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Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Seed and Seed Quality

By: J. M. Ferguson, R. D. Keys, F. W. McLaughlin, J. M. Warren

This guide presents basic facts about seeds, including how they develop, how to store and germinate seeds successfully and the factors that influence seed quality. It also summarizes the North Carolina laws that affect seed collecting and distribution.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, James P. Kearns, Rick Brandenburg, Dan C. Bowman, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It also includes information on grasscycling and integrated pest management.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

2021 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

By: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

This manual, updated every year, covers pesticide use and safety information, chemical application equipment, fertilizer use, insect control, chemical weed control, plant growth regulators, animal damage control and disease control.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Henry Wetzel, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Trellis Systems

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various trellis systems for blackberry and raspberry production.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

Comparison of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy, Jeffrey Lee

Italian honey bees are susceptible to two deadly parasitic mites, while Russian bees have shown promise in resistance to these mites. This factsheet offers comparisons between Italian and Russian honey bees.

The Honey Bee Dance Language

By: David Tarpy

An overview of honey bee dancing, a behavior that constitutes a language telling other workers the location of a food source.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and control of bacterial spot of peppers and tomatoes.

2021 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, Inga Meadows, Katie Jennings, Jim Walgenbach, A. L Wszelaki

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group offers this handbook, a joint effort among Extension Specialists and Researchers from 12 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, olericulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science. This handbook comprises up-to-the-minute information developed from research and Extension projects conducted throughout the southeastern United States.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

The Different Types of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

Honey bees, like all other living things, vary in traits such as temperament, disease resistance and productivity. The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies (for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops), but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop or bee production.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Damping-off in Flower and Vegetable Seedlings

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Michelle Henson Ornamental Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Red Thread in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red thread.

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

2020 Pest Control for Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Lee Butler, Rich Cooper, Travis Gannon, K. D. Getsinger, Jim Kerns, Grady Miller, Robert Richardson, Fred Yelverton

This annual guide supplies information concerning pesticides that can be used for controlling pests in turfgrasses. Revised for 2020.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

By: Jeanine Davis, Jean Harrison

This guide provides techniques for small-scale outdoor cultivation of shiitake mushrooms on logs. Tree selection and log preparation, spawn selection, inoculation, fruiting, pest and disease management and harvesting are covered.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Arthur Bruneau, William Lewis, L. T. Lucas, M. A. Powell, Rick Brandenburg, Ronald E. Sneed, Joseph M. DiPaola, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. The desired effects of trees sometimes make it difficult to grow turf. When trees and shrubs are used to provide screening and privacy, the reduced wind movement and sunlight often increase the chance for disease. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

Red Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red leaf spot.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Carl Crozier, Greg Hoyt, Michael Wagger SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Pruning and Training

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses how and when to prune blackberry and raspberry canes.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Apples

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.

Diseases of Cool-Season Grasses

By: Arthur Bruneau, Leon Lucas

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Organic Lawn Care: A Guide to Organic Lawn Maintenance and Pest Management for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen

This guide to lawn maintenance for North Carolina contains information on establishing a new lawn, maintaining it, and controlling lawn pests using organic methods. It also provides information on renovating an existing lawn.

Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth, and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting, and postharvest management.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Field- and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Minor Pests of Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet about Fraser fir pests covers white pine cone beetles, bagworms, gypsy moths, Botrytis shoot blight, sooty molds, fern/fir rust, Rhizosphaera needlecast, Annosum root and butt rot, Rosellinia blight and Nectria canker.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Cultivars

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, covers the characteristics of recommended blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the Southeast.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson, Rebecca Melanson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Cabbage and Leafy Greens

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Leyland Cypress

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers the growth, planting, shaping and pests of Leyland cypress, a popular Christmas tree variety.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Fire Ants in Pastures

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Michael Waldvogel, Wes Watson TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology, damage, and control of fire ants in pastures.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Christmas Tree Species

