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Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

13. Propagation

By: Frank Blazich, Anthony LeBude

This propagation chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook explains how and why to grow new plants from seed (sexual reproduction) and from cuttings (asexual propagation).

Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, G. A. Rutledge Postharvest Technology Series

This publication describes types of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables, including each packaging's functions, uses and limitations.

Maple Eyespot Gall Midge

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This factsheet discusses the biology and control of ocellate gall midges, which cause red and yellow spots on the surface of red maple leaves.

Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape

By: Grady Miller, Charles Peacock, Arthur Bruneau, Fred Yelverton, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Richard J. Cooper, Matt Martin

This comprehensive guide offers information on different grasses for North Carolina lawns, as well as how to establish, care for, maintain, and renovate a new lawn.

Soil Acidity and Liming: Basic Information for Farmers and Gardeners

By: Carl Crozier, David Hardy SoilFacts

An introduction to soil acidity and liming for farmers and gardeners to increase crop income and improve lawn and garden performance. Topics covered include soil pH, soil testing, liming standards and application and incorporation of lime into soil.

Are There Alternatives to Glyphosate for Weed Control in Landscapes?

By: Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac

Many landscape maintenance professionals have grown reliant on glyphosate for weed control. Landscape weed control without glyphosate is certainly possible but will require more planning, careful consideration of alternative treatments, more frequent site visits, and higher costs. This publication discusses alternative treatments, their properties, uses and limitations.

Tall Fescue Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for tall fescue grass year round. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Leaf Diseases of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This factsheet discusses symptoms and control of several leaf diseases common in North Carolina blueberry production.

Bermudagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg Lawn Maintenance Calendars

The following management practices will help you care for your lawn throughout the year. Location, terrain, soil type and condition, age of the lawn, previous lawn care, and other factors affect turf performance, so adjust these management practices and dates to suit your particular lawn.

Zoysiagrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This publication for homeowners and landscapers describes how to mow, fertilize, irrigate, and control weeds in a zoysiagrass lawn.

Early Blight of Tomato

By: Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes early blight of tomato, including identification, transmission and disease management, and control.

Trellis Systems

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 7 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various trellis systems for blackberry and raspberry production.

Non-Honey Bee Stinging Insects in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Joseph Flowers, Michael Waldvogel

This article describes and defines the different types of insects that sting and are also often mistaken for honey bees.

Jumping Worms

By: Matt Bertone

This factsheet covers the description, biology, and management of the jumping earthworm, a common pest in North Carolina gardening.

Pests of Beans and Peas

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect bean and pea production.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot, a spring wildflower used to produce natural red, orange, and pink dyes, in North Carolina. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color.

Phylloxera on Hickory and Pecan

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of phylloxera, a small insect that causes galls on hickory and pecan trees in North Carolina.

The Different Types of Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy

Honey bees, like all other living things, vary in traits such as temperament, disease resistance and productivity. The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies (for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops), but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop or bee production.

Controlling English Ivy in Urban Landscapes

By: Joe Neal

English ivy (Hedera helix) is a shade-tolerant, woody perennial vine. When established it creates a dense ground cover with attractive dark green foliage. But, left un-checked this introduced plant invades woodlands, climbs (and kills) trees and is considered an invasive species. Pursuing the internet you can find several “recommendations” for controlling English Ivy. Some good, some are questionable. This publication describes cultural and chemical control options.

2022 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook

By: J. M. Kemble, Inga Meadows, Katie Jennings, Jim Walgenbach, A. L Wszelaki

The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group offers this handbook, a joint effort among Extension Specialists and Researchers from 12 land-grant universities in the U.S. who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialists and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines: agricultural engineering, entomology, olericulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, postharvest physiology, soil science, and weed science. This handbook comprises up-to-the-minute information developed from research and Extension projects conducted throughout the southeastern United States.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflets

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Mealybugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of mealybugs, an insect pest of greenhouse, nursery and landscape plants.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations higher than 3,000 feet.

Galls on Oaks

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of gall wasps, a cause of galls on oak trees.

The Honey Bee Dance Language

By: David Tarpy

An overview of honey bee dancing, a behavior that constitutes a language telling other workers the location of a food source.

Ambrosia Beetle Pests of Nursery and Landscape Trees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of woody ornamental, fruit, and nut trees throughout North Carolina.

Blueberry Freeze Damage and Protection Measures

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

Damping-off in Flower and Vegetable Seedlings

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Michelle Henson Ornamental Disease Information

This factsheet offers information on damping off in flower and vegetable seedlings, a result of fungi present in the growing medium.

Pests of Tomato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect tomatoes.

Pests of Rhododendron

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rhododendron.

Cicada Killer Wasp

By: Steven Frank, Elsa Youngsteadt Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada killer wasp, a beneficial insect that can also be a pest of lawns and turfgrass.

Pests of Okra

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect okra.

Pests of Potato

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect potatoes.

Pests of Asparagus

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in asparagus production.

Dogfennel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dogfennel.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Cabbage and Leafy Greens

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh cabbage and leafy greens.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of cucurbit downy mildew.

White Grubs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white grubs and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen, Jason Brock

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By: Wayne Buhler

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This factsheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. This publication covers choosing the right herbicide for this situation.

How to Become a Beekeeper in North Carolina

By: David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

Beekeeping is a very enjoyable and rewarding pastime that is relatively inexpensive to get started. Moreover, it’s a hobby that can eventually make you money! This factsheet is a primer on how to start your first hive and begin keeping bees.

Diseases of Cool-Season Turfgrasses

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns

This guide is designed to help identify the most troublesome diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. This includes such grasses as tall fescue, fine fescue (chewings, creeping red), Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. A description of the disease symptoms, a list of specific management practices that can be used to prevent or reduce turfgrass injury by disease and a chart to indicate when the disease is most likely to occur are presented.

Phorid Flies

By: Sydney Crawley, Matt Bertone

Phorid flies are small flies that breed in moist, decaying organic matter and can be a problem in and around homes. This factsheet covers their identification, biology, habits, management and control.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal, Caren A. Judge Horticulture Information Leaflets

Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Identification and Management: Brief Description: Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S., Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than most other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses how to identify and manage common armored scale insects that feed on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries.

Selecting and Managing Lawn Grasses for Shade

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley, Charles Peacock

Turfgrass, trees, and shrubs are desired in most landscapes because they are attractive and useful. Unfortunately, growing turfgrasses in the presence of trees and shrubs can be a formidable task because each plant group competes with the other for the light, water, and nutrients that are essential for survival and growth. Even so, homeowners can take steps to improve the performance of a lawn growing in shade.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflets

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structural & Energy Requirements

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

Proper temperature control is essential to protecting the quality of fresh produce. By constructing and maintaining their own cooling facilities, farmers, packers, and roadside vendors can substantially reduce the overall cost of owning one of these useful structures. This publication describes how to plan a postharvest cooling facility of modest size and how to determine the structural and energy requirements.

2022 Pest Control for Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Lee Butler, Rich Cooper, Travis Gannon, Kurt Getsinger, Jim Kerns, Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This annual guide supplies information concerning pesticides that can be used for controlling pests in turfgrasses. Revised for 2022.

