs, types of fertilizers to apply and recommended methods and times of application.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Azalea Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea caterpillar, Datana major, and provides residential management recommendations.

Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Kenneth Sorensen Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note describes the biology of the Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and provides management recommendations.

Southern Purple Mint Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the southern purple mint moth, Pyrausta laticlavia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Fairy Ring in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fairy ring.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Caladiums for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Caladiums are grown for their long-lasting, colorful foliage. Color combinations include various shades of red, pink, white, green, and yellow-green, with prominently colored midribs and contrasting margins. There are two basic types of caladium cultivars: fancy- and strap-leaved.

Appendix B. Examples of Master Gardener Volunteer Roles

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides an overview of Master Gardener roles.

NC State Extension Master Gardener℠ Program Brand Guidelines

By: Charlotte Glen, Lucy Bradley, Justin Moore

The appropriate uses of the North Carolina Extension Master Gardener name and emblem are covered in this factsheet.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Woodland Wildlife Nest Boxes

By: Mark Megalos, Liessa Bowen, Christopher Moorman Working With Wildlife

This publication provides information on constructing and placing artificial nesting boxes to attract birds and other wildlife to your property.

Landscape Irrigation Auditing Made Simple

By: Garry Grabow, Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix

This publication discusses how to ensure efficient supplemental water management to maintain turfgrass growth by evaluating irrigation system performance. Completing an audit of an irrigation system provides the information needed to set irrigation controllers to deliver the proper amount of water.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Matt Martin Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Meet the Residents

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

The second chapter in the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, highlights some of the common occupants of bee hotels in North Carolina and their nesting requirements. It also details the seasons when adults are most often active (foraging and building nests) and describes body sizes and tunnel diameters.

Basilica Orbweaver Spider

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the basilica orbweaver spider, Mecynogea lemniscata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Detachable Woolly Leaf Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the detachable woolly leaf gall wasp, Andricus quercuslanigera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rainbow Scarab

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rainbow scarab, Phanaeus vindex.

Black Onion Fly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black onion fly, Tritoxa flexa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Dimension (dithiopyr)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Dimension (dithiopyr).

Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Grady Miller, James Kerns, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Growing Edibles in the Landscape

By: Zhuowei Li, Lucy Bradley, Julieta Sherk, Anne Spafford

This publication provides three examples of edible landscape designs for incorporating edible components into a home landscape. Each design is based on the same 1/4-acre residential suburban plot.

Appendix 3. Plants that Produce Hollow or Pithy Twigs and Stems Used by Nesting Bees in Eastern North America

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

Appendix 3 of the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, provides a list of plants that create hollow or pithy twigs and stems that can be used as a source of nest materials for bee hotels.

Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf spot.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Interpreting Freeze / Frost Probabilities from the National Centers for Environmental Information

By: Natalie Nelson, Layla El-Khoury, Mike Boyette

This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.

Minute Oak Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the minute oak bark beetle or the small oak bark beetle, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cotesia Congregata, Parasitoid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of Cotesia Congregata, a parasitoid.

Leatherjackets and Crane Flies

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of crane flies, also called daddy-long-legs or mosquito hawks, in the genera Limonia and Tipula.

Harlequin Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Amber Snails

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of amber snails in the family Succineidae.

Whitemarked Tussock Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Broomsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Gray Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray leaf spot.

Large Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large patch.

Pythium Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root rot.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Hannah Burrack, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and provides management recommendations.

Cattail Toothpick Grasshopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cattail toothpick grasshopper, Leptysma marginicollis, and provides residential management recommendations.

The Pour-Through Extraction Procedure: A Nutrient Management Tool for Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

By routinely measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of growing media and irrigation water for container-grown nursery crops, growers can monitor nutrient availability and scout for problems. Learn how to use the pour-through extraction procedures as part of your nursery's quality control program.

