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Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Trellis Systems

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various trellis systems for blackberry and raspberry production.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Yellow and Black Flat Millipede

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellow and black flat millipede, Apheloria tigana.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Phorid Flies

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Phorid flies are small flies that breed in moist, decaying organic matter and can be a problem in and around homes. This factsheet covers their identification, biology, habits, management and control.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Damping-off in Flower and Vegetable Seedlings

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Michelle Henson Ornamental Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

Forest Tent Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, and provides residential management recommendations.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Green June Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the green June beetle, Cotinus nitida, and provides residential management recommendations.

2023 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, M.B. Bertucci, T.R. Bilbo, Katie Jennings, Inga Meadows, C. Rodrigues, Jim Walgenbach, A. L Wszelaki

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group (SEVEW) is proud to offer you the 24th edition of the Southeastern U.S. 2023 Vegetable Crop Handbook. For this edition, we have partnered with Great American Media. We are excited about this continued partnership and look forward to working with Great American Media as we provide growers, crop advisers, county educators, Extension agents, and specialists throughout the southeastern United States with this handbook. This handbook represents a joint effort among Extension specialists and researchers from 14 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, food safety, olericulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science.

Boxelder Bugs in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the boxelder bug, Boisea (Leptocoris) trivittata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Catalpa Worm or Catalpa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the catalpa worm or catawba worm or catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Callery Pear: 'Bradford' and Other Varieties and Their Invasive Progeny

By: Courtney Smith, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet identifies several varieties of the ornamental Callery Pear tree and their impacts on native ecosystems.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

2022 Top Performing Tall Fescue, Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescue Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This factsheet offers information on the top-performing tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue turf cultivars in North Carolina.

2023 Pest Control for Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Lee Butler, Rich Cooper, Travis Gannon, Kurt Getsinger, Jim Kerns, Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This annual guide supplies information concerning pesticides that can be used for controlling pests in turfgrasses. Revised for 2023.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

The Honey Bee Dance Language

By: David Tarpy

An overview of honey bee dancing, a behavior that constitutes a language telling other workers the location of a food source.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

Prevention and Management of Frost Injury in Wine Grapes

By: Mark Hoffmann, David Lockwood, Barclay Poling

This factsheet provides recommended practices and management strategies for protecting wine grapes from spring frost damage.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

The Different Types of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

Honey bees, like all other living things, vary in traits such as temperament, disease resistance and productivity. The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies (for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops), but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop or bee production.

Wild Violet

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

Comparison of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy, Jeffrey Lee

Italian honey bees are susceptible to two deadly parasitic mites, while Russian bees have shown promise in resistance to these mites. This factsheet offers comparisons between Italian and Russian honey bees.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Luke Gatiboni, Chris Reberg-Horton SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Bermudagrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This calendar offers suggestions regarding management practices for all-season care of a bermudagrass athletic field.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Hairy Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy buttercup.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Corn Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

Bee Hotel Design and Placement

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This chapter of, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, describes building materials and features of different bee hotels. It covers tunnel size, shelter, shade, orientation, navigation, and other features.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Common Insect Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Field- and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.

Fire Ants in Pastures

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Michael Waldvogel, Wes Watson TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology, damage, and control of fire ants in pastures.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

American Dagger Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the American dagger moth, Acronicta americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Wool Sower Gall Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the wool sower gall wasp, Callirhytis seminator, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Mourning Cloak Butterfly / Spiny Elm Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spiny elm caterpillar or mourning cloak butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Matt Martin, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Root Mealybugs

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of root mealybugs in the genus Rhizoecus including the ground mealybug, Rhizoecus falcifer, Rhizoecus americanus, and the newly introduced hibiscus mealybug, Rhizoecus hibisci.

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Algae in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of algae.

Southern Blight of Tomato and Pepper

By: Inga Meadows, Amanda Scherer, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses Southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomato and pepper, and several other economically important crops, including bean, cantaloupe, carrot, pepper, potato, sweetpotato, and watermelons.