Indian Mock Strawberry

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of indian mock strawberry.

Management Guide for Sour Rot in North Carolina

By: Karen Blaedow, Hannah Burrack, Mark Hoffmann, Sara Villani

This publication gives an overview of sour-rot management in European-style grapevines in North Carolina. We explain what the causes of sour rot, show pictures, discuss susceptible cultivars and give management recommendations.

Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication provides information on cooling basics, common produce cooling methods and other steps for maintaining quality.

Comparison of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

By: David Tarpy, Jeffrey Lee

Italian honey bees are susceptible to two deadly parasitic mites, while Russian bees have shown promise in resistance to these mites. This factsheet offers comparisons between Italian and Russian honey bees.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four feet tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Bulb Onions

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Pests of Sweet Corn

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect sweet corn.

St. Augustinegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of St. Augustinegrass.

Brown Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of brown patch.

Pests of Peppers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect peppers.

Pests of Eggplant

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Measuring Soil Water for Irrigation Scheduling: Monitoring Methods and Devices

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication provides information you will need for measuring soil water: types of soil-water measuring devices, how to select the right measuring device and how to prepare and install these devices.

Leaf Scorch of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers leaf scorch, a fungus that weakens strawberry leaves and plants.

Forced-Air Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication covers the characteristics and benefits of forced-air cooling to cool fresh produce to its lowest safe storage temperature as quickly as possible.

Scoliid Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the scoliid wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and control of bacterial spot of peppers and tomatoes.

Collar Rot and Alternaria Stem Canker of Tomato

By: Amanda Scherer, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses collar rot and Alternaria stem canker of tomato, which are caused by different species of fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria. Both pathogens can cause large, irregularly shaped stem lesions with pronounced concentric rings. However, the concentric rings may not always be pronounced with collar rot.

Lawn Burrweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of lawn burrweed.

Stem Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet discusses blueberry stem blight, the primary disease limiting establishment of blueberry plantings in southeastern North Carolina.

Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps.

Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes common aspects of biology and management of soft scale insects on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries with summaries of several example species.

Pests of Azalea

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in azalea.

Lease Considerations for Landowners and Farmers

By: Robert Andrew Branan Farm Law for Operators and Landowners

This publication covers the basics of leasing land for farming operations, from both a landowner and tenant perspective.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Green Beans and Field Peas

By: Mike Boyette, Jonathan Schultheis, Ed Estes, W. C. Hurst, P. E. Sumner Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh green beans and field peas.

Slugs in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.

Caterpillars That Feed on Trees and Shrubs

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of caterpillars that feed on trees and shrubs.

Pests of Lettuce

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect eggplant.

Bermudagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Bermudagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Red Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red leaf spot.

Fruit Development

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 12 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the time from flowering to fruit harvest for blackberry and raspberry production.

Maple Gall Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of maple gall mites, a common cause of galls on maple trees in North Carolina.

Southern Blight of Tomato and Pepper

By: Inga Meadows, Amanda Scherer, Michelle Henson Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable disease factsheet discusses Southern blight, a soil-borne fungus that attacks tomato and pepper, and several other economically important crops, including bean, cantaloupe, carrot, pepper, potato, sweetpotato, and watermelons.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Bonny Michael Oloka, Maxton Collins Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

Corn Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of corn speedwell.

Cat's Ear Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cats ear dandelion.

Annual Bluegrass Weevil in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the annual bluegrass weevil and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Biopesticides for Disease Management in Vegetable Crops

By: Inga Meadows, Ella Reeves

This publication provides information about what biopesticides are, how they control plant diseases, and how they are used to control diseases of vegetables.

Hydrocooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, A. R. Rubin Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of hydrocooling. It discusses various types of hydrocoolers, calculation of hydrocooling rates, postharvest disease control, wastewater discharge considerations, and the energy efficiency of hydrocooling compared to other types of cooling.

Phytophthora Blight of Peppers

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Phytophthora blight of peppers.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This publication includes a key to identifying insects that can affect vegetable production. Asparagus, beans and peas, carrots, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions, peppers, potatoes, sweet corn, sweetpotatoes, and tomatoes are covered specifically.

Japanese Maple Scale, Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Japanese maple scale is an exotic, armored scale insect pest of several ornamental trees and shrubs, most commonly in urban landscapes. This insect factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing Japanese maple scale.

Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf spot.

Annual Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual ryegrass.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina, a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area.

Dismiss (sulfentrazone)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Dismiss (sulfentrazone).

Ground Pearls in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground pearls and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Pests of Carrots

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect carrots.

Pests of Crucifers

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect crucifers.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Pests of Dogwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in dogwood.

Wild Violet

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild violet.

Insect and Disease Control of Fruits

By: Jim Walgenbach, Hannah Burrack, Meredith Favre, Bill Cline, Dave Ritchie, Frank Louws, Sara Villani, Guido Schnabel, Chuck Johnson, Rebecca Melanson

This publication covers insect and disease control in apples, blueberries, caneberries, grapes, peaches, pecans and strawberries.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Millipedes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the millipedes and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Gloomy Scale, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock), Hemiptera: Diaspididae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests.

Anthracnose of Pepper

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose of pepper.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Field- and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh tomatoes.

Crane Fly Larvae in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crane fly larvae and addresses how to control them as insects in turf.

Prevention and Management of Frost Injury in Wine Grapes

By: Mark Hoffmann, David Lockwood, Barclay Poling

This factsheet provides recommended practices and management strategies for protecting wine grapes from spring frost damage.

Common Disease Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common disease pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Crapemyrtle Aphid

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the crapemyrtle aphid, a common pest of crapemyrtles that reduces plant vigor.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Apples

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh apples.

Miner Bees

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and management of miner bees, a pest of flowers in North Carolina.

Red Sorrel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red sorrel.

Winter Annual Cover Crops

By: Luke Gatiboni, Chris Reberg-Horton SoilFacts

This publication discusses production of winter annual cover crops, their benefits and management. Research has shown several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of nitrogen from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Blueberries

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, C. M. Mainland, Bill Cline Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh blueberries.

Verticillium Wilt of Tomato and Eggplant

By: Cecelia Stokes, Inga Meadows Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This disease factsheet is a brief description of Verticillium wilt of tomato and eggplant. Symptoms, causal agent, and management are included.

Tall Fescue

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of tall fescue.

Dollar Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dollar spot.

Red Thread in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of red thread.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the South

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno, Mark Hoffmann

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and control of cucurbit powdery mildew.

St. Augustinegrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Matt Martin, Jim Kerns, Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This calendar contains suggestions designed to help in the care and maintenance of St. Augustinegrass throughout the year. It includes recommendations for mowing, fertilization, watering, pest control, and renovation.

Management of Phytophthora Root Rot in Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom, Ron Jones, Mike Benson, Kelly Ivors Christmas Tree Notes

Phytophthora root rot is the only serious disease of Fraser fir Christmas trees in western North Carolina. This publication covers the symptoms of the fungus, how to avoid an infection and how to treat it if Phytophthora develops.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Slugs and Snails Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying slugs and snails in commercial flower and plant production.