By: Craig McKinley, Dennis Hazel Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides a brief summary of the various trees often grown in North Carolina for Christmas tree production.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

A Simple Intermittent Mist System For Propagation

By: Ted Bilderback, Kim Powell, R.E. Bir Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sophisticated propagation structures are not always required to successfully root ornamental plants. Summer propagation of many woody ornamentals can be accomplished by rooting softwood or semi-hardwood shoots in inexpensive frames equipped with an intermittent mist system. During high summer temperatures, leafy soft shoots root more readily if structures are equipped with mist.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Dogfennel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for the Southeast

By: Mark Hoffmann, Patrick Conner, Phillip Brannen, Hannah Burrack, Wayne Mitchem, Bill Cline, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Cudweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Marengo (indaziflam) or Specticle

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Conducting a Bioassay For Herbicide Residues

By: Joe Neal

General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil.

Tunnel Production

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses growing blackberries and raspberries in high tunnels, semi-permanent structures made of steel pipe arches and covered with polyethylene plastic.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Hairy Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy buttercup.

Carolina Geranium

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina geranium.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the South

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno, Mark Hoffmann

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Princep, Simazine (simazine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).

Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses soil testing, nursery stock, and spacing for blackberry and raspberry production.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Brown Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of brown patch.

Hairy Bittercress

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy bittercress.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Barricade, Prodiamine, Regalkade G (prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Crushed and Liquid Ice Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.

Site Selection

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the benefits and limitations of selecting various sites to plant blackberries and raspberries.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Zoysiagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf spot.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Dichondra

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Grafting for Disease Resistance in Heirloom Tomatoes

By: Frank Louws, Cary Rivard

Learn about grafting techniques that growers can use to unite the disease resistance and enhanced vigor of hybrid tomato cultivars with the high fruit quality of heirloom varieties. The authors describe the benefits of grafting and provide a step-by-step guide to grafting tomato transplants, healing and acclimating them to growing conditions and planting them in the field.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Pests of Euonymus

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in euonymus.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Strawberry Viruses

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.

Chapter 4. Vineyard Site Selection

By: Barclay Poling, Ryan Boyles, Carlos Carpio

Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

Strawberry Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.

Selection and Care of Living Christmas Trees

By: Jeffrey Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

One of the more enjoyable Christmas traditions is to replant a living Christmas tree into your landscape after the holiday season. This article describes the process of successfully selecting, caring for and replanting a living Christmas tree.

Soil pH Management for Fraser Fir Christmas Tree Production

By: David Hardy, Luke Gatiboni SoilFacts

This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Carpetgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Nimblewill

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nimblewill.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Tall Fescue

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

Chapter 5. Vineyard Establishment

By: Tony Wolf

Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.

Segment (sethoxydim)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Onions

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.

Plant Growth

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the growth cycle of blackberry and raspberry plants for proper training and pruning.

Fruit Development

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the time from flowering to fruit harvest for blackberry and raspberry production.

Appendix 2. Fertility and Nutrients

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This appendix of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers more comprehensive information on soil nutrients and the signs and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies.

Suggested Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for North Carolina Medicinal Herbs

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication provides introductory information about growing and wild-harvesting medicinal herbs in North Carolina. The practices suggested here apply to all raw herbal plant material used to make herbal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods, and drugs.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Pythium Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium blight.

Pythium Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root rot.

Spring Dead Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spring dead spot.

Yellow Nutsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Prostrate Knotweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prostrate knotweed.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Bermudagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Peppers

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.

Needle Cast Disease in Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet describes the symptoms, life cycles and control of needle cast diseases in Christmas trees.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

2017 Top Performing Tall Fescue, Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Algae in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of algae.

Large Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large patch.

Doveweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of doveweed.

Goosegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of goosegrass.

Ground Ivy

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground ivy.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Interpreting Freeze / Frost Probabilities from the National Centers for Environmental Information

By: Natalie Nelson, Layla El-Khoury, Mike Boyette

This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.