Jumping Worms

By: Matt Bertone

This factsheet covers the description, biology, and management of the jumping earthworm, a common pest in North Carolina gardening.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

Carolina Geranium

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina geranium.

Pruning and Training

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses how and when to prune blackberry and raspberry canes.

Dogfennel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Buck Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the buck moth, Hemileuca maia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and control of bacterial spot of peppers and tomatoes.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Leyland Cypress

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers the growth, planting, shaping and pests of Leyland cypress, a popular Christmas tree variety.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Home Lawn Calendar

By: Grady Miller, James Kerns, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

Recommended maintenance practices for a lawn that consists of a blend of tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass are the same as those for a tall fescue lawn. The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year.

Persian Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Bermudagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Anthracnose of Pepper

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose of pepper.

Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Kenneth Sorensen Entomology Insect Notes

This insect note describes the biology of the Granulate (Asian) Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and provides management recommendations.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Verticillium Wilt of Tomato and Eggplant

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet is a brief description of Verticillium wilt of tomato and eggplant. Symptoms, causal agent, and management are included.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Apples

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the South

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno, Mark Hoffmann

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Tersa Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the tersa sphinx moth, Xylophanes tersa., and provides residential management recommendations.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Spring Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the spring cankerworm moth, Paleacrita vernata, and provides management recommendations.

Whitemarked Tussock Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Conducting a Bioassay For Herbicide Residues

By: Joe Neal

General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil.

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Cabbage and Leafy Greens

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Azalea Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea caterpillar, Datana major, and provides residential management recommendations.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Common Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Rosy Wolf Snail

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Zoysiagrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Dominic Reisig, Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Jim Walgenbach, Sara Villani, Meredith Favre, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Hannah Burrack, L.J. Kraft

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Collar Rot and Alternaria Stem Canker of Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses collar rot and Alternaria stem canker of tomato, which are caused by different species of fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria. Both pathogens can cause large, irregularly shaped stem lesions with pronounced concentric rings. However, the concentric rings may not always be pronounced with collar rot.

Christmas Tree Species

By: Craig McKinley, Dennis Hazel Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides a brief summary of the various trees often grown in North Carolina for Christmas tree production.

Brown Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of brown patch.

Genista Broom Moth / Genista Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the genista broom moth that is also called the genista caterpillar and sophora worm—Uresiphita reversalis.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Parsley-piert

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of parsley-piert.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

Leatherjackets and Crane Flies

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of crane flies, also called daddy-long-legs or mosquito hawks, in the genera Limonia and Tipula.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth, and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting, and postharvest management.

Yellowstriped Armyworm in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli, and provides residential management recommendations.

Mugwort or Chrysanthemum Weed (Artemisia vulgaris)

By: Joseph C. Neal

This factsheet covers the identification, distribution, and control of Mugwort (also known as chrysanthemum weed), an aggressive, perennial weed that spreads by persistent rhizomes.

Princep, Simazine (simazine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Orchardgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of orchardgrass.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Goosegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of goosegrass.

Diseases of Cool-Season Turfgrasses

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Bahiagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

Selection and Care of Living Christmas Trees

By: Jeffrey Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

One of the more enjoyable Christmas traditions is to replant a living Christmas tree into your landscape after the holiday season. This article describes the process of successfully selecting, caring for and replanting a living Christmas tree.

Sureguard (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).

Organic Lawn Care: A Guide to Organic Lawn Maintenance and Pest Management for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen

This guide to lawn maintenance for North Carolina contains information on establishing a new lawn, maintaining it, and controlling lawn pests using organic methods. It also provides information on renovating an existing lawn.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Take-All Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Cameron Stephens TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of take-all root rot in turf.

Puss Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the puss caterpillar, Megalopyge opercularis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Red Shouldered Bug or Golden Rain Tree Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the golden rain tree bug or red shouldered bug, Jadera haematoloma, and provides residential management recommendations.