Algae in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of algae.

Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

Phomopsis Leaf Blight of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.

Carpetgrass Lawn Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen, Fred Yelverton, Charles Peacock, Rick Brandenburg, Matt Martin Lawn Maintenance Calendars

This factsheet provides instructions on how to properly care for carpetgrass year round. It also includes information on fertilization and integrated pest management.

Black Vine Weevil

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black vine weevil, an insect that stunts and kills plants by feeding on the roots.

Carolina Geranium

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina geranium.

Goosegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of goosegrass.

Bermudagrass Athletic Field Maintenance Calendar

By: Grady Miller, Fred Yelverton

This calendar offers suggestions regarding management practices for all-season care of a bermudagrass athletic field.

Postemergence Grass Control in Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal

Annual and perennial grasses can be selectively controlled in most broadleaf crops and landscapes using postemergence herbicides that control only grasses -- chemicals often referred to as “postemergence graminicides”. There are four graminicides labeled for use in horticultural crops – fenoxaprop, fluazifop-p, sethoxydim and clethodim. Each graminicide is systemic (translocated) and has short-term soil residual (about 2 weeks). Although each herbicide kills grasses in the same way (acting upon the same site of action), they differ in their effectiveness on grass weeds, safety on crops, and labeled uses.

Pythium Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root rot.

Carolina False Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carolina false dandelion.

Darkwinged Fungus Gnats

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes darkwinged fungus gnats, an insect pest of some field crops, shrubs, and houseplants.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Onions

By: Mike Boyette, D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh onions.

Anthracnose in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of anthracnose.

Bahiagrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bahiagrass and addresses how to control it as a weed.

Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twospotted spider mites on ornamental landscape plants.

Calibrating a Backpack Sprayer

By: Gary Roberson

This brochure goes over calibration guidelines for backpack or knapsack sprayers.

Dogwood Borer

By: Jim Walgenbach

Dogwood borer description, life history, damage, and control.

Propagating Muscadine Grapes

By: Connie Fisk, Bill Cline, Bennett Bloodworth, Whit Jones

A step-by-step guide to propagating true-to-type muscadine vines from cuttings or from layering.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a glyphosate herbicide injury.

Pythium Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium blight.

Fire Ants in Commercial Turfgrass, Home Lawns and Landscapes

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fire ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Gummy Stem Blight.

Pests of Ligustrum

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in ligustrum.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This publications contains detailed drawings and descriptions to aid in identifying pests and insects of shrubs. It summarizes recommended practices for eliminating those pests or insects.

What CAN Be Composted?

By: Rhonda Sherman

List of items that can and cannot be composted at home.

Large Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large patch.

Pillbugs and Sowbugs

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of pillbugs and sowbugs, insect pests that feed on decaying vegetation.

Twig Blight of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline Fruit Disease Information

This Fruit Disease Information factsheet describes twig blight, a fungal disease that causes dieback in blueberry bushes in North Carolina.

Segment (sethoxydim)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Segment (sethoxydim).

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication discusses a number of options that are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others. Not only are these persistent problems in greenhouses but they detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, and also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails.

Crushed and Liquid Ice Cooling

By: Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Technology Series

This publication is intended to help growers, packers, and shippers of fresh produce make informed decisions concerning the application of crushed and liquid ice cooling. Included are discussions of icemaking equipment and ways to purchase ice, types of produce that may be suitably iced, various produce-icing methods, how to calculate the amount of ice required to cool a given amount of produce, and the economic considerations of cooling with ice.

Aphids in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.

Water Requirements of North Carolina Turfgrasses

By: Grady Miller, Drew Pinnix, Garry Grabow, Charles Peacock

Water is an essential component for plant growth. In turfgrasses it comprises 75 to 90 percent of the fresh weight of the plant, and irrigation is a key cultural practice in turfgrass management. Only 1 percent of the water absorbed is utilized for metabolic activity. By considering the factors that contribute to water loss, turfgrass managers can devise effective irrigation plans for specific sites.

Pruning and Training

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 6 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses how and when to prune blackberry and raspberry canes.

2015 Turfgrass Pest Management Manual

By: Grady Miller, Emily Erickson, Dan Bowman, Rick Brandenburg, Travis Gannon, Jim Kerns, Charles Peacock, Robert Richardson, Thomas Rufty, Leon Warren, Fred Yelverton

This guide is designed to help turf managers identify the major turfgrass pests found in North Carolina and better understand their life cycles, symptoms, and biology.

Basil Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of basil downy mildew.

Western Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the western flower thrip, an insect pest of plants that can also transmit tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.

False Spider Mites

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes false spider mites, insect pests ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops.

Mulberryweed (Fatoua villosa)

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

This publication covers the identification, distribution and control of mulberryweed, an erect, branching, summer annual weed of landscapes and container nurseries that resembles a mulberry tree (Morus spp.) seedling. A native of eastern Asia, it was introduced into North America in the latter half of the 20th century.

Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials

By: Inga Meadows, Suzette Sharpe, Amanda Scherer Ornamental Disease Information

Identification and management of Phytophthora in annuals and herbaceous perennials in greenhouses and in the landscape is discussed in this disease fact sheet.

Dichondra

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dichondra.

Appendix F. History of Landscape Design

By: Michelle Wallace

This Appendix from the Extension Gardener Handbook will explain a brief history of land development and its influence on landscape design.

Aphids on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of aphid pests of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Wheel Bug

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of wheel bugs, an insect pest that preys upon other plant pests.

Pests of Gardenia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in gardenia.

Pests of Holly

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in holly.

Conducting a Bioassay For Herbicide Residues

By: Joe Neal

General guidelines on how to conduct a bioassay for herbicide residues in soil.

Chlorination and Postharvest Disease Control

By: Mike Boyette, Dave Ritchie, S. J. Carballo, Sylvia Blankenship, D. C. Sanders Postharvest Technology Series

At present, chlorination is one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest diseases. When used in connection with other proper postharvest handling practices, chlorination is effective and relatively inexpensive. It poses little threat to health or the environment. This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, packers, and shippers with the proper use of chlorination.

Synthetic Auxins

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a synthetic auxin (SA) herbicide injury.

Pests of Cucurbits

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect cucurbits.

Zoysiagrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of zoysiagrass.

Fire Ants in Pastures

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Michael Waldvogel, Wes Watson TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology, damage, and control of fire ants in pastures.

Phytophthora Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.

Flower Thrips

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes flower thrips, insect pests of grasses and flowering plants.

Twig Girdler

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of twig girdlers, a common pest of pecan and hickory trees.

Pests of Onion

By: Kenneth Sorensen, James Baker, Cathy Cameron Carter, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests that affect onions.

Zoysiagrass Mites

By: Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This publication discusses the biology and control of zoysiagrass mites, occasional pests of turfgrass in North Carolina.

Soil, Water and Crop Characteristics Important to Irrigation Scheduling

By: Robert Evans, Donald Cassel, R.E. Sneed

This publication presents basic information on factors (veil, water and plant relationships) to be considered in developing an effective irrigation schedule.