Community Backyard Composting Programs Can Reduce Waste and Save Money

By: Rhonda Sherman

This publication describes how communities can develop and implement backyard composting programs that reduce the amount of waste in the landfill and return nutrients to the soil.

Globe Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of globe sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Yucca Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yucca plant bug, Halticotoma valida, and provides residential management recommendations.

2023 Sod Producers' Report for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication reports the results of an annual survey of sod growers in North Carolina to determine and track relative inventory levels and project price changes for the year.

Introducing Children to Insects in Childcare Center Gardens

By: Sam Marshall, Mary Archer, Lucy Bradley Local Foods: Childcare Center Production Gardens

This factsheet is a guide to introducing children to common garden insects in an early childcare setting. It includes age-appropriate activities for childcare providers to engage young children in identifying garden insects at all life stages.

Field Production of Nursery Stock: Field Preparation, Planting and Planting Density

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Field preparation using low-till practices, cover crops and soil amendments improves quality of both soils and ornamentals plants during production. Correct planting techniques and useful planting density scenarios are suggested. Guidelines for pruning during production are given so growers can create a niche by improving plant quality during field production of nursery stock.

Fine Fescue

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Managing Lawns and Gardens to Protect Water Quality

By: Deanna Osmond, Luke Gatiboni SoilFacts

The purposes of this factsheet are to identify several major pollutants that often originate in lawns and gardens, to describe the problems they may cause, and to outline some things that can be done to minimize their adverse effects on water quality. This information should benefit home gardeners, landscape developers, contract lawn care specialists, athletic field managers and others who manage soil to grow plants for food, pleasure, or profit.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Oak Shothole Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oak shothole leafminer, Japanagromyza viridula.

Larger Yellow Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the larger yellow ants, Acanthomyops interjectus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dogwood Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the dogwood sawfly, Macremphytus tarsatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hints for Fall-Planted Spring and Early Summer Flowering Bulbs

By: Kim Powell, A.A. De Hertogh, P.V. Nelson Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers guidelines on planning a garden and buying bulbs, as well as planting planting techniques to ensure healthy flowers.

How to Hire a Tree Care Professional

By: Lucy Bradley, Karen Neill

Proper tree care is an important part of a homeowner's investment. This publication guides consumers through the process of selecting and contracting an arborist. It provides several websites that list certified professionals and it advises what key items should be included in a contract.

Funding and Resources

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 11 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers information on fundraising, dues, and grants.

Brown Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of brown patch.

Spring Dead Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spring dead spot.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Witchhazel Leaf Gall Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the witchhazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis cornu, and provides residential management recommendations.

European Hornet in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and provides residential management recommendations.

Banded Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the banded sphinx moth or lesser vine sphinx, Eumorpha fasciatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dahlias for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflets

Dahlias, are a popular addition to the landscape because they have a wide height range (1 to 6 feet) and a variety of flower shapes and sizes (2 to 12 inches). Color range includes orange, pink, purple, red, scarlet, yellow, and white. Some flowers are striped or tipped with a different color. Dahlias begin blooming in early summer and continue to frost. Flower production may slow with high summer temperatures and moisture stress.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Diseases of Dogwood in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet compiles common disease of dogwood trees (Cornaceae) in North Carolina. It contains brief descriptions with links to reputable and more thorough fact sheets.

Appendix 4. Building Plans for a Simple Bee Hotel Shelter

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

Appendix 4 in the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, provides detailed building plans for constructing a simple bee shelter.

Snowy Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the snowy planthopper, Flatormenis proxima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Engraver Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the eastern six-spined engraver, eastern five-spined engraver, and southern pine engraver— Ips calligraphus, Ips grandicollis, Ips avulsus.

Pavement Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dealing With Snakes After a Storm

By: Michael Waldvogel, Sarah Kirby Disaster Recovery

This publication offers tips to deal with snakes, both indoors and outdoors, during the recovery process of a flood or disaster with strewn debris.