Yellownecked Caterpillar in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yellownecked caterpillar, Datana ministra., and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Dichondra

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Tall Fescue

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Common Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Dogs and Turfgrass Interactions

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley

This publication answers common questions dog owners may have about lawn care. Topics include what kinds of grasses to use in high traffic areas; how to deal with damage to lawns caused by dogs; dogs' exposure to pesticides; and why dogs occasionally eat turfgrass.

Lease Considerations for Landowners and Farmers

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication covers the basics of leasing land for farming operations, from both a landowner and tenant perspective.

Pavement Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Large Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large patch.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Mummy Berry Disease of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Lena Wilson Fruit Disease Information

This publication describes the signs, symptoms and disease cycle of Mummy berry, a fungal disease of blueberry species. Recommendations for best management practices are included.

Leafcutter Bees

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of leafcutter bees, genus Megachile.

Carpetgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Florida Fern Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida fern caterpillar, Callopistria floridensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Southern Pine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes and gives the biology and management of the Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis.

Yellow Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow patch.

Florida Predatory Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Florida predatory stink bug, Euthyrhynchus floridanus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Imperial Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Imperial moth, Eacles imperialis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Saddleback Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Saddleback caterpillar,Acharia stimulea, and provides residential management recommendations.

Segment (sethoxydim)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).

Fruit Development

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the time from flowering to fruit harvest for blackberry and raspberry production.

Rough Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rough bluegrass.

Disease and Nematode Management

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Adrienne Gorny

This publication, chapter 8 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses disease management in soybean production.

Annual Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Hickory Horned Devil \ Regal Moth

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, the caterpillar of the regal moth. Because hickory horned devils are harmless to humans and are relatively rare, no control measures are needed.

Velvet Mites, Brick Mites or Patio Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of trombidiid mites— velvet mites, red velvet mites, large red velvet mites, brick mites, and patio mites.

Management of Phytophthora Root Rot in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom, Ron Jones, Mike Benson, Kelly Ivors Christmas Tree Notes

Phytophthora root rot is the only serious disease of Fraser fir Christmas trees in western North Carolina. This publication covers the symptoms of the fungus, how to avoid an infection and how to treat it if Phytophthora develops.

Goal, GoalTender (oxyfluorfen)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Goal and GoalTender (oxyfluorfen).

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Peppers

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.

Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf spot.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Fern Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the fern scale, Pinnaspis aspidistrae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dismiss (sulfentrazone)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Onions

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Azalea Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides, and provides residential management recommendations.

Palm Leaf Skeletonizer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the palm leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabalella, and provides recommendations for management.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).

Dollar Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollar spot.

Cudweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Cultivars

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, covers the characteristics of recommended blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the Southeast.

Chlorination and Postharvest Disease Control

By: Mike Boyette, Dave Ritchie, S. J. Carballo, Sylvia Blankenship, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Technology Series

At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Matt Martin Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Yucca Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the yucca plant bug, Halticotoma valida, and provides residential management recommendations.

Hibiscus Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the hibiscus sawfly, Atomacera decepta, and provides residential management recommendations.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Hairy Bittercress

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy bittercress.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Elm Zigzag Sawfly

By: Kelly Oten, Matt Bertone Invasive Forest Pests

The elm zigzag sawfly is an invasive species first reported in North America in 2020. This fact sheet details what is known about its biology, identification, and management.

Sedgehammer (halosulfuron)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Citrus Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, an insect pest of citrus and gardenia in North Carolina.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

Interpreting Freeze / Frost Probabilities from the National Centers for Environmental Information

By: Natalie Nelson, Layla El-Khoury, Mike Boyette

This publication discusses how to find information about frost and freeze probability data in North Carolina and how to use these resources to make planting and harvesting decisions.

Common Insect Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Green Peach Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and provides residential management recommendations.