Soil Testing and Interpretation of Results for Christmas Tree Plantations

By: Craig McKinley, James Shelton, Ray Tucker, Jeff Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides general guidelines for obtaining soil samples in Christmas tree fields, a summary of soil test result categories, and information for evaluating those results to develop an efficient Christmas tree fertilization program.

Southern Stem Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Sedgehammer (halosulfuron)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).

Goal, GoalTender (oxyfluorfen)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Goal and GoalTender (oxyfluorfen).

Preparing Nursery Plants for Winter

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Helen Kraus

This publication for nursery managers and homeowners describes how to protect nursery plants and keep them healthy through the winter.

Cyclamen Mites in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Tall Fescue & Kentucky Bluegrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Richard Cooper, Fred Yelverton, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Daniel Bowman, Charles Peacock, Cale A. Bigelow

This calendar of suggested management practices is designed to assist you in the seasonal care of your athletic field. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of field, previous management practices, and other factors affect turf performance. For these reasons, the following management practices and dates should be adjusted to suit your particular athletic field conditions.

Voles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of voles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Fairy Ring in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fairy ring.

Summer Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of summer patch.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Common Lespedeza

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common lespedeza.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline, Charles Mainland Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Henry Wetzel, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton, Cale A. Bigelow Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass grass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Algae and Moss Control in Turf

By: Arthur Bruneau, Bill Lewis

Infestations of algae and moss in the turf are associated with unfavorable conditions for growing healthy, dense turf. This publication offers control options.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of geotrichum sour rot of sweetpotato.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot in the Landscape

By: Michelle Henson, Suzette Sharpe, Inga Meadows

Many ornamental crop species (including trees, shrubs, and bedding plants) are susceptible to diseases caused by Phytophthora, a genus of plant-pathogenic oomycetes (also known as water molds) that can persist in soil for several years. This publication rates common bedding plants, shrubs, and trees on their resistance to Phytophthora.

Management of Phytophthora Root Rot in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom, Ron Jones, Mike Benson, Kelly Ivors Christmas Tree Notes

Phytophthora root rot is the only serious disease of Fraser fir Christmas trees in western North Carolina. This publication covers the symptoms of the fungus, how to avoid an infection and how to treat it if Phytophthora develops.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European corn borer in strawberries.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Surflan (oryzalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Surflan (oryzalin).

Ginseng Production Guide for North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication discusses the best techniques for growing quality ginseng. It includes descriptions and stages of growth, and information on general culture, site preparation and mulching.

SDI Considerations for North Carolina Growers and Producers

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans, Michael Dukes, Dorota Haman, Kerry Harrison, Ahmad Khalilian, W. Bryan Smith, David Ross, Phil Tacker, Daniel L. Thomas, Ronald B. Sorensen, Earl Vories, Heping Zhu Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.

Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Kerry Harrison, Michael D. Dukes, Earl Vories, W. Bryan Smith, Heping Zhu, Ahmad Khalilian Subsurface Drip Irrigation

As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.

Fertility Management

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses fertilization and soil fertility for blackberry and raspberry plants.

Harvesting and Postharvest Management

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers tips on harvesting and handling blackberries and raspberries postharvest.

2015 Turfgrass Pest Management Manual

By: Grady Miller, Emily Erickson, Dan Bowman, Rick Brandenburg, Travis Gannon, Jim Kerns, Charles Peacock, Robert Richardson, Thomas Rufty, Leon Warren, Fred Yelverton

This guide is designed to help turf managers identify the major turfgrass pests found in North Carolina and better understand their life cycles, symptoms, and biology.

Dismiss (sulfentrazone)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).

Cool and Ship: A Low-Cost, Portable Forced-Air Cooling Unit

By: Mike Boyette Postharvest Technology Series

This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.