Persian Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of persian speedwell.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.

Chinch Bugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the chinch bug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Plan Before You Plant

By: Joe Neal Weed Facts

Supplemental hand weeding accounts for the majority of landscape bed maintenance costs. When used exclusively, it can cost 10 to 100 times as much as an effective herbicide or mulching program. However, many of the costly and unsightly weed problems can be avoided or at least minimized with a little planning. Developing a landscape weed management plan involves five basic steps.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberries

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This factsheet acquaints growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient cooling and handling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh strawberries.

Kentucky Bluegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass.

Yellow Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow patch.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflets

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients, reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, this publication presents a weed management program that should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal, J.C. Chong, Jean Williams-Woodward

This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. It is intended to provide up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops and ornamental landscape plantings, and as a supplement to the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Botrytis gray mold of tomatoes.

Greenstriped Mapleworm

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

This Insect Note describes the biology and management of greenstriped mapleworm, a caterpillar pest of maple trees.

Cutworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cutworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Indian Wax Scale Insect

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Indian wax scale, a tiny insect that detracts from a plant's appearance due to white scales and honeydew secretions.

Strawberry Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.

Sedgehammer (halosulfuron)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sedgehammer (halosulfuron).

Fairy Ring in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fairy ring.

Earthworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the earthworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Scythe (pelargonic acid) and Axxe (ammonium nonanoate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Scythe (pelargonic acid) or Axxe (ammonium nonanoate).

Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fusilade II (fluazifop-P-butyl).

Hop Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hop clover.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Maple Spider Mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer), Acariformes: Tetranychidae

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale Entomology Insect Notes

Maple spider mites are a common arthropod pest of landscape and nursery-grown maple trees, most commonly red maple and red maple x silver maple hybrids (Freeman maples). This pest factsheet provides an integrated pest management approach to identify, monitor, and manage maple spider mites.

Dogs and Turfgrass Interactions

By: Grady Miller, Ray McCauley

This publication answers common questions dog owners may have about lawn care. Topics include what kinds of grasses to use in high traffic areas; how to deal with damage to lawns caused by dogs; dogs' exposure to pesticides; and why dogs occasionally eat turfgrass.

The Small Hive Beetle: A Pest of Honey Bee Colonies

By: John T. Ambrose, David Tarpy, Jennifer Keller

This factsheet describes the small hive beetle, its life cycle and how to prevent infestations of beehives by the beetle. It includes summaries of recommended treatments to control the beetles inside and outside the hive.

Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the postemergent herbicide Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop-p).

Cultivars

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 2 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, covers the characteristics of recommended blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the Southeast.

Twolined Spittlebugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the twolined spittlebug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Ivyleaf Speedwell

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ivyleaf speedwell.

Blackseed Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of blackseed plantain.

Curly Dock

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of curly dock.

Common Dandelion

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common dandelion.

Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of an ALS inhibitor herbicide injury.

Japanese Beetles on Ornamental Landscape Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of Japanese beetle adults, which feed on many species of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers.

Tea Scale

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of tea scale, an insect pest of camellias and hollies.

Pests of Rose

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in rose.

Callery Pear: 'Bradford' and Other Varieties and Their Invasive Progeny

By: Courtney Smith, Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet identifies several varieties of the ornamental Callery Pear tree and their impacts on native ecosystems.

Goal, GoalTender (oxyfluorfen)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Goal and GoalTender (oxyfluorfen).

Common Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common chickweed.

Clover Mites in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the clover mite and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Bagworms in Ornamental Landscapes

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of bagworms, a common ornamental plant pest.

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot in the Landscape

By: Michelle Henson, Suzette Sharpe, Ella Reeves, Inga Meadows

Many ornamental crop species (including trees, shrubs, and bedding plants) are susceptible to diseases caused by Phytophthora, a genus of plant-pathogenic oomycetes (also known as water molds) that can persist in soil for several years. This publication rates common bedding plants, shrubs, and trees on their resistance to Phytophthora.

Pythium Root Dysfunction in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pythium root dysfunction.

Cudweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cudweed.

Common Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common vetch.

Virginia Buttonweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of virginia buttonweed.

March Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This entomology insect note describes the biology and control of march flies, insect pests of ornamental and fruit crops.

Springtails

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of springtails, an insect pest of lawns and turf and occasionally the home.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison, Bill Cline

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Principles of Pruning the Highbush Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.

Red Bay Ambrosia Beetle and Laurel Wilt Disease

By: Stephen Bambara, Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the disease cycle and management of the red ambrosia beetle, which feeds on a fungus that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a generally fatal disease of red bay and other tree species in the laurel family.

Lace Bugs

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of lace bugs, including the azalea lace bug, hawthorn lace bug, rhododendron lace bug, and sycamore lace bug.

Slugs & Snails on Ornamental Plants

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of slugs and snails, insect pests of ornamental, vegetable, and field crops.

Managing the Twolined Spittlebug in the Home Landscape

By: Steven Frank, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twolined spittlebug, an insect pest of turf and ornamentals in North Carolina.

Pests of Boxwood

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in boxwood.

Pests of Lilac

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in lilac.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

Strawberry Viruses

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.

Black Root Rot on Ornamental Plants

By: Inga Meadows, Cecelia Stokes Ornamental Disease Information

Black root rot impacts a range of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species primarily in greenhouse ornamental plant production, but also in home and commercial landscapes and nurseries. This disease causes decay of the root system and leads to yellowing, wilting, and necrosis of foliage. It is widely distributed and has been described on approximately 30 plant families in many parts of the world. Some of the most frequently impacted ornamentals are pansy, viola, Calibrachoa, annual vinca (periwinkle), Salvia, petunia, Persian cyclamen, snapdragon, Begonia, Verbena, Phlox, and Gerbera daisy. In addition to ornamental plants, some vegetable and other agricultural crops are also susceptible to infection.

Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennison

This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.

Metribuzin

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a metribuzin herbicide injury.

Azalea Leafminer

By: Steven Frank Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea leafminer.

Leafminer Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of leafminer flies, an insect pest of many flowers and ornamentals.

Sooty Molds

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara, R. K. Jones, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of sooty molds, fungi that grow microscopic threads that form easily visible black spots on many plants.

Alternaria Black Spot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflets

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Flies and Maggots Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different flies and maggots in commercial garden and plant production.

Take-All Root Rot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Cameron Stephens TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of take-all root rot in turf.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns, Glenn Galle TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes in turfgrasses.

Spotted Lanternfly

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the spotted lanternfly, an invasive agricultural, ornamental, and nuisance pest in the United States.

Weed Control Options for Strawberries on Plastic

By: Katie Jennings Horticulture Information Leaflets

Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. Weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.

Strawberry Clipper Weevils in Strawberry

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.

Perennial Ryegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of perennial ryegrass.