2023 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management Guide

By: D.F. Ritchie, J.F. Walgenbach, W.E. Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Soil pH Management for Fraser Fir Christmas Tree Production

By: David Hardy, Luke Gatiboni SoilFacts

This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.

Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a glyphosate herbicide injury.

Red Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red leaf spot.

Hop Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Marengo (indaziflam) or Specticle

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

The Pour-Through Extraction Procedure: A Nutrient Management Tool for Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

By routinely measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of growing media and irrigation water for container-grown nursery crops, growers can monitor nutrient availability and scout for problems. Learn how to use the pour-through extraction procedures as part of your nursery's quality control program.

Crushed and Liquid Ice Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Cat's Ear Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cats ear dandelion.

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Snowy Planthopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the snowy planthopper, Flatormenis proxima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Sunflower Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma ellectellum, and provides residential management recommendations.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Fine Fescue

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Pythium Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium blight.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Ronstar (oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Ronstar (oxadiazon).

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot in the Landscape

By: Michelle Henson, Suzette Sharpe, Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

Many ornamental crop species (including trees, shrubs, and bedding plants) are susceptible to diseases caused by Phytophthora, a genus of plant-pathogenic oomycetes (also known as water molds) that can persist in soil for several years. This publication rates common bedding plants, shrubs, and trees on their resistance to Phytophthora.

Witchhazel Leaf Gall Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the witchhazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis cornu, and provides residential management recommendations.

Citrus Mealybug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cottony Camellia Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, and provides residential management recommendations.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

White Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white patch.

Carpetweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetweed.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Barricade, Prodiamine, Resolute, Regalkade G (prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

Fall Cankerworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fall cankerworms, Alsophila pometaria, an insect pest of many trees in North Carolina.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Creeping Bentgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of creeping bentgrass.

Fairy Ring in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fairy ring.

Pythium Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root rot.

Smallflower Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smallflower buttercup.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Harlequin Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Using a Hand-Cranked, Hand-Held Spreader to Apply Herbicides in Container Nurseries

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline, Charles Mainland Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Asian Longhorned Beetle

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive forest pest in the United States.

Black Thread Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the black thread scale, Ischnaspis longirostris, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rhododendron Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rhododendron borer moth, Synanthedon rhododendri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Redheaded Ash Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redheaded ash borer, Neoclytus acuminatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Minor Pests of Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet about Fraser fir pests covers white pine cone beetles, bagworms, gypsy moths, Botrytis shoot blight, sooty molds, fern/fir rust, Rhizosphaera needlecast, Annosum root and butt rot, Rosellinia blight and Nectria canker.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

White Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Scythe (pelargonic acid) and Axxe (ammonium nonanoate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Scythe (pelargonic acid) or Axxe (ammonium nonanoate).

Getting Data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Using R

By: Sheila Saia, Natalie Nelson, Jason Ward

This publication provides information and guidance on using computer code to access the National Agricultural Statistics Service's survey data to view data from multiple years, crops, and other categories.

Gypsy Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and provides residential management recommendations.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Preparing Nursery Plants for Winter

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Helen Kraus, S.A. White, M. Chappell, J. Owen

This publication for nursery managers and homeowners describes how to protect nursery plants and keep them healthy through the winter.

Anthracnose in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of anthracnose.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Horticultural Oils for Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet covers the use of horticultural oils to control insects on plants in North Carolina.

Blue-winged Wasp

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of scoliid wasps, including Scolia dubia.

White Peach Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This PDIC factsheet describes the biology and management of the white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.

Question Mark Butterfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the question mark butterfly, Polygonia interrogationis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Fertility Management

By: John Havlin, Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt

This publication, chapter 11 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses fertilization and soil fertility for blackberry and raspberry plants.

Broomsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Pink Purslane

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pink purslane.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Landscape Management Calendar

By: Barbara Fair, Steven Frank, Matt Martin, Grady Miller, Joe Neal

This poster-sized landscape management calendar is a guide to keeping your landscape healthy with sound management practices. It discusses proper establishment and maintenance practices as well as monitoring and targeted treatment of pests.