Introduction

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers an introduction to caneberry (blackberry and raspberry) production in the Southeast.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Johnsongrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of johnsongrass.

Rust in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rust.

Copper Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of copper spot.

Yellow Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow patch.

Mole Crickets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the mole cricket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Dallisgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Parsley-piert

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of parsley-piert.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

Wild Violet

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Insect Screening for Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank, E. A. Shearin, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses methods and materials for insect screening in greenhouses.

Effects of Wind-Induced Sodium Salts on Soils in Coastal Agricultural Fields

By: David Hardy, Carl Crozier, Deanna Osmond, Diana Rashash SoilFacts

This publication provides information on the impacts wind-driven events have on the soil fertility. Salt water from storm surges, ocean spray, and tidal surges may increase sodium levels in coastal soils, which can be toxic to plants.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Leaf and Sheath Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf and sheath spot in turf.

Peach Cultivars

By: Dennis Werner, Dave Ritchie

The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize the specific characteristics of the cultivars released by the NCARS. A brief description of the important characteristics will be followed by a review of each cultivar in order of ripening sequence. Ripening dates provided are average dates calculated from years of observation at the Sandhills Research Station.

Shaping Virginia Pine Christmas Trees

By: Craig McKinley, Eric Hinesley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers how and when to shape, prune and shear Virginia pine Christmas trees.

Catfacing

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of catfacing, an abiotic disorder in strawberries that causes misshaped fruit.

Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).

Soil and Plant Analysis for Apple Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for apple growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Soil and Plant Analysis for Christmas Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for Christmas tree growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Using a Hand-Cranked, Hand-Held Spreader to Apply Herbicides in Container Nurseries

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Water Quality and Sprayer and Spreader Calibration

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas, C. E. Hartwiger, G. R. Taylor

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers, which protects water quality, is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. Pesticides applied with equipment that has not been calibrated may be misapplied by more than 10 percent. That may lead to repeat applications, damaged plants, excess cost, and contamination of the environment.

Carmine Mites in Stawberries

This publication covers carmine mites in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Broomsedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Yellow Tuft in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow tuft.

Damping Off in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of damping off.

Anthracnose in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of anthracnose.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Persian Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Common Vetch

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Common Dandelion

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Sureguard (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Insect Management in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg

Fortunately, most insects found in turf do not cause damage. However, those that are harmful to grass often escape detection until after serious damage has occurred. This document tells when to look for insect pests, how to detect them, and how to decide if control is necessary. This guide can be used in different ways. The calendar tells which insects to look for each month and suggests which insect may be responsible for a given problem. Once a specific insect is suspected, the detection guidelines can be used to actually find the insect.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

Red Bay Ambrosia Beetle and Laurel Wilt Disease

By: Stephen Bambara, Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the disease cycle and management of the red ambrosia beetle, which feeds on a fungus that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a generally fatal disease of red bay and other tree species in the laurel family.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Woolly Alder Aphid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the woolly alder aphid, a pest of both alder and silver maple trees.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Frost/Freeze Protection for Horticultural Crops

By: Katharine Perry, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Effective frost protection methods exist, however, each year, a portion of the state's fruit and vegetable crop is lost to low-temperature damage. This leaflet explains the principles of frosts and freezes and provides information on protection methods.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Chapter 2. Cost and Investment Analysis of Chardonnay (Vitis Vinifera) Winegrapes in North Carolina

By: Charles Safley, Carlos Carpio, Barclay Poling

Growing Chardonnay grapes, the number one vinifera variety grown in North Carolina, can be a profitable venture in certain areas of the state.The profitability analysis in this chapter, based on 2005 costs, shows that it will take an estimated $12,876 per acre to bring a vineyard up to full production in the fourth year.The vineyard would begin to yield $1,097 per acre in the eighth year, and the producer may be able to break even by the eighth year.

Chapter 1. Introduction

By: Barclay Poling

New and current grape growers will find practical information on site appraisal, establishment, and operation of commercial winegrape vineyards in the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication focuses on production of vinifera and hybrid wine grapes.