Tips on Writing Turf Contracts and Landscape Specifications

By: Charles Peacock, Matt Martin

Maintenance contracts for turfgrass areas should be written to provide security for all parties involved. The person or company receiving services (the contractor) should be aware of everything it has agreed to and therefore is required to do. This publication provides basic guidelines on how to write a good contract regarding turfgrass maintenance.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

Water Quality and Professional Turfgrass Managers

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas Water Quality & Turfgrass Area Development

Although groundwater and surface waters are rarely polluted by turfgrass pesticides, turf managers should consider the potential for environmental contamination when choosing a pesticide.

Pesticide Selection for Water Quality Protection

By: Arthur Bruneau, R. J. Cooper, L. T. Lucas

While research has shown that pollution of surface and groundwater supplies from turfgrass pesticide application is uncommon, the turf manager should still strive to avoid potential environmental contamination when choosing a pesticide.

Introduction

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 1 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers an introduction to caneberry (blackberry and raspberry) production in the Southeast.

Cutleaf Evening-Primrose

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cutleaf evening-primrose.

Common Lespedeza

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common lespedeza.

Mouseear Chickweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mouseear chickweed.

Gnomonia Leaf Blotch and Stem-End Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.

Fire Ants in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Appendix 2. Fertility and Nutrients

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This appendix of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers more comprehensive information on soil nutrients and the signs and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies.

Cool and Ship: A Low-Cost, Portable Forced-Air Cooling Unit

By: Mike Boyette Postharvest Technology Series

This publication gives instruction for building and using an inexpensive postharvest cooling system. The cool and ship system provides rapid cooling for modest amounts of small fruit and is versatile, portable, reusable, and inexpensive. The system uses an air-conditioning system and common building materials, and may be easily assembled by the user.

Flower Thrips in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.

Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying different caterpillars and moths in commercial garden and plant production.

Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth, and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting, and postharvest management.

Yellowjackets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the yellow jacket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Glyphosate

By: Joe Neal, Travis Gannon Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide, glyphosate.

Globe Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of globe sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Hairy Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy buttercup.

Cyclamen Mite and Broad Mite in Ornamental Plants

By: James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cyclamen and broad mites, insect pests of many flowering shrubs and plants.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge, Bill Cline

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Cottony Cushion Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony cushion scale, an insect pest that debilitates plants by sucking out sap.

Southern Blight of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of southern blight of sweetpotato.

Pests of Euonymus

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in euonymus.

Pests of Pyracantha

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in pyracantha.

Finale XL or Cheetah Pro (glufosinate)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Finale XL or Cheetah Pro (glufosinate).

Casoron (dichlobenil)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Casoron (dichlobenil).

Whiteflies in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Broomsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broomsedge.

Cylindric Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of cylindric sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Hairy Bittercress

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy bittercress.

Reward (diquat dibromide)

By: Joe Neal, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Reward (diquat dibromide).

Shoot Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a shoot inhibitor herbicide injury.

Ground-Nesting Bees in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg, Stephen Bambara, James Baker TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bees and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Ronstar (oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the herbicide Ronstar (oxadiazon).

Pests of Camellia

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in camellia.

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Trapping

By: Stephen Bambara, David Stephan, Ellen Reeves Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note offers information on scouting and trapping the granulate (Asian) ambrosia beetle, an insect pest that can cause significant damage in nursery and orchard settings.

Leyland Cypress

By: Craig McKinley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers the growth, planting, shaping and pests of Leyland cypress, a popular Christmas tree variety.

Phytoplasma of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).

Producing and Marketing Strawberries for Direct Market Operations

By: Charles Safley, Barclay Poling, Michael Wohlgenant, Olga Sydorovych, Olga Sydorovych, Ross Williams, Ross Williams

This booklet provides an overview of production costs and marketing strategies that growers should consider when producing strawberries with the plasticulture system. A marketing survey conducted at pick-your-own farms and fruit stands in North Carolina provides the basis for recommended marketing practices.

Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Peppers

By: Mike Boyette, L. G. Wilson, Ed Estes Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce

This publication has been prepared to acquaint growers, shippers and processors with energy-efficient handling and cooling methods useful in preserving the quality of fresh peppers.

Plant Growth

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 5 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, offers information on the growth cycle of blackberry and raspberry plants for proper training and pruning.

Carpetgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetgrass.

Nimblewill

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nimblewill.

Prickly Lettuce

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of prickly lettuce.

White Clover

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white clover.

Fall Armyworms in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fall armyworms and addresses how to control them as an insect.

Black Turpentine Beetle

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black turpentine beetle, an insect pest of several types of pines in North Carolina.

Southern Red Mite and Spruce Spider Mite

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the southern red mite and the spruce spider mite, insect pests of a number of shrubs and herbs.

Asian Longhorned Beetle

By: Kelly Oten Invasive Forest Pests

This factsheet offers information on the biology and management of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive forest pest in the United States.

Centipedegrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of centipedegrass.

Cellulose Inhibitors, Indaziflam, and Isoxaben

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of cellulose-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Rough Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rough bluegrass.

Crowfootgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crowfootgrass.

Orchardgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of orchardgrass.

Mole Crickets in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the mole cricket and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Carpetweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of carpetweed.

Gray Mold / Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Bill Cline

This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Woolly Alder Aphid

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the woolly alder aphid, a pest of both alder and silver maple trees.

Common Insect Pests of Oak in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of oak (Quercus spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Soil Testing and Interpretation of Results for Christmas Tree Plantations

By: Craig McKinley, James Shelton, Ray Tucker, Jeff Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides general guidelines for obtaining soil samples in Christmas tree fields, a summary of soil test result categories, and information for evaluating those results to develop an efficient Christmas tree fertilization program.

Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pennant Magnum (S-metolachlor).

Cottony Maple Leaf Scale

By: Steven Frank, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of cottony maple leaf scale, an insect pest that feeds primarily on maple and dogwoods in North Carolina.

The Calibration of Turfgrass Boom Sprayers and Spreaders

By: Wayne Buhler, Emily Erickson, Arthur Bruneau, Matt Martin, Gary Roberson, Joe Neal, Fred Yelverton

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers is possible only with a sprayer or spreader that is accurately calibrated. When equipment is not correctly calibrated, it is easy to apply too much or too little of a chemical, which may result in the lack of pest control, damage to turf, wasted money, and/or contaminated environment. This publication explains how to calibrate boom sprayers and granular spreaders used on turfgrass.

Bees in Turf

By: Stephen Bambara, Rick Brandenburg, James Baker Biting and Stinging Pests

This Entomology Insect Note describes the control of bees in turfgrasses.

Rust in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of rust.

Gray Leaf Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of gray leaf spot.

Annual Bluegrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual bluegrass.

Purple Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Sureguard (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Sureguard (flumioxazin).

Precision Agriculture Technology: How to Become a Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Pilot

By: Gary Roberson

This publication discusses flying unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, model aircraft) for commercial purposes. You'll learn about the requirements becoming a commercial UAV pilot and how to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

Sugarcane Beetles in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sugarcane beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Euonymus Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of euonymus scale, insect pests of euonymus, pachysandra and celastrus in North Carolina.

Geotrichum Sour Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Madison Stahr Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of geotrichum sour rot of sweetpotato.