Present Use Value: Transferring Property Enrolled in Present Use Value Property Taxation

By: Robert Andrew Branan, Rajan Parajuli Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication provides an overview of the Present-Use Value (PUV) property tax program in North Carolina, with an emphasis on disposition and transfer situations that may imperil continued enrollment.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara, Robert Baldwin Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet describes the biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cotesia Congregata, Parasitoid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of Cotesia Congregata, a parasitoid.

Cattail Toothpick Grasshopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cattail toothpick grasshopper, Leptysma marginicollis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rainbow Scarab

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rainbow scarab, Phanaeus vindex.

Guide to Deciding When to Start and Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflets

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.

Cyclamen Mites in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellowjacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Pests of Crape Myrtle

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in crape myrtle.

Native Elm Bark Beetle

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes, and provides residential management recommendations.

Amber Snails

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of amber snails in the family Succineidae.

Flatheaded Appletree Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the flatheaded appletree borer, Chrysobothris femorata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Shaping Virginia Pine Christmas Trees

By: Craig McKinley, Eric Hinesley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers how and when to shape, prune and shear Virginia pine Christmas trees.

Soil and Plant Analysis for Apple Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for apple growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Barklice

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of barklice, insect pests of smooth-barked shrubs and trees.

Rose Midge

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rose midge, Dasineura rhodophaga, and provides residential management recommendations.

Soil Testing and Interpretation of Results for Christmas Tree Plantations

By: Craig McKinley, James Shelton, Ray Tucker, Jeff Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides general guidelines for obtaining soil samples in Christmas tree fields, a summary of soil test result categories, and information for evaluating those results to develop an efficient Christmas tree fertilization program.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Plant Growth

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the growth cycle of blackberry and raspberry plants for proper training and pruning.

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Site Selection for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Michael Dukes, Dorota Z. Haman, Freddie Lamm Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Larger Yellow Ant

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the larger yellow ants, Acanthomyops interjectus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Spotted Wing Drosophila in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for the Southeast

By: Mark Hoffmann, Patrick Conner, Phillip Brannen, Hannah Burrack, Wayne Mitchem, Bill Cline, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Cool and Ship: A Low-Cost, Portable Forced-Air Cooling Unit

By: Mike Boyette Postharvest Technology Series

This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.

Pythium Root Dysfunction in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root dysfunction.

Mugwort

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mugwort.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Pansyworm / Variegated Fritillary

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pansyworm, Euptoieta claudia, the immature stage of the variegated fritillary butterfly, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cabbage Looper on Ornamentals

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and provides residential management recommendations.

Walnut Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the walnut caterpillar, Datana integerrima, and provides residential management recommendations.

Elm Sawfly

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the elm sawfly caterpillar, Cimbex americana, and provides residential management recommendations.

Cabbage Palm Caterpillar or Palmetto Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the cabbage palm caterpillar, cabbage palm worm, or palmetto borer, Litoprosopus futilis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Whiteflies Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying whiteflies in commercial flower and plant production.

Red Thread in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red thread.

Large Crabgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large crabgrass.

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Fusarium Wilt of Blackberry

By: Bill Cline, Sara Villani Plant Disease Factsheets

Fusarium wilt is an emerging disease of blackberry in commercial plantings in southeastern North Carolina. This factsheet covers symptoms, signs, and best management practices for Fusarium wilt of blackberry.

Appendix 1. Bee Hotel Checklist

By: Elsa Youngsteadt, Meredith Favre

This appendix to the collection, How to Manage a Successful Bee Hotel, summarizes the best practices suggested throughout the document.

Azalea Plant Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the azalea plant bug, Rhinocapsus vanduzeei, and provides residential management recommendations.

Banded Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the banded sphinx moth or lesser vine sphinx, Eumorpha fasciatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Rustic Sphinx

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica, and provides residential management recommendations.