Chapter 7. Canopy Management

By: Tony Wolf

High-quality wines — those that command premium prices — can be produced only from high-quality grapes. Grape quality can be defined in various ways, but ripeness and freedom from rots are two of the chief qualities. Producing ripe fruit with minimum rot and maximum varietal character is not easy in North Carolina. As described elsewhere in this publication, the combination of climate, soils, and vine vigor often leads to excessive vegetative growth. For reasons that will be discussed, luxurious vegetative growth can reduce vine fruitfulness, decrease varietal character, degrade other components of fruit quality, and hamper efforts at disease control. Canopy management practices can help alleviate these problems.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Fumigant Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.

Tower (dimethenamid-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Tower (dimethenamid-p).

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).

Commercial Production of Staked Tomatoes in the Southeast

By: Kelly Ivors

This production guide covers all aspects of commercial staked tomato production--from varieties and transplants to site selection, cover cropping, production systems, fertilization, pest management, and harvesting. An online appendix of tomato pests includes color photographs to assist growers in identifying insect and disease pests.

Water Quality and Professional Lawn Care

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas, S. C. Hodges

Lawns are ecosystems that impact surface and groundwater systems. The grasses found in lawns clean the environment by absorbing gaseous pollutants and intercepting pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and sediment. Irrigation water properly applied to lawns remains on site to recharge water supplies. In addition, grasses release oxygen and reduce glare, noise, and summer temperatures. Proper management practices need to be developed and followed to protect this environment. The purpose of this publication is to provide you with management strategies to preserve and protect water resources.

Water Quality for Golf Course Superintendents and Professional Turf Managers

By: Arthur Bruneau, B. C. Williams, L. T. Lucas, Charles Peacock, D. C. Bowman Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

Follow the suggestions and BMPs described in this publication to reduce sediment and keep nutrients and pesticides applied to turf from contaminating North Carolina's water resources.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Scale Insects Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying scale insects in commercial flower and plant production.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Natural Oils and Acids

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of natural oil and acid herbicide injuries.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes and addresses how to control them in turf.

Centipedegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Fine Fescue

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Velvetgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of velvetgrass.

Dollar Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollar spot.

White Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white patch.

Hop Clover

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Knawel

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of knawel.

Prickly Lettuce

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prickly lettuce.

Spotted Spurge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spotted spurge.

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Common Chickweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Maple Eyespot Gall Midge

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses the biology and control of ocellate gall midges, which cause red and yellow spots on the surface of red maple leaves.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Basagran T/O (bentazon)

By: Joe Neal

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Basagran T/O (bentazon).

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided for strawberry crops.

Ronstar (oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Ronstar (oxadiazon).

Nematodes in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Glenn Galle TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes in turfgrasses.

Scythe (pelargonic acid) and Axxe (ammonium nonanoate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Scythe (pelargonic acid) or Axxe (ammonium nonanoate).

Hints for Fall-Planted Spring and Early Summer Flowering Bulbs

By: Kim Powell, A.A. De Hertogh, P.V. Nelson Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers guidelines on planning a garden and buying bulbs, as well as planting planting techniques to ensure healthy flowers.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Using the PourThru Procedure for Checking EC and pH for Nursery Crops

By: Ted Bilderback Horticulture Information Leaflets

Every nursery needs to have someone who routinely checks Electrical Conductivity (EC) also called soluble salts, and pH of container crops, potting inventories and irrigation water. Checking EC and pH should be considered part of the quality control and scouting program in the nursery. Results from testing 3 to 5 containers in a irrigation zone each week can be used to schedule irrigation the following week. Comparing leachate solution collected from containers to water collected from irrigation nozzles provides a good insight into nutrient levels in the containers. Checking EC and pH of nursery crops grown in containers doesn't have to be time consuming, complicated or difficult. The intention of this article is to review the procedure and update growers on the Virginia Tech Extraction Method (VTEM), also called the PourThru extraction procedure.