Corn Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

Blossom-End Rot of Tomato, Pepper, and Watermelon

By: Charles Averre, Paul Shoemaker Vegetable Disease Information

This factsheets discusses the symptoms, causes and control of blossom-end rot in tomatoes, peppers, and watermelon.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Arthropod Pests of Rhododendron

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This publication offers information on the various insect pests and their management in rhododendron.

What If Bee Hotels Aren’t Actually Good for Bees?

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This chapter in the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, responds to critiques of bee hotels and their impact on bee populations.

Cabbage Looper on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and provides residential management recommendations.

Walnut Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the walnut caterpillar, Datana integerrima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Elm Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm leafminer sawfly, Kaliofenusa ulmi or Fenusa ulmi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Witches' Broom Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pine witches' broom mite, Trisetacus floridanus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellow Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow scale insect, Aonidiella citrina, and provides residential management recommendations.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Orchardgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of orchardgrass.

Mugwort

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mugwort.

Goosegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of goosegrass.

Common Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline, Charles Mainland Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Insect Pests of Dogwood in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet compiles common arthropod pests of dogwood trees (Cornaceae) in North Carolina. It contains brief descriptions with links to reputable and more thorough fact sheets.

Lilac Borer \ Ash Clearwing Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the adult lilac borer, Podosesia syringae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Locust Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cabbage Palm Caterpillar or Palmetto Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage palm caterpillar, cabbage palm worm, or palmetto borer, Litoprosopus futilis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dogwood Clubgall Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the dogwood clubgall midge, Resseliella clavula, and provides residential management recommendations.

Peony Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the peony scale insect, Pseudaonidia paeoniae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Summer and Fall Flowering Bulbs for the Landscape

By: August De Hertogh, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Summer and fall flowering bulbs provide another dimension to gardening. They add beauty and interest to the landscape and, since most of them are tender, they offer a unique challenge to the gardener. There are a large number of different types of bulbs, offering variations in forms, fragrances, colors, and lasting brilliance which many summer annuals cannot achieve.

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.

Red Imported Fire Ants in the Landscape

By: James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to control fire ants in the homeowner's yard.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Gray Snow Mold in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray snow mold.

Summer Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of summer patch.

Red Thread in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red thread.

Prickly Lettuce

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prickly lettuce.

Hairy Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy vetch.

Common Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Blackseed Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of blackseed plantain.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Appendix H. Community Gardening Resources

By: Mary Jac Brennan, Susan Jakes

This appendix is part of the Extension Gardener Handbook and gives users to the tools to implement a youth, community, or therapeutic garden.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Hawthorn Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hawthorn lace bug, Corythucha cydoniae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Privet Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the privet rust mite, Aculus ligustri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Shining Flower Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the shining flower beetles, of the family Phalacridae.

Hickory Spiral Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory spiral borer, Agrilus torquatus., and provides residential management recommendations.

American Plum Borer in Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hemlock Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock rust mite, Nalepella tsugifoliae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Tufted Apple Budworm on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tufted apple budworm moth, Platynota idaeusalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Many organic vegetable farmers are interested in producing sweet corn. Organic sweet corn can be grown in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast, but special considerations for variety selection, insect and disease control, economics, and markets must be made for it to be a profitable crop.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Johnsongrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of johnsongrass.

Dallisgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Doveweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of doveweed.

Smooth Crabgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smooth crabgrass.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Nematodes in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Glenn Galle TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes in turfgrasses.

Giant Bark Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the of the giant bark aphid, Longistigma caryae, and provides residential management recommendations.

White Peach Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.

Black Thread Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black thread scale, Ischnaspis longirostris, and provides residential management recommendations.

Keeled Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Keeled treehopper, Entylia carinata.

Imported Cabbageworm on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Fall Armyworm in Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda., and provides residential management recommendations.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Creeping Bentgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of creeping bentgrass.

Crowfootgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Red Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red leaf spot.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Indian Mock Strawberry

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of indian mock strawberry.

Yellow Foxtail

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow foxtail.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

Bandedwinged Whitefly on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the bandedwinged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutiloneus).