Crowned Slug Caterpillar

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the crowned slug caterpillar, Isa textula.

Persimmon Psyllid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Persimmon psyllid or persimmon psylla, Baeoalitriozus diospyri or Trioza diospyri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Lontrel (clopyralid)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Lontrel (clopyralid).

Gray Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray leaf spot.

Red Sorrel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red sorrel.

Wild Garlic

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild garlic.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Moss Control in Turf

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns

Infestations of moss in turf are associated with unfavorable conditions for growing healthy, dense turf. This publication offers control options.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Pests of Lilac

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in lilac.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Glenn Galle TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes in turfgrasses.

Redbud Leaffolder

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the redbud leaffolder, Fascista Cercerisella, and provides residential management recommendations.

Twospotted Spider Mite

By: Hannah Burrack, James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and provides management recommendations.

European Hornet in the Landscape

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and provides residential management recommendations.

Barnacle Scale

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the barnacle scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Tower (dimethenamid-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Tower (dimethenamid-p).

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Rust in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rust.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

Oak Treehopper

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the oak treehopper, Platycotis vitata, and provides residential management recommendations.

Juniper Scale Insect

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the juniper scale insect, Carulaspis juniperi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Harvesting and Postharvest Management

By: Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 13 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers tips on harvesting and handling blackberries and raspberries postharvest.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Stormwater Wetlands for Golf Courses

By: Kris Bass, Mike Burchell, Robert Evans, Bill Hunt, Daniel Line, Danesha Seth Carley

Golf courses provide a unique setting for wetlands that can be used to provide both an environmental benefit and an aesthetic amenity. The research-based recommendations in this publication are intended to help you optimize concepts and designs for your next project.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Yellow Tuft in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow tuft.

Spotted Spurge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spotted spurge.

Yellow Foxtail

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow foxtail.

Common Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Oldfield Toadflax

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of oldfield toadflax.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Potato Aphid on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae).

Giant Conifer Aphids

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant conifer aphid, Cinara spp, and provides residential management recommendations.

Oleander Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, and provides residential management recommendations.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Site Selection

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the benefits and limitations of selecting various sites to plant blackberries and raspberries.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Summer Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of summer patch.

Damping Off in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of damping off.

Spring Dead Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spring dead spot.

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Grapevine Virus Distribution, Identification, and Management in North Carolina

By: Mark Hoffmann, Emma Volk, Win Talton, Maher Al Rwahnih, Christie Almeyda, Hannah Burrack, Brett Blaauw, Matt Bertone

This publication reviews the results of a survey conducted to assess the distribution of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV) and grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) in North Carolina. It provides information on identifying disease symptoms, collecting samples, submitting samples for virus testing, and best grapevine virus management practices for new vineyards and established mature vineyards.

Common Disease Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common disease pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Insect Pests of Dogwood in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This fact sheet compiles common arthropod pests of dogwood trees (Cornaceae) in North Carolina. It contains brief descriptions with links to reputable and more thorough fact sheets.

White Pine Aphid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the white pine aphid, Cinara strobi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Bulb Mites

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus echinopus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Soil and Plant Analysis for Christmas Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for Christmas tree growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Tunnel Production

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses growing blackberries and raspberries in high tunnels, semi-permanent structures made of steel pipe arches and covered with polyethylene plastic.

Weed Management on Organic Farms

By: Nancy Creamer, Denise Finney CEFS

Organic farmers cite weed management as their number one research priority. This publication in the Organic Production publication series describes weed control strategies for organic farms based on weed characteristics and an integrated cropping system approach. A special section on cultivation practices that limit emerged and future weeds is based on research by the Center for Environmental Farming Systems.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Selection and Management of Efficient Self-propelled Gun Traveler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, R.E. Sneed

The self-propelled gun type traveler system is usually the most practical system for irrigating irregular shaped fields. Selection and management considerations for self-propelled gun type systems are discussed in this article.

Johnsongrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of johnsongrass.

Slime Mold in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of slime mold.

Dallisgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Privet Rust Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the privet rust mite, Aculus ligustri, and provides residential management recommendations.

Deodar Weevil / Eastern Pine Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the deodar weevil or eastern pine weevil, Pissodes nemorensis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Phlox Plant Bug and Other Lopidea Plant Bugs

By: James Baker, Bob Blinn PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the phlox plant bug, Lopidea davisi, and provides residential management recommendations.

Greenhouse Thrips

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Southern Purple Mint Moth

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the southern purple mint moth, Pyrausta laticlavia, and provides residential management recommendations.

Strawberries: Late Planting and the Use of Floating Row Covers

By: Mark Hoffmann, Amanda McWhirt, Jayesh Samtani

Planting date, pre-plant soil and bed preparation and plant quality are the three important pillars that make the foundations for a successful crop. In this guide we will describe what to do before and after a late planting, as well as how to use floating row covers to improve growing degree days and plant growth.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment

By: Gina Fernandez, Amanda McWhirt, Christine Bradish, John Havlin

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses soil testing, nursery stock, and spacing for blackberry and raspberry production.

Buffalograss

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buffalograss.

Centipedegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Florida Betony

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of florida betony.

Blackseed Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of blackseed plantain.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Lilac Borer \ Ash Clearwing Borer

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the adult lilac borer, Podosesia syringae, and provides residential management recommendations.

Privet Mite

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology and management of the privet mite, Brevipalpus obovatus, and provides residential management recommendations.

Giant Strong-Nosed Stink Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the giant strong-nosed stink bug, Alcaeorrhynchus grandis, and provides residential management recommendations.

Lantana Lace Bug

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the lantana lace bug, Teleonemia scrupulosa, and provides residential management recommendations.

Pine Engraver Beetles

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the eastern six-spined engraver, eastern five-spined engraver, and southern pine engraver— Ips calligraphus, Ips grandicollis, Ips avulsus.

Baptisia Seed Pod Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the baptisia seed pod weevil, also called baptisia weevil, wild indigo weevil, or Say’s weevil, Trichapion Rostrum.

Chinese Praying Mantid

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Chinese praying mantid, Tenodera sinensis, which are sold as biological controls.

Australian Cockroach in Interiorscapes

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the Australian cockroach, also known as a waterbug and the shad roach, Periplaneta australasiae.

Pales Weevil

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the pales weevil, Hylobius pales, and provides residential management recommendations.

Potato Leafhopper on Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of the potato leafhoppers, Empoasca fabae., and provides residential management recommendations.

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.

Acrobat Ants

By: James Baker PDIC Factsheets

This factsheet describes the biology of acrobat ants. Although acrobat ants are not considered pests of trees and shrubs, they do protect scales and other insects that are pests.

Pine Tortoise Scale

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet describes the life cycle and control of the pine tortoise scale, insects which accelerate the development of an unsightly black fungus on Christmas trees.

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

Weed Control in Woody Plant Propagation and Containerized Liner Production

By: Joe Neal

This publication discusses best practices for managing and controlling weeds in container nurseries and greenhouses, focusing on woody plant propagation and containerized liner production.

Field Production of Nursery Stock: Field Preparation, Planting and Planting Density

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Field preparation using low-till practices, cover crops and soil amendments improves quality of both soils and ornamentals plants during production. Correct planting techniques and useful planting density scenarios are suggested. Guidelines for pruning during production are given so growers can create a niche by improving plant quality during field production of nursery stock.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Crowfootgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Cylindric Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cylindric sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Red Bay Ambrosia Beetle and Laurel Wilt Disease

By: Stephen Bambara, Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the disease cycle and management of the red ambrosia beetle, which feeds on a fungus that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a generally fatal disease of red bay and other tree species in the laurel family.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.