Pine Tortoise Scale

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet describes the life cycle and control of the pine tortoise scale, insects which accelerate the development of an unsightly black fungus on Christmas trees.

Weed Identification & Control Request Form

By: Joe Neal

Weed specimen submission form.

Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor).

Treating Individual Containers with Herbicides

By: Joe Neal

Research has shown that up to 75% of the preemergence herbicides broadcast-applied to container nursery crops falls to the ground between the pots. As the size of the crop increases, the space between pots increases - -resulting in greater and greater percentages of the applied herbicide falling between pots. This factsheet covers how to apply preemergence herbicides to individual pots uniformly and accurately.

Controlling Bamboo in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

There are many species of bamboo sold in the nursery trade, some more invasive than others. The plants spread by thick, tough, underground stems (rhizomes). These rhizomes are resilient to adverse environmental conditions and most herbicides. To control such aggressive weeds you must eradicate or contain the entire infestation. Bamboo control programs will require an intensive control strategy over several years.

Weed Control in Woody Plant Propagation and Containerized Liner Production

By: Joe Neal

This publication discusses best practices for managing and controlling weeds in container nurseries and greenhouses, focusing on woody plant propagation and containerized liner production.

Pesticide Application – Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

By: Joe Neal, Amy Barker, Gary Roberson

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Calibration should be performed using water only. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Critical Management Issues for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Dorota Z. Harman, Ronald B. Sorenson, David S. Ross, Robert Evans, Phil Tacker Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.

Appendix 1. Nematode Diagnostic Services

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This appendix to the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide presents contact information for nematode diagnostic services in the southeast.

Weed Management on Organic Farms

By: Nancy Creamer, Denise Finney CEFS

Organic farmers cite weed management as their number one research priority. This publication in the Organic Production publication series describes weed control strategies for organic farms based on weed characteristics and an integrated cropping system approach. A special section on cultivation practices that limit emerged and future weeds is based on research by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems.

Composting on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Jackie T. Greenfield CEFS

This publication describes the composting process, how to make compost that meets National Organic Program standards, and how to apply and utilize compost.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Low Investment Propagation / Winter Protection Structure

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Barbara Fair Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers the basics of constructing a propagation / winter protection structure in a quonset design.

Twolined Spittlebugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the twolined spittlebug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Gray Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray leaf spot.

Pythium Root Dysfunction in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root dysfunction.

Plant Selection for Extensive Green Roofs in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina

By: Wenyan Fu, Julieta Sherk, Joe Neal

This publication describes the evaluation of plant survival and vigor on 11 extensive green roofs in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina and provides plant selection guidelines for future green roof installations.

Cylindric Sedge

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cylindric sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Smallflower Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smallflower buttercup.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Large Crabgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large crabgrass.

Roundleaf Greenbriar

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of roundleaf greenbriar.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Yellow Foxtail

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow foxtail.

Dollarweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollarweed.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Fortress (isoxaben + dithiopyr)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Fortress (isoxaben + dithiopyr).

Pests of Pyracantha

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in pyracantha.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

Take-All Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Cameron Stephens TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of take-all root rot in turf.

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Strawberry Rootworm in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry rootworm beetles in strawberries.

Water Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of water damage in strawberry production.

Strawberry Crown Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry crown borer.

A Step-by-Step Approach to Pruning Carlos Muscadine Grapevines

By: Barclay Poling

This review presents the key steps involved in pruning a mature Carlos vine for maximum production of top-quality fruit.

Chapter 14. Glossary

By: Barclay Poling

This publication contains a glossary of the terms used in The North Carolina Winegrape Grower's Guide.

2019 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin)

Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin).

Snapshot TG (isoxaben + trifluralin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Snapshot TG (isoxaben +trifluralin).