Spring Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spring cankerworm moth, Paleacrita vernata, and provides management recommendations.

Pansyworm / Variegated Fritillary

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pansyworm, Euptoieta claudia, the immature stage of the variegated fritillary butterfly, and provides residential management recommendations.

Woolly Oak Aphids

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the woolly oak aphids, Stegophylla spp, and provides residential management recommendations.

Deodar Weevil / Eastern Pine Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the deodar weevil or eastern pine weevil, Pissodes nemorensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cottony Camellia Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Roseslug or Rose Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the roseslug caterpillars, Endelomyia aethiops, also called common roseslugs and American roseslugs.

Dogwood Eyespot Gall Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes dogwood eyespot galls caused by an ocellate gall midge, Parallelodiplosis subtruncata.

Native Elm Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mulberry Whitefly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the mulberry whitefly, Tetraleurodes mori, and provides residential management recommendations.

American Serpentine Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Red-Headed Flea Beetle Management in Container Nurseries

By: Danny Lauderdale, Steven Frank

The red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is a serious pest of broadleaved ornamental plants in nurseries. This document describes current knowledge of the pest and best practices for its management in nurseries.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Caring for Your Lawn and the Environment

By: Deanna Osmond, Grady Miller

This factsheet provides information on how to keep a lawn healthy and attractive and how to protect the environment by reducing runoff and trapping pollutants. Fertilizer facts and rates, a mowing guide, and watering recommendations are included.

Microdochium Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of microdochium patch (pink snow mold).

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Hop Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Horseweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of horseweed.

Red Sorrel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red sorrel.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Home Composting with Earthworms

By: Rhonda Sherman

Earthworms can turn food scraps into a soil amendment called vermicompost — worm castings — which increases plant growth and reduces attacks by plant diseases and pests. Vermicomposting is easy, involves little work, and can be done indoors or outdoors. All you need is a container, bedding, worms, and worm food.

Appendix A. Master Gardener Volunteer Position Classifications and Descriptions

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides descriptions of the various Master Gardener position classifications.

IV. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Program Policies

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines covers policies of the Master Gardener program.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Lesser Canna Leafroller

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the lesser canna leafroller, Geshna cannalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sugarcane Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sugarcane beetle, Euetheola rugiceps, and provides residential management recommendations.

Latania Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the latania scale insect, Hemiberlesia lataniae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Purplespotted Lily Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the purplespotted lily aphid, Macrosiphum lilii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chilli Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Ailanthus Webworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the ailanthus webworm, Atteva aurea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Asian Oak Leaf Beetle, Demotina modesta

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Asian oak leaf beetle, Demotina modesta, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellow Poplar Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow poplar weevil (also called the tuliptree leafminer, magnolia leafminer and the sassafras weevil), Odontopus calceatus.

Citrus Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Leafcutter Bees

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of leafcutter bees, genus Megachile.

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Food Garden Design

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 4 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses step-by-step methods for designing a new community food garden.

Slime Mold in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of slime mold.

Plant Selection for Extensive Green Roofs in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina

By: Wenyan Fu, Julieta Sherk, Joe Neal

This publication describes the evaluation of plant survival and vigor on 11 extensive green roofs in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina and provides plant selection guidelines for future green roof installations.

Nimblewill

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nimblewill.

Carpetweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetweed.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

Persian Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Wild Violet

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Maple Eyespot Gall Midge

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses the biology and control of ocellate gall midges, which cause red and yellow spots on the surface of red maple leaves.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Leaf and Sheath Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf and sheath spot in turf.

Potato Aphid on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae).

Appendix 1. Bee Hotel Checklist

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This appendix to the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, summarizes the best practices suggested throughout the document.