Landscape Management Calendar

By: Barbara Fair, Steven Frank, Matt Martin, Grady Miller, Joe Neal

This poster-sized landscape management calendar is a guide to keeping your landscape healthy with sound management practices. It discusses proper establishment and maintenance practices as well as monitoring and targeted treatment of pests.

Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Pendulum, Aquacap, Corral (pendimethalin).

Muscadine Grape Production Guide for the Southeast

By: Mark Hoffmann, Patrick Conner, Phillip Brannen, Hannah Burrack, Wayne Mitchem, Bill Cline, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Barclay Poling

This muscadine grape production guide will help the increasing number of North Carolina farmers who are considering growing and marketing this fruit as a farm diversification option.

Soil pH Management for Fraser Fir Christmas Tree Production

By: David Hardy, Luke Gatiboni SoilFacts

This publication offers a discussion on how to lime Fraser fir Christmas trees. Fraser fir Christmas trees require a lower soil pH than most crops grown in North Carolina. Special management strategies for soil pH, calcium, and magnesium are needed to provide proper nutrition without over-liming.

Sap Beetles in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnison

This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Mites Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mites in commercial flower and plant production.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide injury.

Nematodes in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nematodes and addresses how to control them in turf.

Fine Fescue

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of fine fescue.

Crayfish in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of crayfish and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Slime Mold in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of slime mold.

Hunting Billbugs in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the hunting billbug and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Facelis

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of facelis.

Parsley-piert

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of parsley-piert.

Spotted Spurge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spotted spurge.

Yellow Foxtail

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow foxtail.

Ground Ivy

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of ground ivy.

Sugarcane Beetle in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Organic Lawn Care: A Guide to Organic Lawn Maintenance and Pest Management for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller, Jim Kerns, Terri Billeisen

This guide to lawn maintenance for North Carolina contains information on establishing a new lawn, maintaining it, and controlling lawn pests using organic methods. It also provides information on renovating an existing lawn.

Planthoppers

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of planthoppers, commonly reported on shrubs in North Carolina.

Brown Soft Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes brown soft scale, a common insect pest on trees, shrubs and indoor plants.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Weed Control in Woody Plant Propagation and Containerized Liner Production

By: Joe Neal

This publication discusses best practices for managing and controlling weeds in container nurseries and greenhouses, focusing on woody plant propagation and containerized liner production.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Photosystem II – Triazine Herbicides

By: Joe Neal, Douglas Goodale, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Low Investment Propagation / Winter Protection Structure

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Barbara Fair Horticulture Information Leaflets

This factsheet covers the basics of constructing a propagation / winter protection structure in a quonset design.

Sericea Lespedeza

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sericea lespedeza.

Marengo (indaziflam) or Specticle

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Marengo (indaziflam).

Fusarium Root Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of Fusarium root rot of sweetpotato.

Barklice

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of barklice, insect pests of smooth-barked shrubs and trees.

Weeds of Container Nurseries in the United States

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble

Color guide to identification of weeds common in container nursery crop production. Also includes a table of preemergence herbicide efficacy on these species.

Basagran T/O (bentazon)

By: Joe Neal

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Basagran T/O (bentazon).

Christmas Tree Species

By: Craig McKinley, Dennis Hazel Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet provides a brief summary of the various trees often grown in North Carolina for Christmas tree production.

Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin)

Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Freehand (dimethenamid-p + pendimethalin).

Arthropod Pest Control

By: Joe Neal, Juang-Horng Chong, Bill Klingeman, Frank Hale, Adam Dale, Steven Frank

Healthy plants are important components of urban landscapes. These plants, however, are subjected to attacks by a myriad of pests while they are being grown in a nursery or maintained in a landscape. The ultimate goal of a successful ornamental plant pest management program is to improve the quality of plants (nurseries and greenhouses) and plant care services (landscape care operations) while minimizing pesticide use and the negative impacts of pesticide use to the environment, workers, clients, and other non-target organisms. To do so, ornamental plant growers and landscape care professionals have to understand the basic operating principles of integrated pest management, or IPM. The results of IPM can be spectacularly effective when well designed and executed.

Aphids Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying aphids in commercial flower and plant production.

Creeping Bentgrass

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of creeping bentgrass.

White Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of white patch.

Annual Sedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of annual sedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Florida Betony

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of florida betony.

Horseweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of horseweed.

Suggestions For Establishing a Blueberry Planting in Western North Carolina

By: Bill Cline, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of potato late blight.

Black Twig Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the black twig borer, an insect pest of many trees typically found in southeastern and coastal North Carolina.

Fuerte (flumioxazin + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Fuerte (fumioxazin + prodiamine).

Carpenterworm

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of carpenterworms, an insect pest of hardwood trees in North Carolina.

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Controlling Bamboo in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal

There are many species of bamboo sold in the nursery trade, some more invasive than others. The plants spread by thick, tough, underground stems (rhizomes). These rhizomes are resilient to adverse environmental conditions and most herbicides. To control such aggressive weeds you must eradicate or contain the entire infestation. Bamboo control programs will require an intensive control strategy over several years.

Commercial Production of Staked Tomatoes in the Southeast

By: Kelly Ivors

This production guide covers all aspects of commercial staked tomato production--from varieties and transplants to site selection, cover cropping, production systems, fertilization, pest management, and harvesting. An online appendix of tomato pests includes color photographs to assist growers in identifying insect and disease pests.

Hop Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of hop downy mildew.

Gallery (isoxaben)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gallery (isoxaben).

Site Selection

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 3 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses the benefits and limitations of selecting various sites to plant blackberries and raspberries.

Crickets in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.

Thrips Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying thrips in commercial flower and plant production.

Damping Off in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of damping off.

Sod Webworms in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the sod webworm and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Yellow Nutsedge

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow nutsedge and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Mugwort

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of mugwort.

Bulbous Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of bulbous buttercup.

Pink Purslane

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of pink purslane.

Green Foxtail

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green foxtail.

Pests of Crape Myrtle

By: James Baker, Cathy C. Carter, Kelly F. Horn, Daniel Kline, John Scott, Howard Singletary, David Stephan

This factsheet, part of the publication Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs publication, includes an identification key and descriptions of pests in crape myrtle.

Mummy Berry Disease of Blueberry

By: Bill Cline, Lena Wilson Fruit Disease Information

This publication describes the signs, symptoms and disease cycle of Mummy berry, a fungal disease of blueberry species. Recommendations for best management practices are included.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Chapter 4. Vineyard Site Selection

By: Barclay Poling, Ryan Boyles, Carlos Carpio

Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.

Measuring Impervious Surface Cover with the Pace to Plant Technique

By: Steven Frank, Adam Dale, Elsa Youngsteadt

Impervious surface cover increases tree stress and reduces tree condition. We developed an impervious surface threshold to help tree care professionals select planting sites where red maples will thrive. In this publication we describe how to estimate impervious surface cover, on site, with the Pace to Plant technique.

Spittlebug in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Toennisson

This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.

Microdochium Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of microdochium patch (pink snow mold).

Knawel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of knawel.

Yellow Woodsorrel

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow woodsorrel.

Buckhorn Plantain

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buckhorn plantain.

Devrinol (napropamide)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Devrinol (napropamide).