Biathlon (oxyfluorfen + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Biathlon (oxyfluorfen + prodiamine).

The Pour-Through Extraction Procedure: A Nutrient Management Tool for Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

By routinely measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of growing media and irrigation water for container-grown nursery crops, growers can monitor nutrient availability and scout for problems. Learn how to use the pour-through extraction procedures as part of your nursery's quality control program.

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Weed Management in Lettuce

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Weed competition in lettuce reduces both yield and head quality. This cool-season crop faces competition from winter annuals as well as early summer weeds. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to control weeds in lettuce, including advice for lettuce grown with plastic mulch.

Preemergence Herbicides Registered for Use on Woody Ornamentals

By: Joe Neal

This table presents information on preemergence herbicides registered for use on woody ornamentals.

Christmas Tree Production Best Management Practices to Protect Water Quality and the Environment

By: Jeff Owen, Rich McLaughlin Farm*A*Syst

This question and answer worksheet for Christmas tree growers describes best management practices to minimize the environmental impacts of production. Farm roads, field borders and stream buffers, pest scouting, safe pesticide application, managing ground covers, nutrient management plans and pesticide storage and disposal are covered in this publication.

Weight-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Solid and Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

Fuller Rose Beetle

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Fuller rose beetle is a generalist herbivore pest of many ornamental trees and shrubs. These pests feed are primarily nocturnal and feed on leaves, although they are not often economically damaging. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Water Quality and Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

Although groundwater and surface waters are rarely polluted by turfgrass pesticides, turf managers should consider the potential for environmental contamination when choosing a pesticide.

Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy in Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

Efficacy of preemergence herbicides labeled for use in nursery crops and landscape plantings

Integrated Pest Management and Pollination

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 10 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, points users to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) resources for blackberry and raspberry production.

Beetles Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discussing identifying and controlling beetles in commercial flower and plant production.

Bugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different bugs in commercial garden and plant production.

Leafhoppers Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying leafhoppers in commercial flower and plant production.

Selection and Management of Efficient Self-propelled Gun Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Rhodesgrass Mealybugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the rhodesgrass mealybug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Hornets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hornets and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Crowfootgrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Powdery Mildew in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of powdery mildew.

Microdochium Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of microdochium patch (pink snow mold).

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Sandbur

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sandbur.

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

Pink Purslane

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pink purslane.

Wild Garlic

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild garlic.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Corn Speedwell

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

White Clover

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

Virginia Buttonweed

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of virginia buttonweed.

Buckhorn Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buckhorn plantain.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Landscape and in the Home

By: Steven Frank, Michael Waldvogel, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the brown marmorated stink bug, insect pests of trees and shrubs as well as homes.

Oldfield Toadflax

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of oldfield toadflax.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Controlling Sedges in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.

Bahiagrass

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Management of Adult Japanese Beetles for Commercial Nursery and Landscape Operations

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the management of Japanese beetles in commercial nursery and landscape operations. Scouting, monitoring and control of these insect pests is discussed.

Cypress Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cypress weevil, an insect pest of Leyland cypress in North Carolina.

Biocontrol in Closed Systems

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

Biological control is a tool to be considered in constructing an integrated pest management scheme for closed system crop production and maintenance. In a complete IPM program, diseases, weeds, and plant growth must be considered as well as insects and mites, but this note only covers insect and mite pests of greenhouse crops.

Are You Weeding Frequently Enough to Prevent Weeds From Spreading?

By: Joe Neal

How often are you weeding? Is it frequently enough to prevent the next generation of weeds? Many of the most common weeds of container nurseries flower and produce seeds within 30 days. Our research suggests that you should be removing emerged weeds every 2 to 3 weeks. This publication offers information on some common container weeds.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Pests of Crape Myrtle

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in crape myrtle.