European Corn Borer on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European corn borer adult, Ostrinia nubilalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Common Barklouse

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the common barklouse, Cerastipsocus venosus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oak Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the oak treehopper, Platycotis vitata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Anomala flavipennis Scarab Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the scarab beetle, Anomala flavipennis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hickory Peach Gall Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory peach gall midge, Cariomyia persicoides, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rose Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rose midge, Dasineura rhodophaga, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Pest Management Calendar

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note includes a pest management calendar for pests of pine in North Carolina.

Juniper Tip Dwarf Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper tip dwarf mite, Trisetacus juniperinus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Low-Cost Habitat Improvements

By: Liessa Bowen, Christopher Moorman, Mark Megalos Working With Wildlife

The smaller habitats that abound on private lands and in many backyards can be enhanced using a variety of improvement options. Wildlife improvements can be simple, inexpensive and fun for the whole family. This publication discusses selected low-cost habitat improvements that will enhance food and cover for wildlife on private lands.

Soil, Plots, and Planters

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 8 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, discusses soil management in community food gardens.

Handling and Cleaning Up Damaged Pesticide Containers at Home

By: Michael Waldvogel, Sarah Kirby Disaster Recovery

This publication offers guidelines if a recent storm results in water damage to pesticide containers or application equipment in your home or on your property.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Centipedegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cylindric Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cylindric sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Dichondra

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

Common Lespedeza

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common lespedeza.

Buckhorn Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buckhorn plantain.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Magnolia Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Magnolia scale, Neolecanium cornuparvum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Needle Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pine needle scale insects, Chionaspis pinifoliae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Spruce Spider Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Parsleyworm \ Eastern Black Swallowtail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black swallowtail, American swallowtail, parsnip swallowtail, parsley swallowtail, celeryworm, caraway worm, and eastern black swallowtail, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redheaded Pine Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bald Cypress Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bald cypress rust mite, Epitrimerus taxodii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Elm Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm sawfly caterpillar, Cimbex americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Boisduval Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boisduval scale, Diaspis boisduvalii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oak Vein Pocket Gall Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oak vein pocket gall midge, Macrodiplosis quercusoroca.

Asiatic Oak Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chinese Praying Mantid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Chinese praying mantid, Tenodera sinensis, which are sold as biological controls.

Variegated Cutworm on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the variegated cutworm, caterpillar of the pearly underwing moth Peridroma saucia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhododendron Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rhododendron borer moth, Synanthedon rhododendri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Japanese Cedar Longhorned Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Japanese cedar longhorned beetle (also called the smaller Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, or the Japanese cedar longhorn)—Callidiellum rufipenne.

Redbanded Thrips on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbanded thrip, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Improving Lawn Care and Gardening

By: Luke Gatiboni, Deanna Osmond, Rich McLaughlin SoilFacts

This question and answer worksheet will help homeowners focus on potential problems with drinking water or other water resources that may be caused by improper lawn or garden care. Use and storage of fertilizers and pesticides, watering plants, landscape design and soil erosion are discussed.

Yellow Tuft in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow tuft.

Powdery Mildew in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of powdery mildew.

Pythium Root Dysfunction in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root dysfunction.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cudweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Large Crabgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large crabgrass.

Knawel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of knawel.

Common Ragweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common ragweed.

Sericea Lespedeza

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sericea lespedeza.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

III. NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Training

By: Lucy Bradley

This chapter of the NC State Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Guidelines provides an overview of Master Gardener training.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Imported Willow Leaf Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the imported willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolor, and provides residential management recommendations.

Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes Nantucket pine tip moths (Rhyacionia frustrana).

Octotoma Leaf Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the octotoma leaf beetle, Octotoma plicatula, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chestnut Brown Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the chestnut brown bark beetle, Pityogenes hopkinsi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Introduced Pine Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the introduced pine sawfly, Diprion similis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Palmetto Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the palmetto scale, Comstockiella sabalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Citrus Flatid Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Garden Fleahopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the garden fleahopper, Microtechnites (formerly Halticus) bractatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Megalodacne Pleasing Fungus Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pleasing fungus beetles in the genus Megalodacne.