Gemini (isoxaben + prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal, Jeffrey Derr, Chris Marble Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Gemini (isoxaben + prodiamine).

Barricade, Prodiamine, Resolute, Regalkade G (prodiamine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergence herbicide Barricade, Prodiamine or Regalkade G (prodiamine).

Herbicide Injury – ACCase Inhibitors

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a lipid biosynthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase or ACCase) inhibitor herbicide injury.

Root Inhibitors

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale, Katie Jennings Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of root-inhibiting herbicide injuries.

Ash Whitefly in North Carolina

By: D. Huffman, K.A. Kidd, Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the ash whitefly, an insect pest of Bradford pear trees in North Carolina.

Cicadas in the Landscape

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cicada, an occasional pest of trees when laying eggs.

Common Insect Pests of Maple in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Eshleman, Kelly Oten

This factsheet provides brief descriptions of common insect pests of maple (Acer spp.) in North Carolina. Pest descriptions are brief but provide links for readers to learn more.

Frost/Freeze Protection for Horticultural Crops

By: Katharine Perry, Lucy Bradley Horticulture Information Leaflets

Effective frost protection methods exist, however, each year, a portion of the state's fruit and vegetable crop is lost to low-temperature damage. This leaflet explains the principles of frosts and freezes and provides information on protection methods.

Minor Pests of Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

By: Jill Sidebottom Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet about Fraser fir pests covers white pine cone beetles, bagworms, gypsy moths, Botrytis shoot blight, sooty molds, fern/fir rust, Rhizosphaera needlecast, Annosum root and butt rot, Rosellinia blight and Nectria canker.

Spotted Wing Drosophila in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Tower (dimethenamid-p)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Tower (dimethenamid-p).

Lontrel (clopyralid)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Lontrel (clopyralid).

Soil and Plant Analysis for Apple Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for apple growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Princep, Simazine (simazine)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of the preemergent herbicide Princep, Simazine (simazine).

Using a Hand-Cranked, Hand-Held Spreader to Apply Herbicides in Container Nurseries

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

This publication details how to achieve accurate and uniform application of herbicides using hand-held applicators in container nursery settings.

Critical Management Issues for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Dorota Z. Harman, Ronald B. Sorenson, David S. Ross, Robert Evans, Phil Tacker Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Although subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is in its infancy in North Carolina, it is becoming more popular as growers learn of its many benefits, which include increased irrigation efficiency. Proper management is imperative with an SDI system. Many components of an SDI system are underground; therefore, you must carefully monitor pressure and flow rates to ensure that the system is operating properly. This publication addresses water management, chemigation, system management and maintenance, and system evaluation.

Irrigation Water Quality Problems

By: Charles Peacock, Grady Miller, Matt Martin

This publication offers information on water quality challenges in irrigation water.

Summer Patch in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of summer patch.

Voles in Commercial Orchard and Ornamental Nurseries

By: Peter Bromley, Michael Parker, William Sullivan, Karl Larson Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and vole damage and determine when, where, and how to control vole populations using environmentally sound and economical methods.

Smallflower Buttercup

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of smallflower buttercup.

Purple Deadnettle

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of purple deadnettle.

Doveweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of doveweed.

Henbit

By: Charles Peacock TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of henbit.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Chris Gunter Horticulture Information Leaflets

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Nuisance Ants in Turf

By: Terri Billeisen, Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of nuisance ants and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Hemispherical Scale

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of hemispherical scale, an insect pest of many flowering trees and shrubs, as well as greenhouse plants.

Cypress Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker, Stephen Bambara Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the cypress weevil, an insect pest of Leyland cypress in North Carolina.

Fungus-Infected Seedcorn Maggot Flies

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of fungus-infected seedcorn maggot flies, an insect pest that feeds on the seeds and seedlings of vegetables.

A Step-by-Step Approach to Pruning Carlos Muscadine Grapevines

By: Barclay Poling

This review presents the key steps involved in pruning a mature Carlos vine for maximum production of top-quality fruit.

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

2019 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Disease and Pest Management

By: Dave Ritchie, Jim Walgenbach, Wayne Mitchem

This publication is intended to help you manage diseases and pests of peaches. In choosing a management program, you must weigh the extent of pesticide use against the amount of risk of crop damage you are willing to accept. A rigorous spray program provides the least risk of loss, whereas a minimal spray program using less effective but possibly less hazardous pesticides involves a greater risk of loss.

Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon).

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Stationary Sprinkler Irrigation System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, Jonathan Smith, R.E. Sheffield Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of stationary sprinkler irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.

Hard Hose and Cable Tow Traveler Irrigation Systems

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, Jonathan Smith, R.E. Sheffield Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Irrigation Equipment

This publication contains step-by-step guidelines for field calibration of hard hose and cable tow irrigation systems. Proper calibration is required by law.

Complete Southeastern US Pest Control Guide

By: Joe Neal

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Cyclamen Mites in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.

Cutworms in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack, Aurora Teonnisson

This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.

Lettuce Drop

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Factsheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia Drop of lettuce.

Moles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of moles and addresses how to control them in turf.

Springtails in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of springtails and addresses how to control them as an insect in turf.

Offsetting Drought for Small-Scale Vegetable Production in North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis, Robert Evans, Garry Grabow, Bill Jester, Billy Little, Allan Thornton, Jonathan Schultheis

A good source of water is a necessity for producing quality vegetables. During periods of drought, crop diversification and mulches can be used to cope with drought situations, but nothing will substitute for the timely application of water. This publication covers some guidelines for irrigation systems to help offset periods of drought in the Southeast United States.

Copper Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of copper spot.

Japanese Beetles in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Green Kyllinga

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of green kyllinga and addresses how to control it as a weed in turf.

Dallisgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of dallisgrass.

Common Ragweed

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of common ragweed.

Cellulose Inhibitor, Dichlobenil

By: Joe Neal, Doug Goodale Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of a dichlobenil herbicide injury.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflets

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Leaf and Sheath Blight in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of leaf and sheath spot in turf.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Catfacing

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of catfacing, an abiotic disorder in strawberries that causes misshaped fruit.

Chapter 10. Grapevine Water Relations and Vineyard Irrigation

By: Tony Wolf

Like other perennial plants, mature grapevines have extensive root systems and therefore, unlike shallow-rooted annual plants, they are fairly tolerant of mild droughts. Nevertheless, a certain amount of moisture is necessary to support growth and development. Lacking sufficient moisture, vines will suffer water stress, which can reduce productivity as well as fruit quality. Supplemental moisture can be provided by permanent (solid-set) or temporary irrigation systems. Drip irrigation has become the standard water delivery system for North Carolina vineyards in recent years. Drip irrigation can represent a substantial investment (see chapter 2 for details), but the benefits can far outweigh the costs in many vineyards. In 2005, it was estimated that drip irrigation would cost $22,743 to purchase and install the equipment required for a 10-acre drip system, or $2,274 per acre. Drip irrigation can be as effective on steep slopes as on rolling and flat surfaces.