Pests of Lilac

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in lilac.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Biomass Production of Biofumigant Cover Crops - 'Caliente' Mustard and Oilseed Radish

By: Ryan A. Pekarek, Greg Hoyt, David Monks, Katie Jennings

A new group of cover crops for winter and summer use include mustards, oilseed radishes and turnips. When young, these plants resemble turnip greens, are very succulent and have a low C:N ratio, resulting in rapid decomposition when incorporated into the soil. However, if allowed to mature, bolt and flower, they produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time and become woody, resulting in slower decomposition than when killed at an immature stage.

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.

Selection and Use of Stress-Tolerant Bedding Plants for the Landscape

By: Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflets

Each of us are subjected to stresses and pressures every day in our home, work, and living environment; plants are no different. Unfortunately, there is no "stressless" environment, and there is no totally stress-resistant bedding plant. Each site has its stress level and each plant has its tolerance level. There are steps that can be taken to reduce or avoid stress in the landscape. However, no program can prevent all problems, and the key to successful landscape color using bedding plants is to match the particular site with specific plant species.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Spotted Wing Drosophila in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Chapter 8. Pest Management

By: Turner Sutton, Jean Harrison, Wayne Mitchem

Grapes are subject to attack by many different pests, including nematodes, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, insects, and wildlife, such as deer and birds.Weeds, which compete with the vines for soil moisture and nutrients, may also be included in this list. Recognizing and understanding the nature of these pests is essential to minimizing crop losses.This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.

Chapter 11. Spring Frost Control

By: Barclay Poling

To grow more consistent crops and improve your cash flow in years with damaging frost events, this chapter will show you how you can: 1) identify an active protection system to protect your vineyard during budbreak and early shoot development, 2) use the basic principles of frost and frost/freeze protection to deal with complex cold protection scenarios, so that you use your active protection system(s) efficiently, and 3) operate the equipment correctly.

Chapter 9. Vine Nutrition

By: Tony Wolf

Grapevines require 16 essential nutrients for normal growth and development (Table 9.1). Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained as the roots take in water and as the leaves absorb gases. The remaining nutrients are obtained primarily from the soil. Macronutrients are those used in relatively large quantities by vines; natural macronutrients are often supplemented with applied fertilizers.The micronutrients, although no less essential, are needed in very small quantities. When one or more of these elements is deficient, vines may exhibit foliar deficiency symptoms, reduced growth or crop yield, and greater susceptiblity to winter injury or death. The availability of essential nutrients is therefore critical for optimum vine performance and profitable grape production.

Chapter 12. Crop Prediction

By: Tony Wolf

Crop prediction or estimation is the process of projecting as accurately as possible the quantity of crop that will be harvested. Why estimate the crop? The most obvious reason is to know how much crop will be present for sale or utilization. Beyond that fundamental reason, it is also important to know whether vines are undercropped or overcropped. In the absence of methodical crop estimations, the experienced grower can rely on past vineyard performance.This approach is subject to error, however, especially in grape regions subject to spring frosts or winter injury, which can greatly affect a vineyard’s productivity from year to year.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Lontrel (clopyralid)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Lontrel (clopyralid).

Frequent Hand Weeding Saves Money

By: Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

In container nurseries -- frequent hand weeding reduces cumulative weeding costs by an average of ~ 36% compared to weeding only before herbicide reapplications. Based on research conducted at North Carolina State University.

Mulches for Weed Control in Container Nursery Crops

By: Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

Various mulches, including fabric or organic disks, plastic pot-toppers, and organic mulches, have been investigated for weed control in containers. Advantages, disadvantages, and cost estimates, of using mulches in container nursery crops are presented.

Cottony Maple Leaf Scale

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony maple leaf scale, an insect pest that feeds primarily on maple and dogwoods in North Carolina.

Weed Management in Onions

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Most commercial onions produced in North Carolina are seeded in the fall and harvested in mid- to late-June. Weed competition can reduce onion yields up to 96 percent, and weeds must be controlled throughout the growing season. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options growers can use to keep onions weed-free in both wide and narrow rows.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.