Pittosporum Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pittosporum psyllid, Cacopsylla tobirae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Blackgum Leafslug Sawfly, Caliroa nyssae

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the blackgum Leafslug Sawfly, Caliroa nyssae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Brownheaded Ash Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the brownheaded ash sawfly, Tomostethus multicinctus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Strawberry Rootworm on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae., and provides residential management recommendations.

Potato Leafhopper on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the potato leafhoppers, Empoasca fabae., and provides residential management recommendations.

Forest Tent Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redheaded Ash Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded ash borer, Neoclytus acuminatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bunch Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Mark Hoffmann Horticulture Information Leaflets

Grapes are welcome summer treats that can be eaten fresh, processed into jellies, jams, juice or even fermented into wine. Grapes are adapted to many soil types, and can be quite long-lived. There are basically two kinds of grapes grown in North Carolina, bunch grapes and muscadine. Bunch grapes produce berries in large clusters, and grow best in the mountains and piedmont areas. In coastal plain areas, Pierce's disease kills or shortens the life expectancy of many popular bunch grapes. Muscadine grapes, exemplified by the Scuppernong variety and noted for having smaller clusters, are not affected by this disease.

Weed Management in Onions

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Most commercial onions produced in North Carolina are seeded in the fall and harvested in mid- to late-June. Weed competition can reduce onion yields up to 96 percent, and weeds must be controlled throughout the growing season. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options growers can use to keep onions weed-free in both wide and narrow rows.

Site Selection

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 3 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, offers community garden organizers insight on choosing potential sites for a community food garden.

Getting Started

By: Don Boekelheide, Lucy Bradley

This publication, chapter 2 of Collard Greens and Common Ground: A North Carolina Community Food Gardening Handbook, guides readers through several initial steps in starting a community garden.

White Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white patch.

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Wayne Buhler

This publication describes restricted-use pesticides, the safe use of pesticides and evaluating the potential for groundwater contamination.

Broadleaf Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broadleaf plantain.

Virginia Buttonweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of virginia buttonweed.

Cicadas in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada, an occasional pest of trees when laying eggs.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Pests of Pyracantha

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in pyracantha.

Juniper Webworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper webworm, Dichomeris marginella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redbud Leaffolder

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbud leaffolder, Fascista Cercerisella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Longtailed Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Beech Erineum Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the beech erineum mite, Aceria ferruginea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Lesser Cornstalk Borer in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dogwood Twig Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the dogwood twig borer, Oberea tripunctata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hyperaspis Lady Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Hyperaspis lady beetle, which feeds on the egg masses of scale insects.

Red Oak Clearwing Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the red oak clearwing borer, Paranthrene simulans, and provides residential management recommendations.

Phlox Plant Bug and Other Lopidea Plant Bugs

By: James Baker, Bob Blinn PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the phlox plant bug, Lopidea davisi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Ironweed Longhorn Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the ironweed longhorn borer, Hemierana marginata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Lantana Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the lantana lace bug, Teleonemia scrupulosa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bronze Birch Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius, and provides residential management recommendations.

Solitary Oak Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the solitary oak leafminer, Cameraria hamadryadella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Daylily Leafminer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the daylily leafminer, Ophiomyia kwansonis., and provides residential management recommendations.

Orangestriped Oakworm

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes Orangestriped oakworms, which are often noticed crawling about in August and September

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Fuller Rose Beetle

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Water Quality and Professional Lawn Care

By: Grady Miller, Raymond McCauley

Lawns are ecosystems that impact surface and groundwater systems. The grasses found in lawns clean the environment by absorbing gaseous pollutants and intercepting pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and sediment. Irrigation water properly applied to lawns remains on site to recharge water supplies. In addition, grasses release oxygen and reduce glare, noise, and summer temperatures. Proper management practices need to be developed and followed to protect this environment. The purpose of this publication is to provide you with management strategies to preserve and protect water resources.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Yellow Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Green Kyllinga

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green kyllinga and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.