Selection and Care of Living Christmas Trees

By: Jeffrey Owen, Craig McKinnley Christmas Tree Notes

One of the more enjoyable Christmas traditions is to replant a living Christmas tree into your landscape after the holiday season. This article describes the process of successfully selecting, caring for and replanting a living Christmas tree.

Broadstar (flumioxazin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Broadstar (flumioxazin).

Soil and Plant Analysis for Christmas Trees

By: John Havlin SoilFacts

Nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue should be an integral part of any tree crop management plan. While this publication was designed for Christmas tree growers, the principles outlined here may be easily applied to other tree crops.

Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Kerry Harrison, Michael D. Dukes, Earl Vories, W. Bryan Smith, Heping Zhu, Ahmad Khalilian Subsurface Drip Irrigation

As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in the design process of an SDI system appropriate to North Carolina.

Site Preparation, Planting, and Establishment

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 4 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses soil testing, nursery stock, and spacing for blackberry and raspberry production.

Tunnel Production

By: Gina Fernandez, Elena Garcia, David Lockwood

This publication, chapter 8 of the 2016 Southeast Regional Caneberry Production Guide, discusses growing blackberries and raspberries in high tunnels, semi-permanent structures made of steel pipe arches and covered with polyethylene plastic.

Leafrollers in Strawberries

This publication covers leafrollers in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.

Buffalograss

By: Grady Miller TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of buffalograss.

Johnsongrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of johnsongrass.

Velvetgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of velvetgrass.

Spring Dead Spot in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spring dead spot.

Broadleaf Plantain

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of broadleaf plantain.

Cicada Killer Wasps in Turf

By: Rick Brandenburg, Terri Billeisen TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of the cicada killer wasp and addresses how to control it as an insect in turf.

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided for strawberry crops.

Shaping Virginia Pine Christmas Trees

By: Craig McKinley, Eric Hinesley Christmas Tree Notes

This factsheet covers how and when to shape, prune and shear Virginia pine Christmas trees.

Other Drosophila Species in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry Insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.

Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Ornamental Herbicide II (oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin).

Pesticide Use and Safety Information

By: Joe Neal

This publication, part of the 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings, discusses the safe use, handling, and disposal of pesticides.

Mealybugs Found on Flowers and Foliage

This factsheet, part of Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, discusses identifying mealybugs in commercial flower and plant production.

Natural Oils and Acids

By: Doug Goodale, Joe Neal, Katie Jennings, Wayne Mitchem Herbicide Injury Factsheets

This factsheet describes the symptoms of natural oil and acid herbicide injuries.

Disease and Nematode Management

By: Lindsey Thiessen, Adrienne Gorny

This publication, chapter 8 of the North Carolina Soybean Production Guide, discusses disease management in soybean production.

Barnyardgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of barnyardgrass.

Sandbur

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of sandbur.

Wild Garlic

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of wild garlic.

Greenhouse Whitefly

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the greenhouse whitefly, an insect pest of greenhouse-grown ornamentals and vegetables.

Blueberry Production for Local Sales and Small Pick-Your-Own Operators

By: Bill Cline, Charles Mainland Horticulture Information Leaflets

Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.

Twobanded Japanese Weevil

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the twobanded Japanese weevil, an insect pest of many trees and shrubs.

Insect Screening for Greenhouses

By: Steven Frank, E. A. Shearin, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note discusses methods and materials for insect screening in greenhouses.

Azalea Stem Borer

By: Steven Frank, James Baker Entomology Insect Notes

This Entomology Insect Note describes the biology and control of the azalea stem borer.

Fig Diseases in North Carolina

By: Dave Ritchie Fruit Disease Information

This fruit disease information factsheet discusses several disease problems when growing figs in North Carolina.

Chapter 5. Vineyard Establishment

By: Tony Wolf

Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.

Frost Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury in strawberries is described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Surflan (oryzalin)

By: Joe Neal Herbicide Information Factsheets

This pesticide factsheet covers the use and characteristics of Surflan (oryzalin).

Conservation Tillage on Organic Farms

By: Keith Baldwin, Nancy Creamer CEFS

This online publication describes how cover crops affect the soil, how to establish cover crops, and how to manage their residue. It includes a review of the winter and summer cover crops recommended for North Carolina. The authors also discuss the economics of planting cover crops and some concerns to consider when planting cover crops.

Principles of Integrated Pest Management

By: Joe Neal, Wayne Buhler

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be defined as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining cultural, biological, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, aesthetic, health, and environmental risks. A first step in implementing an effective IPM program is to maintain healthy, vigorous plants, which are much less likely to have pest problems. Therefore, an integrated pest management program will also consider cultural practices that lead to healthy and resilient plantings.

Weight-Area Method Spreader System

By: Robert Evans, J.C. Barker, David Crouse Field Calibration Procedures for Solid and Semi-Solid Animal Waste Application Equipment

This publication explains the weight-area method, one of the two methods in which solid or semi-solid applicators can be calibrated. Proper calibration is required by law.

SDI Considerations for North Carolina Growers and Producers

By: Garry Grabow, Robert Evans, Michael Dukes, Dorota Haman, Kerry Harrison, Ahmad Khalilian, W. Bryan Smith, David Ross, Phil Tacker, Daniel L. Thomas, Ronald B. Sorensen, Earl Vories, Heping Zhu Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the practice of installing drip irrigation below the ground. SDI may be used below planting and tillage operations even in standard row-crop production systems. This publication is the first in a series that examines how North Carolina growers can use the technology.

Water Quality and Professional Lawn Care

By: Arthur Bruneau, L. T. Lucas, S. C. Hodges

Lawns are ecosystems that impact surface and groundwater systems. The grasses found in lawns clean the environment by absorbing gaseous pollutants and intercepting pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and sediment. Irrigation water properly applied to lawns remains on site to recharge water supplies. In addition, grasses release oxygen and reduce glare, noise, and summer temperatures. Proper management practices need to be developed and followed to protect this environment. The purpose of this publication is to provide you with management strategies to preserve and protect water resources.

Site Selection for SDI Systems in North Carolina

By: Garry Grabow, Michael Dukes, Dorota Z. Haman, Freddie Lamm Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system that may give North Carolina producers similar or higher crop yields while using less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield while minimizing expenses. This publication will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.

2016 Top Performing Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars for North Carolina

By: Grady Miller

This publication offers recommended tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass cultivars in North Carolina based on NC State University research.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Calibrating Hand-Held Granular Spreaders for Nursery Weed Control

By: Amy Barker, Joe Neal Weed Management in Container Nurseries

Even the best herbicides will not provide effective weed control if they're not applied accurately and uniformly. This publication describes the steps required to calibrate hand-held spreaders commonly used in container nurseries.

Yellow Tuft in Turf

By: Lee Butler, Jim Kerns TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of yellow tuft.

Large Crabgrass

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of large crabgrass.

Spiny Sowthistle

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of spiny sowthistle.

Hairy Vetch

By: Fred Yelverton TurfFiles

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of hairy vetch.

Management of Yellow Nutsedge in Sweetpotato

By: Shawn Beam, Katie Jennings

This publication discusses the impacts of yellow nutsedge on sweetpotato crops and includes information on weed identification and management.